Furosemide and albumin for the treatment of nephrotic edema: a systematic review
Pediatric nephrology (Berlin, Germany). 2022
BACKGROUND Edema is one of the cardinal clinical features of nephrotic syndrome (NS). It may vary from mild periorbital edema to severe generalized edema (anasarca). In patients where edema does not improve with prednisone therapy, the most common supportive medications are diuretics and albumin. However, due to the complex pathophysiology of edema formation in NS patients resulting in intravascular normovolemia or hypovolemia, optimal therapy for edema is still debated. We conducted a systematic review with the objective of evaluating the change in urine volume and urine sodium excretion after treatment with furosemide only versus furosemide with albumin in edematous patients with NS. OBJECTIVES (1) To evaluate efficacy of furosemide alone versus furosemide with albumin in the treatment of nephrotic edema in adults and children. (2) To compare the harms and benefits of different doses of furosemide for treating nephrotic edema. SEARCH METHODS The search included all randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials in English and French using MEDLINE, Embase, and CENTRAL Trials Registry of the Cochrane Collaboration using the Ovid interface. ClinicalTrials.gov and the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform were also searched. SELECTION CRITERIA We included all RCTs and randomized cross-over studies in which furosemide and furosemide plus albumin are used in the treatment of children or adults with nephrotic edema. We excluded patients with hypoalbuminemia of non-renal origin and severe chronic kidney disease (CKD) with a glomerular filtration rate below 30 ml/min/1.74 m(2) and patients with congenital NS. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS All abstracts were independently assessed by at least two authors to determine which studies met the inclusion criteria. Information on study design, methodology, and outcome data (urine volume, urine sodium excretion, adverse effects) from each identified study was entered into a separate data sheet. The differences in outcomes between the types of therapy were expressed as standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS The search yielded 525 records, and after screening, five studies were included in the systematic review and four of those studies in the meta-analysis. One study had high risk of bias and the remaining three studies were deemed to have some concerns. Urine excretion was greater after treatment with furosemide and albumin versus furosemide (SMD 0.85, 95% CI = 0.33 to 1.38). Results for sodium excretion were inconclusive (SMD 0.37, 95%CI = - 0.28 to 1.02). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS The current evidence is not sufficient to make definitive conclusions about the role of albumin in treating nephrotic edema. High-quality randomized studies with adequate samples sizes are needed. Including an assessment of intravascular volume status may be helpful. TRIAL REGISTRATION Prospero: CRD4201808979. https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO A higher resolution version of the Graphical abstract is available as Supplementary information.
Pharmacologic interventions for Kawasaki disease in children: A network meta-analysis of 56 randomized controlled trials
BACKGROUND Although the current consensus recommends a standard treatment of high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin with high-dose aspirin to manage Kawasaki disease (KD), the use of different adjunctive therapies remains controversial. The aim of the current network meta-analysis (NMA) was to compare the efficacy and tolerability of different existing interventions for the initial and refractory stages of KD. METHODS An NMA of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted using the frequentist model applied after electronic searches in PubMed, Embase, ScienceDirect, ProQuest, ClinicalTrials.gov, ClinicalKey, Cochrane CENTRAL, and Web of Science. The main outcomes were reduced fever duration/diminished severity of fever subsided. The initial stage of KD was defined as the first stage to treat patients with KD; the refractory stage of KD represents KD patients who failed to respond to standard KD treatment. The cut-off points for intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) were low (100-400 mg), medium (1 g), and high (at least 2 g). FINDINGS A total of fifty-six RCTs with 6486 participants were included. NMA demonstrated that the medium-dosage IVIG + aspirin + infliximab [mean difference=-1.76 days (95% confidence intervals (95% CIs): -3.65 to 0.13 days) compared to high-dosage IVIG + aspirin] exhibited the shortest fever duration; likewise, the medium-dosage IVIG + aspirin + infliximab [odds ratio (OR)=0.50, 95% CIs: 0.18-1.37 compared to high-dosage IVIG + aspirin] exhibited the smallest incidence of coronary artery lesion (CAL) in the initial-stage KD. In the refractory-stage KD, the high-dosage IVIG + pulse steroid therapy (OR=0.04, 95% CIs: 0.00-0.43 compared to the high-dosage IVIG only) had the best rate of decline of fever; likewise, the high-dosage IVIG + ciclosporin [OR=0.05 (95% CIs: 0.00-1.21) compared to the high-dosage IVIG only] exhibited the smallest incidence of CAL. Infliximab significantly improved resolution compared to the high-dosage IVIG only group (OR=0.20, 95%CIs: 0.07-0.62) in refractory-stage KD. INTERPRETATION The NMA demonstrated that the combination therapy with the standard therapy of IVIG and aspirin might have an additional effect on shortening the duration of fever and lowering the CAL incidence rate in patients with acute KD. Moreover, the combination therapy with high-dose IVIG and pulse steroid therapy or cyclosporine therapy might have an additional effect on improving the rate of decline of fever and lowering the incidence rate of CAL in children with refractory KD. Because some of the findings of this NMA should be considered hypothesis-generating rather than confirmatory, further evidence from de novo randomised trials is needed to support our results. FUNDING None.
