Patient Preferences for Subcutaneous versus Intravenous Administration of Treatment for Chronic Immune System Disorders: A Systematic Review
Patient preference and adherence. 2021;15:811-834
BACKGROUND For many chronic immune system disorders, the available treatments provide several options for route of administration. The objective of this systematic literature review is to inform discussions about therapy choices for individual patients by summarizing the available evidence regarding the preferences of patients with chronic immune system disorders for intravenous (IV) or subcutaneous (SC) administration. METHODS Searches of the MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane Library databases were conducted using terms designed to capture studies reporting patient preferences between IV and SC therapy published in English. Relevant studies were limited to those in which mode of administration, including treatment frequency and setting, was the main difference between comparators. RESULTS In total, 49 studies were included in the review. Among 18 studies that compared IV and SC immunoglobulin therapy, 16 found patients to prefer the SC administration route. The results of the 31 studies comparing IV infusion and SC injection of non-immunoglobulin therapies were mixed, with patients favoring SC administration in 20, IV infusion in seven, and having no overall preference in four. Patient experience had a strong effect on preferences, with treatment-experienced patients preferring their current administration route in most studies. Patients preferring SC administration tended also to prefer treatment at home, mainly due to the convenience and comfort of home treatment and the avoidance of having to attend hospital. By contrast, patients preferring IV infusion tended to cite the lower treatment frequency and a dislike of self-injecting, and preferred hospital treatment, mainly due to the presence of healthcare professionals and resulting feelings of safety. CONCLUSION In general patients with chronic immune system disorders tend to be more likely to choose SC administration than IV infusion, but preferences may vary according among individuals. These findings may assist discussions around appropriate treatment choices for each patient.
The effectiveness of infliximab for Kawasaki disease in children: systematic review and meta-analysis
Translational pediatrics. 2021;10(5):1294-1306
BACKGROUND Kawasaki disease (KD) is a self-limited illness that results in coronary artery aneurysms (CAAs) and threatens children's health and lives. The therapeutic effects of single intravenous immunoglobulin gamma (IVIG) vs. infliximab (IFX) (with or without IVIG) in young children with KD remain unclear. Thus, we made a meta-analysis and systematic review, including all of the studies which have evaluated the effectiveness and safety of IFX and IVIG KD patients. METHODS The databases of the Cochrane Library, PubMed and Embase websites were searched for articles appearing from inception until December 31, 2020. Clinical studies that compared IFX either as initial therapy plus IVIG or rescue therapy after IVIG (IFX group) failure compared with IVIG treatment alone (IVIG group) in treating KD patients were included. RESULTS The meta-analysis included nine studies characterizing 712 patients. The treatment response was significantly higher in the adjunctive IFX therapy group than in the IVIG therapy group [odds ratio (OR) 2.64; 95% CI: 1.52-4.59; P=0.0005]. Subgroup analysis, the effect of IFX therapy on treatment response is more effectiveness in the group of the high-risk KD patients than IVIG therapy (OR 6.07; 95% CI: 2.30-16.04; P=0.0003; random-effects model). Further analysis showed no difference in the improvement of CAAs in short-term follow-up between the two groups. However, adding IFX either as initial therapy or as additional therapy all showed an advantageous effect regarding the ∆Z score of the left anterior descending (LAD) (MD =0.29; 95% CI: 0.27-0.31; P<0.00001) and right coronary artery (RCA) (MD =0.24; 95% CI: 0.22-0.26; P<0.00001). Further, IFX exhibited significant effect on the treatment response compared with IVIG therapy in the Asian group (OR, 2.84; 95% CI: 1.51-5.36; P=0.001; random-effects model), and the beneficial effects of IFX were given without increasing the risk of AEs. CONCLUSIONS This meta-analysis emphasizes the importance of IFX on the treatment response in the high-risk KD patients. IFX may play a role in the Asian KD patients and prevention of progressive CAA, and does not increase the risk of AEs in KD patients.
