[Randomized controlled multicenter study of albumin replacement therapy in septic shock (ARISS)]
Der Anaesthesist. 2021
Pharmacometric Analysis Linking Immunoglobulin Exposure to Clinical Efficacy Outcomes in Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy
CPT: pharmacometrics & systems pharmacology. 2021
The two main objectives of this analysis were to (i) characterise the relationship between immunoglobulin (Ig) exposure and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) disease severity using data from 171 patients with CIDP who received either subcutaneous Ig (IgPro20; Hizentra®) or placebo (PATH study), and to (ii) simulate and compare exposure coverage with various dosing approaches considering weekly dosing to be the reference dose. IgG PK parameters including those from a previous population PK model were used to predict individual IgG profile and exposure metrics. Treatment-related changes in inflammatory neuropathy cause and treatment (INCAT) scores were best described by an E(max) model as a function of ΔIgG (total serum IgG at INCAT score assessment minus baseline IgG levels before intravenous Ig restabilisation). Simulations indicate that flexible dosing from daily to biweekly (every other week) provide an exposure coverage equivalent to that of a weekly Ig dose.
Evaluation of high-dose aspirin elimination in the treatment of Kawasaki disease in the incidence of coronary artery aneurysm
Annals of pediatric cardiology. 2021;14(2):146-151
BACKGROUND Standard first-step therapy for Kawasaki disease consists of Intravenous immunoglobulin and high dose Aspirin (80-100 mg/kg/day). The standard dose of Intravenous immunoglobulin (2gr/kg) is strongly effective in reducing the risk of coronary arteries abnormalities. So, the proper dose and efficacy of Aspirin to decrease the risk of coronary arteries abnormalities is a controversial issue. In this study, it is tried to assess the result of eliminating high-dose Aspirin in the treatment of the acute phase of Kawasaki and observe the incidence rate of coronary arteries abnormalities when only Intravenous immunoglobulin was administered. METHODS This study is a prospective randomized, open-label, blinded end-points clinical trial performed in Afzalipour hospital in Kerman University of Medical Sciences from September 2017 to September 2018 in 62 patients with typical and atypical Kawasaki disease. The study group received Intravenous immunoglobulin (2 g/kg) and the control group get the same dose of Intravenous immunoglobulin plus Aspirin with the dose of 80-100 mg/Kg/day until they were afebrile for 48 hours. Afterward, both groups received a daily single dose (3-5 mg/kg) of Aspirin for six weeks. Echocardiography was done after two weeks, six weeks, and six months. Internal diameter of the left and right main coronary arteries was measured and then the corresponding Z-score was calculated. RESULTS In the study group, coronary arteries abnormalities decreased from 38.7% in the 2nd week to 16.1% in the 6th month. In the control group, it declined from 54.8% to 22.6%. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in term of frequency of abnormal coronary arteries at the study period (P=0.151). CONCLUSIONS We concluded that high dose Aspirin does not have a significant role in preventing coronary arteries abnormalities in Kawasaki disease and giving standard 2 gr/kg/day Intravenous immunoglobulin without high-dose Aspirin in acute-phases therapy does not increase the risk of coronary arteries abnormality.
Is Intra-Articular Administration of Fibrinogen Effective in Postoperative Total Knee Arthroplasty Blood Loss? A Randomized Clinical Trial
Anesthesiology and pain medicine. 2021;11(1):e107431
OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of intra-articular injection of fibrinogen on postoperative bleeding following total knee arthroplasty. METHODS A double-blind randomized clinical trial was conducted on 40 patients aged 40 - 70 years under spinal anesthesia candidate for total knee arthroplasty in Golestan hospital, Ahwaz, Iran, in 2017-2018. Patients were divided into fibrinogen intra-articular injection (n = 20) and control (n = 20) groups. The amounts of blood loss and blood transfusion requirement were recorded. Hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (HCT), international normalized ratio (INR), platelet (PLT), prothrombin time (PT), and partial thromboplastin time (PTT) were recorded before and after the surgery. RESULTS There was no significant difference in the average amount of intraoperative blood loss between the groups (P > 0.05). The average amount of blood loss 24 hours after the surgery was significantly lower in the fibrinogen group than in the control group (fibrinogen group 350.61 ± 120.32 cc; control group 540.00 ± 170.21 cc; P = 0.0002). There were significant differences in transfusion between the groups (fibrinogen group 250 ± 20 cc; control group 350 ± 50 cc; P < 0.0001). There was a significant difference between the two groups in 24 h postoperative Hb and HCT (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Intra-articular fibrinogen administration may reduce acute bleeding and can be used as an effective intervention to prevent further bleeding and the need for transfusion in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty.