Effectiveness and tolerability of different therapies in preventive treatment of MOG-IgG-associated disorder: A network meta-analysis
Frontiers in immunology. 2022;13:953993
BACKGROUND Immunotherapy has been shown to reduce relapses in patients with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-associated disorder (MOG-AD); however, the superiority of specific treatments remains unclear. AIM: To identify the efficacy and tolerability of different treatments for MOG-AD. METHODS Systematic search in Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases from inception to March 1, 2021, were performed. Published articles including patients with MOG-AD and reporting the efficacy or tolerability of two or more types of treatment in preventing relapses were included. Reported outcomes including incidence of relapse, annualized relapse rate (ARR), and side effects were extracted. Network meta-analysis with a random-effect model within a Bayesian framework was conducted. Between group comparisons were estimated using Odds ratio (OR) or mean difference (MD) with 95% credible intervals (CrI). RESULTS Twelve studies that compared the efficacy of 10 different treatments in preventing MOG-AD relapse, including 735 patients, were analyzed. In terms of incidence of relapse, intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG), oral corticosteroids (OC), mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), azathioprine (AZA), and rituximab (RTX) were all significantly more effective than no treatment (ORs ranged from 0.075 to 0.34). On the contrary, disease-modifying therapy (DMT) (OR=1.3, 95% CrI: 0.31 to 5.0) and tacrolimus (TAC) (OR=5.9, 95% CrI: 0.19 to 310) would increase the incidence of relapse. Compared with DMT, IVIG significantly reduced the ARR (MD=-0.85, 95% CrI: -1.7 to -0.098). AZA, MMF, OC and RTX showed a trend to decrease ARR, but those results did not reach significant differences. The combined results for relapse rate and adverse events, as well as ARR and adverse events showed that IVIG and OC were the most effective and tolerable therapies. CONCLUSIONS Whilst DMT should be avoided, IVIG and OC may be suited as first-line therapies for patients with MOG-AD. RTX, MMF, and AZA present suitable alternatives.