Invasive Group A Streptococcal Infections: Benefit of Clindamycin, Intravenous Immunoglobulins and Secondary Prophylaxis
Frontiers in pediatrics. 2021;9:697938
Introduction: Mortality associated with invasive group A streptococcal infections (iGAS) remains high among adults, with lower mortality in children. The added value of both clindamycin and immunoglobulins in such treatment is still controversial, as is the need for antibiotic secondary prophylaxis. It is unlikely that conclusive randomized clinical studies will ever definitively end these controversies. Materials and Methods: A clinical and experimental literature review was conducted in Pubmed, Cochrane, and lay literature to determine the benefit of adding clindamycin and immunoglobulins to β-lactams in the management of iGAS, as well as the need for secondary prophylaxis measures in close contacts. Results: This review includes two meta-analyses, two randomized controlled trials, four prospective studies, five retrospective studies, and microbiological studies. To reduce mortality and morbidity, it appears useful to add clindamycin to β-lactams in severe clinical presentations, including necrotizing fasciitis or streptococcal toxic shock syndrome, and immunoglobulins for the latter two presentations. The high risk of secondary infection in household contacts justifies the need of taking preventive measures. Conclusions: Both clinical studies and available experimental evidence suggest that adding clindamycin and immunoglobulins as adjunctive therapies in the management of invasive group A streptococcal infections may reduce mortality. Household contacts should be warned about the increased risk of secondary infection, and chemoprophylaxis may be considered in certain situations.
Andexanet Alfa or Prothrombin Complex Concentrate for Factor Xa Inhibitor Reversal in Acute Major Bleeding: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Critical care medicine. 2021
OBJECTIVES To combine evidence on andexanet alfa and prothrombin complex concentrates for factor Xa inhibitor-associated bleeding to guide clinicians on reversal strategies. DATA SOURCES Embase, Pubmed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library. STUDY SELECTION Observational studies and randomized clinical trials studying hemostatic effectiveness of andexanet alfa or prothrombin complex concentrate for acute reversal of factor Xa inhibitor-associated hemorrhage. DATA EXTRACTION Two independent reviewers extracted the data from the studies. Visualization and comparison of hemostatic effectiveness using Sarode et al or International Society of Thrombosis and Hemostasis Scientific and Standardization Committee criteria at 12 and 24 hours, (venous) thrombotic event rates, and inhospital mortality were performed by constructing Forest plots. Exploratory analysis using a logistic mixed model analysis was performed to identify factors associated with effectiveness and venous thromboembolic event. DATA SYNTHESIS A total of 21 studies were included (andexanet: 438 patients; prothrombin complex concentrate: 1,278 patients). The (weighted) mean effectiveness for andexanet alfa was 82% at 12 hours and 71% at 24 hours. The (weighted) mean effectiveness for prothrombin complex concentrate was 88% at 12 hours and 76% at 24 hours. The mean 30-day symptomatic venous thromboembolic event rates were 5.0% for andexanet alfa and 1.9% for prothrombin complex concentrate. The mean 30-day total thrombotic event rates for andexanet alfa and prothrombin complex concentrate were 10.7% and 3.1%, respectively. Mean inhospital mortality was 23.3% for andexanet versus 15.8% for prothrombin complex concentrate. Exploratory analysis controlling for potential confounders did not demonstrate significant differences between both reversal agents. CONCLUSIONS Currently, available evidence does not unequivocally support the clinical effectiveness of andexanet alfa or prothrombin complex concentrate to reverse factor Xa inhibitor-associated acute major bleeding, nor does it permit conventional meta-analysis of potential superiority. Neither reversal agent was significantly associated with increased effectiveness or a higher rate of venous thromboembolic event. These results underscore the importance of randomized controlled trials comparing the two reversal agents and may provide guidance in designing institutional guidelines.
Comparison of Published Guidelines for the Diagnosis and the Management of Vaccine-Induced Immune Thrombotic Thrombocytopenia
Critical care explorations. 2021;3(9):e0519
The development of thrombocytopenia and thrombosis after the administration of the AstraZeneca and Johnson & Johnson/Janssen vaccines has been recently described. This new condition has been called vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia. The objective of this review is to summarize the clinical characteristics and therapeutic options of vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia based on available published case series. Furthermore, we provide a comparison of the diagnostic pathway and treatment recommendations provided by six major medical societies. DATA SOURCES We searched MEDLINE, PubMed, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases. STUDY SELECTION We included case series and case reports on patients who developed vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia. We also included guidelines for the diagnosis and management of vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia from major medical societies. DATA EXTRACTION We examined baseline risk factors, symptoms, physical signs, laboratory and imaging findings, and treatment in patients with vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia reported in the case series. We also analyzed the diagnostic and treatment recommendations provided by major societal guidelines on the management of vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia. DATA SYNTHESIS Patients who developed vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia were more likely to be young women (age 20-50) who were given the AstraZeneca or Johnson & Johnson/Janssen 4-28 days prior to presentation. Patients showed signs, symptoms, and imaging findings consistent with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis and splanchnic thrombosis. Laboratory findings showed thrombocytopenia, low fibrinogen, and elevate d-dimer levels, while positive platelet factor 4 antibodies were always positive. Major societal guidelines recommend avoidance of heparin and platelets. Treatment with nonheparin anticoagulants and IV immunoglobulin is also recommended. CONCLUSIONS Vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia is a rare but highly morbid complication related to the administration of the AstraZeneca and Johnson & Johnson/Janssen vaccines. Clinicians should be prepared for the early identification of patients with suspicious symptoms and prompt treatment should be initiated to avoid catastrophic deterioration. Major societal guidelines provide useful recommendations for the diagnosis and management of patients with vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia.