Treatment of central disorders of hypersomnolence: an American Academy of Sleep Medicine systematic review, meta-analysis, and GRADE assessment
Journal of clinical sleep medicine : JCSM : official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. 2021;17(9):1895-1945
INTRODUCTION This systematic review provides supporting evidence for the accompanying clinical practice guideline on the treatment of central disorders of hypersomnolence in adults and children. The review focuses on prescription medications with U.S. Food & Drug Administration approval and nonpharmacologic interventions studied for the treatment of symptoms caused by central disorders of hypersomnolence. METHODS The American Academy of Sleep Medicine commissioned a task force of experts in sleep medicine to perform a systematic review. Randomized controlled trials and observational studies addressing pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions for central disorders of hypersomnolence were identified. Statistical analyses were performed to determine the clinical significance of all outcomes. Finally, the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) process was used to assess the evidence for the purpose of making specific treatment recommendations. RESULTS The literature search identified 678 studies; 144 met the inclusion criteria and 108 provided data suitable for statistical analyses. Evidence for the following interventions is presented: armodafinil, clarithromycin, clomipramine, dextroamphetamine, flumazenil, intravenous immune globulin (IVIG), light therapy, lithium, l-carnitine, liraglutide, methylphenidate, methylprednisolone, modafinil, naps, pitolisant, selegiline, sodium oxybate, solriamfetol, and triazolam. The task force provided a detailed summary of the evidence along with the quality of evidence, the balance of benefits and harms, patient values and preferences, and resource use considerations. CITATION Maski K, Trotti LM, Kotagal S, et al. Treatment of central disorders of hypersomnolence: an American Academy of Sleep Medicine systematic review, meta-analysis, and GRADE assessment. J Clin Sleep Med. 2021;17(9):1895-1945.
Comparison of 4-Factor Prothrombin Complex Concentrate With Frozen Plasma for Management of Hemorrhage During and After Cardiac Surgery: A Randomized Pilot Trial
JAMA network open. 2021;4(4):e213936
IMPORTANCE Approximately 15% of patients undergoing cardiac surgery receive frozen plasma (FP) for bleeding. Four-factor prothrombin complex concentrates (PCCs) have logistical and safety advantages over FP and may be a suitable alternative. OBJECTIVES To determine the proportion of patients who received PCC and then required FP, explore hemostatic effects and safety, and assess the feasibility of study procedures. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Parallel-group randomized pilot study conducted at 2 Canadian hospitals. Adult patients requiring coagulation factor replacement for bleeding during cardiac surgery (from September 23, 2019, to June 19, 2020; final 28-day follow-up visit, July 17, 2020). Data analysis was initiated on September 15, 2020. INTERVENTIONS Prothrombin complex concentrate (1500 IU for patients weighing ≤60 kg and 2000 IU for patients weighing >60 kg) or FP (3 U for patients weighing ≤60 kg and 4 U for patients weighing >60 kg), repeated once as needed within 24 hours (FP used for any subsequent doses in both groups). Patients and outcome assessors were blinded to treatment allocation. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Hemostatic effectiveness (whether patients received any hemostatic therapies from 60 minutes to 4 and 24 hours after initiation of the intervention, amount of allogeneic blood components administered within 24 hours after start of surgery, and avoidance of red cell transfusions within 24 hours after start of surgery), protocol adherence, and adverse events. The analysis set comprised all randomized patients who had undergone cardiac surgery, received at least 1 dose of either treatment, and provided informed consent after surgery. RESULTS Of 169 screened patients, 131 were randomized, and 101 were treated (54 with PCC and 47 with FP), provided consent, and were included in the analysis (median age, 64 years; interquartile range [IQR], 54-73 years; 28 [28%] were female; 82 [81%] underwent complex operations). The PCC group received a median 24.9 IU/kg (IQR, 21.8-27.0 IU/kg) of PCC (2 patients [3.7%; 95% CI, 0.4%-12.7%] required FP). The FP group received a median 12.5 mL/kg (IQR, 10.0-15.0 mL/kg) of FP (4 patients [8.5%; 95% CI, 2.4%-20.4%] required >2 doses of FP). Hemostatic therapy was not required at the 4-hour time point for 43 patients (80%) in the PCC group and for 32 patients (68%) in the FP group (P = .25) nor at the 24-hour time point for 41 patients (76%) in