Albumin Usage in Iran
Archives of Iranian medicine. 2019;22(12):722-727
BACKGROUND Human albumin is an expensive therapy with inappropriate use in many clinical conditions. Inappropriate use of albumin imposes a substantial economic burden on the healthcare system and society. Drug use evaluation (DUE) is one method of assessing the appropriateness of drug use which has been powered by increasing concern about the cost-effectiveness of drugs. The objective of this study is to systematically review the appropriateness of albumin utilization in Iranian hospitals. METHODS We searched the PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCOPUS, and Google Scholar for articles in English and SID, Magiran, Medlib, and Irandoc for articles in Persian from 1997 to 2018. Studies on the DUE of albumin in Iranian hospitals were included in this study. Articles conducted outside Iran, editorials, letters and review articles were excluded. RESULTS In total, eight studies were selected for the final review. The majority of the papers were conducted in Tehran. In most studies, the highest albumin consumption was related to the intensive care unit. The most frequent reasons for prescribing albumin were edema, hypoalbuminemia, volume expansion after heart surgery, ascites, cardiac surgery and cirrhosis. Of the studies included, five studies evaluated the costs of drug use. CONCLUSION Our findings show that inappropriate use of albumin imposes a relatively high additional cost on the society. The included studies show that the percentage of inappropriate use of albumin is relatively high in Iran and this abuse is an essential problem in Iranian hospitals. Prescription based on standard guidelines could improve rational use of albumin and lead to savings in treatment costs.
Economic evaluation of fibrin sealant patch: a proposal to assess the economic value in hemostasis and as a surgical sealant
Value in Health. 2015;18((7)):A533.
A cost-effectiveness study of intravenous immunoglobulin in childhood idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura patients with life-threatening bleeding
BACKGROUND Although the international guideline recommends intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) as the first-line treatment for childhood idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura (ITP) with life-threatening bleeding, ITP patients may not be able to access IVIG because of the limitation in health benefit packages especially in developing countries. There remains an important policy question as to whether IVIG used as a first-line treatment is worth the money spent. Thus, the objective of this study was to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis of adding IVIG to the standard treatment of platelet transfusion and corticosteroids, for the treatment of childhood ITP with life-threatening bleeding in the context of Thailand. METHODS A cost-effectiveness analysis using a hybrid model consisting of a decision tree and Markov models was conducted with a societal perspective. The effectiveness and utility parameters were determined by systematic reviews, while costs and mortality parameters were determined using a retrospective electronic hospital database analysis. All costs were presented in 2012 US$. The discount rate of 3 % was applied for both costs and outcomes. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were also performed. RESULTS The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was $3,172 per quality-adjusted life-year gained ($/QALY) for the addition of IVIG versus standard treatment alone. The probability of response to corticosteroids was the most influential parameter on ICER. According to the willingness-to-pay of Thailand, of approximately $3,861/QALY, the probability of IVIG being cost effective was 33 %. CONCLUSIONS The addition of IVIG to standard treatment in the treatment of childhood ITP with life-threatening bleeding is possibly a cost-effective intervention in Thailand. However, our findings were highly sensitive. Policy makers may consider our findings as part of the information for their decision making.
Canadian cost- utility analysis of intravenous immunoglobulin for acute childhood idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura
Journal of Population Therapeutics & Clinical Pharmacology. 2012;19((2):):e166-78.
Background Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is a hematological disorder and can be classified as acute or chronic. The main goal of treatment for acute childhood ITP is the prevention of potentially fatal bleeding complications, the most serious of which is intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). Treatment options for acute childhood ITP include splenectomy, corticosteroids, and blood products such as intravenous immunoglobulin.Objectives The objective was to evaluate, from a Canadian perspective, the cost-effectiveness of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) compared to alternative inpatient treatments for acute childhood idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). Methods A Markov model with a lifelong time horizon was used to evaluate the costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) for 5 treatments for children hospitalized for ITP: 1) no treatment; 2) IVIG; 3) Anti-D; 4) prednisone; and 5) methylprednisolone. The model predicted the probability of intracranial hemorrhage for each treatment strategy based on the time children spent with platelet counts <20,000microL. The time patients spent with platelet counts <20,000microL with each treatment was estimated by pooling data from published randomized clinical trials. In the basecase analysis, the cohort was assumed to weigh 20kg. Cost and utility model variables were based upon various literature sources. Parameter uncertainty was assessed using probabilistic sensitivity analysis. Results The treatment strategies that comprised the efficiency frontier were prednisone, Anti-D and IVIG. The incremental cost per QALY was $53,333 moving from prednisone to Anti-D and $53,846 moving from Anti-D to IVIG. Results were sensitive to patient weight. If patient weight is 10kg, IVIG dominates all other strategies and if weight is increased to 30kg, the cost per QALY of IVIG is $163,708. Conclusion Based on common willingness to pay thresholds, IVIG might be considered a cost effective treatment for acute childhood ITP. Cost effectiveness is highly dependent on patient weight.