Aneurysms in primary antiphospholipid syndrome: a case-based review
Clinical rheumatology. 2021
To perform a review on patients with primary antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) who developed an aneurysm. A review of articles published in PubMed/MEDLINE, LILACS, and SciELO dating from 1966 to October 2020 was conducted using the following search words: "Antiphospholipid syndrome" and "aneurysm." No language limitation was applied. This review includes 10 articles on APS patients and aneurysms entailing 14, including our additional case. Age varied from 20 to 76 years old, and female sex was predominant and presented in 54%. The arterial vessels compromised were aorta (n = 6), coronary (n = 2), hepatic (n = 2), renal (n = 2), middle cerebral artery (n = 2), and then splenic, superior mesenteric, pancreatic, retinal, jejunal, carotid, and pulmonary. Frequencies of antiphospholipid antibodies were described as follows: lupus anticoagulant (n = 6), anti-beta2-glycoprotein I (n = 4), IgG and IgM anticardiolipin (n = 3), IgG anticardiolipin (n = 3), and antiphosphatidylserine (n = 2). The presence of APS manifestations was distributed as deep venous thrombosis (n = 4), recurrent abortions (n = 4), pulmonary embolism (n = 3), stroke, or transitory ischemic accident (n = 3), and then limb ischemia and thrombocytopenia. The therapies used in these patients were warfarin, antiplatelet agent, vascular surgery, heparin, hydroxychloroquine, coil embolism, and intravenous immunoglobulin. Regarding outcomes, 5 patients were alive, and 3 were dead. This article reviewed all published cases on APS and aneurysm and showed that women who presented with abortions and deep venous thromboses with a lupus anticoagulant are those patients more commonly affected by aneurysms in APS.
Prothrombin complex concentrates and andexanet for management of direct factor Xa inhibitor related bleeding: a meta-analysis
European review for medical and pharmacological sciences. 2021;25(6):2637-2653
There are potential concerns related to bleeding caused by oral anticoagulants, especially in the elderly. Andexanet alfa has been authorized for use to reverse the effects of oral anticoagulants. Off-label use of four factor prothrombin complex concentrate (4F-PCC) for the reversal of oral factor Xa inhibitors is common. However, not much is known about their efficacy and safety profile. The intent of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of 4F-PCC and andexanet alfa for management of major bleeding due to oral factor Xa inhibitors. Comprehensive searches were done systematically through PubMed, Scopus and Google scholar databases. Studies that were retrospective record based or adopted prospective cohort approach and reported either of the three main outcomes, i.e., achieved hemostasis rate or rate of thrombotic events or mortality rate were included in the meta-analysis. Statistical analyses were done using STATA version 13.0. A total of 22 studies were included in the meta-analysis. All the studies had a single arm with no control/comparator group. The pooled rate of good to excellent hemostatic control upon use of andexanet was 80% (95% CI; 72% to 88%) and for 4F-PCC, it was 76% (95% CI; 70% to 83%). A comparatively higher pooled rate of thrombotic complications upon use of andexanet [13% (95% CI; 5% to 20%) was noted, compared to use of aPCC/4F-PCC [4% (95% CI; 3% to 5%). The pooled all-cause mortality rate within 30 days of administration was 24% (95% CI; 12% to 35%) with andexanet use and 19% (95% CI; 14% to 25%) for aPCC/4F-PCC. The findings suggest that use of both andexanet and aPCC/4F-PCC achieves a good hemostasis but there is an associated risk of thrombotic events and mortality. Future studies should have a control group to better establish evidence on efficacy and safety of these agents.