the PCC group and for 31 patients (66%) patients in the FP group (P = .28). The median numbers of units for 24-hour cumulative allogeneic transfusions (red blood cells, platelets, and FP) were 6.0 U (IQR, 4.0-11.0 U) in the PCC group and 14.0 U (IQR, 8.0-20.0 U) in the FP group (ratio, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.45-0.77; P < .001). After exclusion of FP administered as part of the investigational medicinal product, the median numbers of units were 6.0 U (IQR, 4.0-11.0 U) in the PCC group and 10.0 U (IQR, 6.0-16.0 U) in the FP group (ratio, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.59-1.08; P = .15). For red blood cells alone, the median numbers were 1.5 U (IQR, 0.0-4.0 U) in the PCC group and 3.0 U (IQR, 1.0-5.0 U) in the FP group (ratio, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.47-0.99; P = .05). During the first 24 hours after start of surgery, 15 patients in the PCC group (28%) and 8 patients in the FP group (17%) received no red blood cells (P = .24). Adverse event profiles were similar. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE This randomized clinical trial found that the study protocols were feasible. Adequately powered randomized clinical trials are warranted to determine whether PCC is a suitable substitute for FP for mitigation of bleeding in cardiac surgery. TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04114643.
Cardiac surgery patients (n= 101).
Prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC group, n= 54).
Frozen plasma (FP group, n= 47).
Haemostatic therapy was not required at the 4-hour time point for 43 patients (80%) in the PCC group and for 32 patients (68%) in the FP group, nor at the 24-hour time point for 41 patients (76%) in the PCC group and for 31 patients (66%) patients in the FP group. The median numbers of units for 24-hour cumulative allogeneic transfusions (red blood cells, platelets, and FP) were 6.0 U in the PCC group and 14.0 U in the FP group. After exclusion of FP administered as part of the investigational medicinal product, the median numbers of units were 6.0 U in the PCC group and 10.0 U in the FP group. For red blood cells alone, the median numbers were 1.5 U in the PCC group and 3.0 U in the FP group. During the first 24 hours after start of surgery, 15 patients in the PCC group (28%) and 8 patients in the FP group (17%) received no red blood cells. Adverse event profiles were similar.
A Trial of Hyperimmune Globulin to Prevent Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection
The New England journal of medicine. 2021;385(5):436-444
BACKGROUND Primary cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection during pregnancy carries a risk of congenital infection and possible severe sequelae. There is no established intervention for preventing congenital CMV infection. METHODS In this multicenter, double-blind trial, pregnant women with primary CMV infection diagnosed before 24 weeks' gestation were randomly assigned to receive a monthly infusion of CMV hyperimmune globulin (at a dose of 100 mg per kilogram of body weight) or matching placebo until delivery. The primary outcome was a composite of congenital CMV infection or fetal or neonatal death if CMV testing of the fetus or neonate was not performed. RESULTS From 2012 to 2018, a total of 206,082 pregnant women were screened for primary CMV infection before 23 weeks of gestation; of the 712 participants (0.35%) who tested positive, 399 (56%) underwent randomization. The trial was stopped early for futility. Data on the primary outcome were available for 394 participants; a primary outcome event occurred in the fetus or neonate of 46 of 203 women (22.7%) in the group that received hyperimmune globulin and of 37 of 191 women (19.4%) in the placebo group (relative risk, 1.17; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.80 to 1.72; P = 0.42). Death occurred in 4.9% of fetuses or neonates in the hyperimmune globulin group and in 2.6% in the placebo group (relative risk, 1.88; 95% CI, 0.66 to 5.41), preterm birth occurred in 12.2% and 8.3%, respectively (relative risk, 1.47; 95% CI, 0.81 to 2.67), and birth weight below the 5th percentile occurred in 10.3% and 5.4% (relative risk, 1.92; 95% CI, 0.92 to 3.99). One participant in the hyperimmune globulin group had a severe allergic reaction to the first infusion. Participants who received hyperimmune globulin had a higher incidence of headaches and shaking chills while receiving infusions than participants who received placebo. CONCLUSIONS Among pregnant women, administration of CMV hyperimmune globulin starting before 24 weeks' gestation did not result in a lower incidence of a composite of congenital CMV infection or perinatal death than placebo. (Funded by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01376778.).