Health economics of inhibitor bypassing agents in haemophilia A-activated prothrombin complex concentrate (aPCC) and recombinant activated factor VIIa (rFVIIa) Polish
Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski. 2011;30((177):):202-7.
Haemophilia A is a sex-linked recessive genetic disorder associated with haemorrhagic diathesis due to reduced plasma activity of coagulation factor VIII, i.e., below 50% of the normal value (< 0.5 IU/ ml). The treatment of haemophilia A-Inhibitor patients is bidirectional. Major issues with treatment are inhibitor eradication and control of haemorrhage. The aim of the analysis was to evaluate costs and effects of the use of aPCC and rFVIIa in haemophilia A-inhibitor patients in on-demand treatment, perioperative prophylaxis and long-term prophylaxis. MATERIALS AND METHODS The cost analysis was performed from the payer's perspective for all treatment schemes. Dosage and duration of treatment were obtained from a systematic review of clinical trials, Summary of Product Characteristics and clinical practice guidelines. Analysis was conducted in accordance with the AHTAPol (Agency for Health Technology Assessment in Poland) guidelines. RESULTS The use of aPCC in on-demand treatment of children and adults during one day or one episode of bleeding (irrespective of the intensity of bleeding: from mild to severe) reduced the payer's expenditures in comparison to the use of rFVIIa. The use of aPCC in perioperative prophylaxis of children and adults during minor and major surgical interventions and implantations of central venous access devices was associated with savings for the payer in comparison to the use of rFVIIa, irrespectively of dosage of both drugs. Break even point analysis showed that the use of aPCC in long-term prophylaxis may be less expensive than the use of aPCC in on-demand treatment if bleedings last for 2.5 days or more. Sensitivity analysis showed that assumptions concerning body weight of patients significantly influence expenses of the public payer. However, the use of aPCC was associated with lower costs than the use of rFVIIa, irrespectively of the patients' body weight. CONCLUSIONS In order to demonstrate the actual size of expenditures on treatment of haemophilia A-Inhibitor patients, collection of data concerning real clinical practice in Poland is required.
Cost effectiveness of respiratory syncytial virus prophylaxis: a critical and systematic review
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of infant hospitalization in the US. The economic burden of severe disease is substantial, including hospitalization costs and out-of-pocket expenses. RSV prophylaxis with either RSV immune globulin intravenous (RSV-IGIV) or palivizumab has been shown to be effective in reducing RSV-related hospitalizations. Motavizumab, a new enhanced-potency humanized RSV monoclonal antibody, is presently in clinical trials. RSV-IGIV and palivizumab are associated with high acquisition costs. Cost-effectiveness analyses are therefore of great importance in helping to determine who should receive RSV prophylaxis. Six studies have analysed the cost effectiveness of RSV-IGIV, 14 have analysed the cost effectiveness of palivizumab and five have analysed the cost effectiveness of both agents, two of which directly compared palivizumab with RSV-IGIV. The cost effectiveness of motavizumab has not been studied. Significant variation exists in the modelling used in these analyses. Many studies have examined short-term benefits such as reducing hospitalizations and associated costs, while fewer studies have examined long-term benefits such as QALYs or life-years gained. The payer and society have been the most common perspectives used. The endpoints examined varied and generally did not account for the potential impact of RSV prophylaxis on RSV-related complications such as asthma. While some studies have reported acceptable cost-effectiveness ratios for RSV prophylaxis, the majority failed to show cost savings or cost-effectiveness ratios below commonly accepted thresholds for either RSV-IGIV or palivizumab. Cost effectiveness of RSV prophylaxis tended to be more favourable in populations with specific risk factors, including premature infants < or =32 weeks' gestational age, and infants or children aged < 2 years with chronic lung disease or congenital heart disease. Comparing the results of economic analyses of the two agents suggests palivizumab may be the more cost-effective option in the population for which RSV prophylaxis is recommended. Over time, the acquisition cost of RSV prophylaxis agents, a major cost driver, may decrease, and more acceptable outcomes of economic analyses may result. Albeit important, the results of economic analyses are not the only tool that decision makers rely on, as population-specific risk factors, and efficacy and safety data must be considered when developing treatment guidelines and making clinical decisions.