Corticosteroids for the treatment of Kawasaki disease in children
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2022;5:Cd011188
BACKGROUND Kawasaki disease (KD), or mucocutaneous syndrome, is the leading cause of childhood-acquired heart disease in high-income countries. There is much controversy on how best to treat children with KD and in particular who may benefit from additional treatment beyond the standard intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and aspirin, such as the addition of corticosteroids. This is an update of the review first published in 2017. OBJECTIVES To assess the impact of corticosteroid use on the incidence of coronary artery abnormalities in KD as either first-line or second-line treatment. SEARCH METHODS The Cochrane Vascular Information Specialist searched the Cochrane Vascular Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL and two trials registers to 8 February 2021. We searched the reference lists of relevant articles for additional studies. SELECTION CRITERIA We selected randomised controlled trials involving children with all severities of KD who were treated with corticosteroids, including different types of corticosteroids, different durations of treatment, and where corticosteroids were used alone or in conjunction with other accepted KD treatments. We included trials using corticosteroids for both first- and second-line treatment. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Two review authors independently selected studies, assessed study quality and extracted data using standard Cochrane methods. We performed fixed-effect model meta-analyses with odds ratios (ORs) or mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We used a random-effects model when there was heterogeneity. We assessed the certainty of the evidence using GRADE. The outcomes of interest were incidence of coronary artery abnormalities, serious adverse events, mortality, duration of acute symptoms (such as fever), time for laboratory parameters to normalise, length of hospital stay and longer-term coronary morbidity. MAIN RESULTS This update identified one new study, therefore the analysis included eight trials consisting of 1877 participants. Seven trials investigated the use of corticosteroids in first-line treatment and one investigated second-line treatment. The trials were all of good methodological quality. On pooled analysis, corticosteroid treatment reduced the subsequent occurrence of coronary artery abnormalities (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.75; 8 studies, 986 participants; moderate-certainty evidence), without resultant serious adverse events (0 events; 6 studies, 737 participants; moderate-certainty) and mortality (0 events; 8 studies, 1075 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). In addition, corticosteroids reduced the duration of fever (MD -1.34 days, 95% CI -2.24 to -0.45; 3 studies, 290 participants; low-certainty evidence), time for laboratory parameters (erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP)) to normalise (MD -2.80 days, 95% CI -4.38 to -1.22; 1 study, 178 participants; moderate-certainty evidence), and length of hospital stay (MD -1.01 days, 95% CI -1.72 to -0.30; 2 studies, 119 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). None of the included studies reported long-term (greater than one year after disease onset) coronary morbidity. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS Moderate-certainty evidence shows that use of steroids in the acute phase of KD can be associated with reduced coronary artery abnormalities, reduced inflammatory markers and shorter duration of hospital stay when compared to no corticosteroids. There were no serious adverse events or deaths reported with or without corticosteroid use. Low-certainty evidence shows use of corticosteroids can reduce duration of clinical symptoms (fever and rash). None of the included studies reported on long-term (greater than one year after disease onset) coronary morbidity. Evidence presented in this systematic review agrees with current clinical guidelines on the use of corticosteroids in the first-line treatment in KD.
Characteristics and conflicting recommendations of clinical practice guidelines for COVID-19 management in children: A scoping review
Travel medicine and infectious disease. 2022;48:102354
BACKGROUND Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) are statements that should be rigorously developed to guide clinicians' decision-making. However, given the scarce evidence for certain vulnerable groups like children, CPGs' recommendations formulation could be challenging. METHODS We conducted a scoping review of CPGs for COVID-19 management in children. Documents were included if they claimed to be a "clinical practice guideline", published between January and October 2021, and described the process followed to issue their recommendations. We assessed the quality using the "Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II" (AGREE-II) and described how the recommendations were reached. RESULTS We found five CPGs that fulfilled our inclusion criteria. The median score on the overall AGREE-II evaluation was 61% (range: 49%-72%), and the score on the third domain referred to the rigor of methodological development was 52% (range: 25%-88%). Recommendations for remdesivir, tocilizumab, and intravenous immunoglobulin were heterogeneous across CPGs (in favor, against, no recommendation), as well as the methodologies used to present the evidence, perform the benefits/harms balance, and issue the recommendation. CONCLUSIONS Heterogeneous recommendations and justifications across CPGs were found in the three assessed topics. Future CPGs should describe in detail their evidence-to-decision process to issue reliable and transparent recommendations.
Efficacy and Safety Profile of Tranexamic Acid in Traumatic Thoracolumbar Fracture Management: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
International journal of spine surgery. 2022
OBJECTIVE In this article, the authors systematically evaluated the efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid (TXA) in surgeries for spinal trauma. METHODS Potentially relevant academic articles were identified from the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, PubMed, and Google Scholar. Secondary sources were identified from the references of the included literature. RevMan software was used to analyze the pooled data. RESULTS A total of 7 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and 2 non-RCTs were included in the review. There were significant differences in total blood loss (standard mean difference [SMD] = -2.54 [95% CI, -3.72, -1.37], P = 0.0001), intraoperative blood loss (SMD = -0.96 [95% CI, -1.28, -0.64], P < 0.00001), postoperative blood loss (SMD = -1.42 [95% CI, -1.72, -1.11], P < 0.00001), and length of hospital stay (SMD = -3.73 [95% CI, -4.41, -3.06], P = 0.00001). No significant differences were found regarding transfusion requirement, operative duration, deep vein thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism between the 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS The present meta-analysis indicates that the use of TXA in spinal surgery decreases blood loss and duration of hospital stay while not increasing the risk of side effects such as deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. CLINICAL RELEVANCE The study aims to provide clinicians who operate on spine trauma with information on the use of tranexamic acid to decrease blood loss and related complications.