Albumin in adult cardiac surgery: a narrative review
Canadian journal of anaesthesia = Journal canadien d'anesthesie. 2021
PURPOSE Intravascular fluids are a necessary and universal component of cardiac surgical patient care. Both crystalloids and colloids are used to maintain or restore circulating plasma volume and ensure adequate organ perfusion. In Canada, human albumin solution (5% or 25% concentration) is a colloid commonly used for this purpose. In this narrative review, we discuss albumin supply in Canada, explore the perceived advantages of albumin, and describe the clinical literature supporting and refuting albumin use over other fluids in the adult cardiac surgical population. SOURCE We conducted a targeted search of PubMed, Embase, Medline, Web of Science, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled trials, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Search terms included albumin, colloid, cardiac surgery, bleeding, hemorrhage, transfusion, and cardiopulmonary bypass. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Albumin is produced from fractionated human plasma and imported into Canada from international suppliers at a cost of approximately $21 million CAD per annum. While it is widely used in cardiac surgical patients across the country, it is approximately 30-times more expensive than equivalent doses of balanced crystalloid solutions, with wide inter-institutional variability in use and no clear association with improved outcomes. There is a general lack of high-quality evidence for the superiority of albumin over crystalloids in this patient population, and conflicting evidence regarding safety. CONCLUSIONS In cardiac surgical patients, albumin is widely utilized despite a lack of high- quality evidence supporting its efficacy or safety. A well-designed randomized controlled trial is needed to clarify the role of albumin in cardiac surgical patients.
Monoclonal antibody and anti-cytokine biologics for Kawasaki disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Seminars in arthritis and rheumatism. 2021;51(5):1045-1056
BACKGROUND Kawasaki disease (KD) is a form of self-limiting vasculitis that causes coronary artery abnormalities in children. Although clinical trials of monoclonal antibodies and anti-cytokine biologics that block cytokine cascades have been conducted, the studies have revealed contradictory results. To examine the effectiveness of treatment with monoclonal antibodies and anti-cytokine biologics for KD patients, we conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS Relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies (e.g., cohort studies, case-control studies, case-series, and case-reports) were included to summarize available evidence, both qualitatively and quantitatively. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and ICUSHI were used for systematic research. Meta-analysis of the included studies was conducted using fixed-effect or random-effects models, depending on the degree of between-study heterogeneity. We assessed coronary artery and treatment outcomes of the interventions. The certainty of evidence and risk of bias were assessed using the GRADE and Cochrane risk of bias tool. The protocol of this review is registered with PROSPERO (CRD42016033079). RESULTS Results: Of all searched studies, 183 studies were qualitatively analyzed. We finally included four randomized controlled trials with 456 patients in quantitative syntheses. Monoclonal antibodies and anti-cytokine biologics did not reduce the frequency of CAA (risk ratio [RR], 0.93; 95% confidence interval [95%CI], 0.65 to 1.32, low certainty of evidence), compared with the conventional treatment with IVIG. However, the frequency of treatment resistance (RR, 0.60; 95%CI, 0.38 to 0.95, moderate certainty of evidence) was reduced by the antibodies. We found no statistical differences in either "any adverse event" (RR, 0.92; 95%CI, 0.80 to 1.06, low certainty of evidence) or "adverse events attributable to the administration of the medication" (RR, 1.10; 95%CI, 0.72 to 1.69, low certainty of evidence) between the two groups. CONCLUSION Conclusions: Although monoclonal antibodies and anti-cytokine biologics were not effective in reducing the frequency of CAA in KD patients, the frequency of treatment resistance might be reduced by those agents compared with conventional IVIG therapy alone.
A Systematic Review of Fibrin Glue as an Ideal Treatment for the Pilonidal Disease
Pilonidal sinus is an acquired condition caused by irritation to the hair follicles at the natal cleft, presenting with an abscess or chronic infection. It is prevalent in young adults affecting their productive lifestyle with morbidities. There are varieties of treatment options; however, there is no consensus yet for the ideal procedure. Less invasive procedures have evolved to replace the traditional surgical techniques, which cannot significantly reduce the risks of recurrence and wound complications despite extensive surgeries. We aimed to assess the effect of fibrin glue as a primary treatment after cleaning the sinus in pilonidal sinus disease. We searched for articles from PubMed®, Ovid MEDLINE®, Ovid EMBASE®, and Cochrane CENTRAL. Six studies that included 336 patients in total were analyzed. Fibrin glue treatment in these studies reported a quicker return to normal activities postoperatively, a low rate of infection, and an acceptable rate of recurrence. Thus, fibrin glue seems beneficial in the management of pilonidal disease. However, further high-quality studies are essential to support and confirm this evidence. Future research should also evaluate its cost and implications in the ambulatory service.