Albumin replacement therapy in immunocompromised patients with sepsis - Secondary analysis of the ALBIOS trial
Journal of critical care. 2021;63:83-91
BACKGROUND The best fluid replacement strategy and the role of albumin in immunocompromised patients with sepsis is unclear. METHODS We performed a secondary analysis of immunocompromised patients enrolled in the ALBIOS trial which randomized patients with severe sepsis or septic shock to receive either 20% albumin (target 30 g per liter or more) and crystalloid or crystalloid alone during ICU stay. RESULTS Of 1818 patients originally enrolled, 304 (16.4%) were immunocompromised. One-hundred-thirty-nine (45.7%) patients were randomized in the albumin while 165 (54.2%) in the crystalloid group. At 90 days, 69 (49.6%) in the albumin group and 89 (53.9%) in the crystalloids group died (hazard ratio - HR - 0.94; 95% CI 0.69-1.29). No differences were observed with regards to 28-day mortality, SOFA score (and sub-scores), length of stay in the ICU and in the hospital, proportion of patients who had developed acute kidney injury or received renal replacement therapy, duration of mechanical ventilation. Albumin was not independently associated with a higher or lower 90-day mortality (HR 0.979, 95% CI 0.709-1.352) as compared to crystalloid. CONCLUSION Albumin replacement during the ICU stay, as compared with crystalloids alone, did not affect clinical outcomes in a cohort of immunocompromised patients with sepsis.
Effect of autologous fibrin glue on seroma reduction after modified radical mastectomy for breast cancer: A randomized controlled trial
Annals of medicine and surgery (2012). 2021;63:102135
INTRODUCTION Breast cancer stands out as the second most common cancer in the world with incidence 35.1% of all malignancies among females in Egypt. Fluid build-up after breast surgery is still the most annoying complication which leads to worse outcome. We aimed to evaluate whether autologous fibrin glue might lessen the formation of seroma following modified radical mastectomy. METHODS This was a randomized controlled trial designed to configure the effect of autologous fibrin glue given in the study group using the drain in comparison to a control group who received the drain only; seroma volume was calculated every 24 h. For all of the cases. The drains were removed when the daily drainage was less than 30 ml for 3 consecutive days. RESULTS We recruited 30 patients to each of the two groups. Age, pathology, breast cancer stage, number of lymph nodes and tumour size did not differ significantly between groups. A comparison of the median days to drain removal showed 8 days reduction in median days to drain removal compared in the intervention group (7 days) than the control (15 days). The patients in the fibrin glue group had a significantly lower cumulative drain output volume (mean ± SD of 505,6 ± 209,3 ml) than those in the control group (1674.1 ± 1 373,8 ml). CONCLUSIONS Autologous fibrin glue significantly decrease seroma formation post-modified radical mastectomy.
Intravenous Immunoglobulin Therapy in Patients With Painful Idiopathic Small Fiber Neuropathy
OBJECTIVE This is the first double-blind, randomized, controlled trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) versus placebo in patients with idiopathic small fiber neuropathy (I-SFN). METHODS Between July 2016 and November 2018, 60 Dutch patients with skin-biopsy proven idiopathic SFN randomly received a starting dose of IVIg (2 g/kg body weight) or matching placebo (0.9% saline). Subsequently, 3 additional infusions of IVIg (1 g/kg) or placebo were administered at 3-weekly intervals. The primary outcome was a 1-point change in Pain Intensity Numerical Rating Scale (PI-NRS) at 12 weeks compared to baseline. RESULTS Thirty patients received IVIg, and 30 received placebo. In both groups, 29 patients completed the trial. In 40% of patients receiving IVIg, the mean average pain was decreased with at least 1 point, compared to 30% of the patients receiving placebo (p-value 0.588, OR 1.56, 95%CI 0.53-4.53). No significant differences were found on any of the other pre-specified outcomes including general wellbeing, autonomic symptoms, and overall functioning and disability. CONCLUSIONS This RCT showed that IVIg treatment had no significant effect on pain in patients with painful idiopathic SFN.