Measuring Factor XIII Inhibitors in Patients with Factor XIII Deficiency: A Case Report and Systematic Review of Current Practices in Japan
Journal of clinical medicine. 2022;11(6)
Factor XIII (FXIII) deficiency is a rare but serious coagulopathy. FXIII is critical in blood coagulation, and FXIII deficiencies can lead to uncontrolled or spontaneous bleeding. FXIII deficiencies can be congenital or acquired; acquired FXIII deficiency can be categorized as autoimmune and non-autoimmune. Immunological tests to measure FXIII inhibitors are required to diagnose acquired FXIII deficiency; however, appropriate test facilities are limited, which increases the turnaround time of these tests. In the case of critical bleeding, delayed test results may worsen prognosis due to delayed treatment. Here, we report a case of acquired FXIII deficiency, followed by a review of FXIII deficiency cases in Japan. We performed a systematic review to investigate the present conditions of the diagnosis and treatment of FXIII deficiency, including the measurement of FXIII inhibitors in Japan. FXIII inhibitor testing was only performed in 29.7 of acquired FXIII deficiency cases. Clinical departments other than internal medicine and pediatrics were often involved in medical treatment at the time of onset. Therefore, it is important for doctors in clinical departments other than internal medicine and pediatrics to consider FXIII deficiency and perform FXIII inhibitor testing when examining patients with prolonged bleeding of unknown cause or persistent bleeding after trauma.
Potentially effective drugs for the treatment of COVID-19 or MIS-C in children: a systematic review
European journal of pediatrics. 2022;:1-12
The purpose of this systematic review is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of using potential drugs: remdesivir and glucocorticoid in treating children and adolescents with COVID-19 and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) in treating MIS-C. We searched seven databases, three preprint platform, ClinicalTrials.gov, and Google from December 1, 2019, to August 5, 2021, to collect evidence of remdesivir, glucocorticoid, and IVIG which were used in children and adolescents with COVID-19 or MIS-C. A total of nine cohort studies and one case series study were included in this systematic review. In terms of remdesivir, the meta-analysis of single-arm cohort studies have shown that after the treatment, 54.7% (95%CI, 10.3 to 99.1%) experienced adverse events, 5.6% (95%CI, 1.2 to 10.1%) died, and 27.0% (95%CI, 0 to 73.0%) needed extracorporeal membrane oxygenation or invasive mechanical ventilation. As for glucocorticoids, the results of the meta-analysis showed that the fixed-effect summary odds ratio for the association with mortality was 2.79 (95%CI, 0.13 to 60.87), and the mechanical ventilation rate was 3.12 (95%CI, 0.80 to 12.08) for glucocorticoids compared with the control group. In terms of IVIG, most of the included cohort studies showed that for MIS-C patients with more severe clinical symptoms, IVIG combined with methylprednisolone could achieve better clinical efficacy than IVIG alone.Conclusions: Overall, the current evidence in the included studies is insignificant and of low quality. It is recommended to conduct high-quality randomized controlled trials of remdesivir, glucocorticoids, and IVIG in children and adolescents with COVID-19 or MIS-C to provide substantial evidence for the development of guidelines. What is Known: • The efficacy and safety of using potential drugs such as remdesivir, glucocorticoid, and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) in treating children and adolescents with COVID-19/MIS-C are unclear. What is New: • Overall, the current evidence cannot adequately demonstrate the effectiveness and safety of using remdesivir, glucocorticoids, and IVIG in treating children and adolescents with COVID-19 or MIS-C. • We are calling for the publication of high-quality clinical trials and provide substantial evidence for the development of guidelines.