Use of intravenous immunoglobulin in the Department of Neurology at Ninewells Hospital, 2008-2009: Indications for utilization and cost-effectiveness
Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology. 2010;13((4):):271-5.
This study was designed to identify the indications for prescription of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) in neurology and the cost effectiveness of this therapy. OBJECTIVES IVIg is a relatively costly therapy and the annual budget spent on providing this therapy for various indications at Ninewells Hospital was close to 1.5 million. In today's economic times, a cost-benefit analysis of all therapies is prudent. This is of relevance to countries in the developing world as well where perhaps not everybody could afford such cost-intensive therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS We audited 2 time periods over 12 months each in 2004-2005 and 2008-2009 to look at the patterns of utilization of IVIg over these periods. We searched the literature for alternative and cost-effective therapies for the most common indications for use of IVIg. RESULTS Fiscal costs on prescription of IVIg have rocketed up by almost 300% in this Neurology Department comparing data from 2004-2005 vs 2008-2009 and this is disproportionate to the increase in the annual admission rate (bed usage), partly because of the soaring costs of the drug available in the market and also because of the increased prescription of IVIg for numerous indications where clinical trials data are yet not so robust. CONCLUSION We have looked at the cost of alternative therapies and offer some proposals that if implemented could potentially save 330,000 annually from the health budget at this NHS Trust. Perhaps similar models could evolve for better cost-effective utilization of IVIg in countries in the developing world where health budgeting is more acutely relevant.
Results of a model analysis to estimate cost utility and value of information for intravenous immunoglobulin in Canadian adults with chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura
Clinical Therapeutics. 2009;31((5):):1082-91.
Cost minimization analysis to compare activated prothrombin complex concentrate (APCC) and recombinant factor VIIa for haemophilia patients with inhibitors undergoing major orthopaedic surgeries
Benefits of bypassing agents for maintaining haemostasis in major surgeries have been described in the literature; however, their use has a substantial economic impact. This study assessed the cost of FEIBA, an activated prothrombin complex concentrate and recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa) when used in inhibitor patients undergoing major surgeries. After reviewing published literature, a cost minimization model was developed describing dosing regimens recommended and used during major surgeries for FEIBA (pre-operative: 75-100 U kg(-1); postoperative: 75-100 U kg(-1) q 8-12 h days 1-5 and 75-100 U kg(-1) q 12 h days 6-14) and rFVIIa (pre-operative: 90 microg kg(-1); intra-operative: 90 microg kg(-1) q 2 h; postoperative: 90 microg kg(-1) q 2-4 h days 1-5 and 90 microg kg(-1) q 6 h days 6-14). Using a 75 kg patient and US prices, total drug cost was calculated for three scenarios: use of FEIBA or rFVIIa alone and a third case combining rFVIIa pre- and intra-operative and FEIBA throughout a 14-day postoperative period. Dosage amounts of modelled bypassing agents were similar to cases in the literature. Using FEIBA instead of rFVIIa would decrease total drug cost by >50% and save over $400,000 per surgery. Sequential use of both bypassing agents would increase total drug cost by 9% when compared with FEIBA alone, but would remain >40% lower than rFVIIa alone. Univariate sensitivity analyses confirmed robustness of results. As large amounts of bypassing agents are necessary for patients with inhibitors to undergo major surgeries, cost is a major consideration. Use of FEIBA alone or in combination with rFVIIa has emerged as a cost-saving approach.
Economic evaluation of major knee surgery with recombinant activated factor VII in hemophilia patients with high titer inhibitors and advanced knee arthropathy: exploratory results via literature-based modeling
Current Medical Research and Opinion. 2008;24((3):):753-768.