Pharmacological treatment in adult patients with CRPS-I: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials
Rheumatology (Oxford, England). 2022
OBJECTIVE Several pharmacological treatments have been proposed for the treatment of Complex regional pain syndrome type-I (CRPS-I) in adults, but data regarding the efficacy of various agents for this disease is scarce. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to analyse pharmacological approaches in adults with CRPS-I. METHODS We systematically searched PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases from the inception date to 30, June 2021 for identifying placebo-controlled or active-controlled RCTs using bisphosphonates, ketamine, corticosteroids, anti-epileptics, NSAIDs/COXIBs, opiates, antidepressants, scavengers/magnesium sulphate or intravenous immunoglobulins for the treatment of CRPS-I. The primary outcomes included changes in the visual analogue scale (VAS) or numeric rating scale (NRS) for pain before and after treatment. RESULTS We included 20 placebo-controlled or active-controlled RCTs (for a total of 818 CRPS-I adults) that used bisphosphonates (n = 7), ketamine (n = 2), corticosteroids (n = 2), anti-epileptics (n = 1), NSAIDs/COXIBs (n = 2), scavengers/magnesium (n = 5), or intravenous immunoglobulins (n = 1) to treat CRPS-I during a median follow-up of 26 weeks. The treatment with bisphosphonates showed a significant reduction of the values of the VAS/NRS pain scale compared with placebo or reference therapy (random effects weighted mean difference [WMD]: -23.8, 95%CI-28.0 to -19.6; I2=36.4%). Treatment with ketamine also documented a reduction in the values of the VAS/NRS pain scale (random effects WMD: -8.27,95%CI -12.9 to -3.70; I2=0%). Treatment with other agents did not improve the values of the VAS/NRS pain scale. CONCLUSION This systematic review and meta-analysis supports the recommendation of parenteral bisphosphonates as the first-line agent in the treatment of CRPS-I. REGISTRATION NUMBER Open Science Framework registries; osf.io/et9gu.
Treatment of Refractory/High-Risk Pregnancies With Antiphospholipid Syndrome: A Systematic Review of the Literature
Frontiers in pharmacology. 2022;13:849692
Different treatment protocols have been employed to manage heparin/low-dose aspirin refractory or high-risk pregnancies in antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) pregnancies. A systematic review of the literature on additional treatments used in refractory and/or high-risk APS pregnancies was conducted. Records from February 2006 to October 2021 were retrieved from PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane, and the www.clinicaltrials.gov platform. Twenty-one studies met our eligibility criteria. Live birth rate is this study's primary endpoint, while pregnancy complications and adverse events are secondary endpoints. A total of 434 pregnancies, 162 (37.3%) refractory and 272 (62.7%) high-risk/refractory pregnancies, were included. Both IVIG <2 gr/kg/monthly/HCQ/LDS and PEX/IA ± LDS led to 100% viable infants in refractory APS. Furthermore, HCQ 200-400 mg showed a higher live birth rate than HCQ + LDS (88.6% vs. 82.7%). Following treatment protocol with HCQ 200-400 mg and IVIG <2 gr/kg/monthly/HCQ/LDS, pregnancy complications rates of 16.7 and 83.3% were registered, respectively. Pravastatin 20 mg, IA weekly + IVIG 2 gr/monthly, and PEX weekly + IVIg 2 gr/kg/monthly showed higher live birth rates in high-risk APS pregnancies of 100, 100 and 92%, respectively, whereas the lower severe pregnancy complications were reported in pregnancies treated with PEX weekly + IVIg 2 gr/kg/monthly (11.1%). One (0.6%) case of dermatitis during treatment with HCQ was observed. The results of this study showed that HCQ 200-400 mg and PEX weekly + IVIG 2 gr/kg/monthly achieved a higher live birth rate in refractory APS and high-risk/refractory APS, respectively. The results presented provide clinicians with up-to-date knowledge in the management of APS pregnancies according to risk stratification.