Effectiveness of closed blood sampling systems in intensive care patients: a scoping review
Enfermeria intensiva. 2023
BACKGROUND Anemia associated with blood extraction for diagnostic purposes is a highly prevalent entity in intensive care units (ICU) for adults. The evidence recommends its prevention through different strategies, among which we can find the use of closed blood sampling systems (CBSS). Different experimental studies support the use of these devices. OBJECTIVE To identify knowledge gaps regarding the effectiveness of CBSS in ICU patients. METHODS Scoping review with search in PubMed, CINAHL, Embase, Cochrane Library and Joanna Briggs Institute databases, between September-2021 and September-2022. No time, language, or other limits were applied to ensure the recovery of all relevant studies. Gray literature sources: DART-Europe, OpenGrey and Google Scholar. Two researchers independently reviewed titles and abstracts and assessed full texts against the inclusion criteria. The following data was extracted for each study: design and sample, inclusion and exclusion criteria, variables, type of CBSS, results and conclusions. RESULTS 18 articles were included in the final review, 11 clinical trials (RCTs) published between 1992 and 2014. Three systematic reviews were found, but they only analyzed the effect of CBSS in reducing blood loss, hemoglobin stabilization, and the need for transfusion. Five of the RCTs analyzed the risk of infection, one catheter complications, and two alterations in blood pressure readings. CONCLUSIONS The use of CBSS is recommended to reduce blood loss in ICUs. However, there are discrepancies about their ability to prevent anemia and/or the need for blood transfusion. Its use does not increase catheter-related infection rates or alter the measurement of mean arterial pressure.
Role of single-dose intravenous iron therapy for the treatment of anaemia after orthopaedic trauma: protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial
BMJ open. 2023;13(3):e069070
INTRODUCTION Orthopaedic trauma and fracture care commonly cause perioperative anaemia and associated functional iron deficiency due to a systemic inflammatory state. Modern, strict transfusion thresholds leave many patients anaemic; managing this perioperative anaemia is an opportunity to impact outcomes in orthopaedic trauma surgery. The primary outcome of this pilot study is feasibility for a large randomised controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate intravenous iron therapy (IVIT) to improve patient well-being following orthopaedic injury. Measurements will include rate of participant enrolment, screening failure, follow-up, missing data, adverse events and protocol deviation. METHODS AND ANALYSIS This single-centre, pilot, double-blind RCT investigates the use of IVIT for acute blood loss anaemia in traumatically injured orthopaedic patients. Patients are randomised to receive either a single dose infusion of low-molecular weight iron dextran (1000 mg) or placebo (normal saline) postoperatively during their hospital stay for trauma management. Eligible subjects include adult patients admitted for lower extremity or pelvis operative fracture care with a haemoglobin of 7-11 g/dL within 7 days postoperatively during inpatient care. Exclusion criteria include history of intolerance to intravenous iron supplementation, active haemorrhage requiring ongoing blood product resuscitation, multiple planned procedures, pre-existing haematologic disorders or chronic inflammatory states, iron overload on screening or vulnerable populations. We follow patients for 3 months to measure the effect of iron supplementation on clinical outcomes (resolution of anaemia and functional iron deficiency), patient-reported outcomes (fatigue, physical function, depression and quality of life) and translational measures of immune cell function. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION This study has ethics approval (Oregon Health & Science University Institutional Review Board, STUDY00022441). We will disseminate the findings through peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER NCT05292001; ClinicalTrials.gov.
Effect of Early Erythropoietin on Retinopathy of Prematurity: A Stratified Meta-Analysis
BACKGROUND Recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) lost its role in minimizing red blood cell transfusion in very preterm infants after it had been associated with severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Previous systematic reviews did not stratify ROP by gestation and birth weight (BW). OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of early prophylactic rhEPO on ROP in a stratified meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). METHODS The databases EMBASE, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched in January 2022 and complemented by citation searching. RCTs comparing early rhEPO treatment with no treatment or placebo were selected if they were published in a peer-reviewed journal and reported ROP outcomes. Previously unpublished data were requested from the study authors to allow stratified analyses by gestational age (GA) and BW. Data were extracted and analyzed using the standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. Pre-specified outcomes were "ROP stage ≥3" (primary outcome) and "any ROP." RESULTS Fourteen RCTs, comprising 2,040 infants of <29 weeks of GA, were included for meta-analysis. Data syntheses showed no effects of rhEPO on ROP stage ≥3 or on any ROP, neither in infants of <29 weeks GA, nor in infants of <1,000 g BW, nor in any GA strata. The risk ratio (95% confidence interval) for ROP stage ≥3 in infants of <29 weeks of GA was 1.13 (0.84, 1.53), p = 0.41 (quality of evidence: moderate). CONCLUSIONS The present meta-analysis detected no effects of early rhEPO on ROP in any comparison, but most stratified analyses were limited by low statistical power.
Infants of <29 weeks of gestational age (GA), (14 randomised controlled trials, n= 2,040).
Early recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO).
No treatment or placebo.
Data syntheses showed no effects of rhEPO on retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) stage ≥3 or on any ROP, neither in infants of <29 weeks GA, nor in infants of <1,000 g birth weight, nor in any GA strata. The risk ratio for ROP stage ≥3 in infants of <29 weeks of GA was 1.13; 95% confidence interval [0.84, 1.53], (quality of evidence: moderate).
Erythropoietin to treat anaemia in critical care patients: a multicentre feasibility study
Anaemia is common and associated with poor outcomes during and after critical illness. The use of erythropoietin to treat such anaemia is controversial with older studies showing mixed results. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the feasibility of performing a large multicentre randomised controlled trial of erythropoietin in this setting. We randomly allocated patients staying in the ICU for ≥ 72 h with haemoglobin ≤ 120 g.l(-1) to either a weekly injection of erythropoietin (40,000 iu, maximum of five injections) or placebo (saline). The primary endpoint was feasibility (as measured by recruitment, randomisation and follow-up rates, and protocol compliance). Secondary endpoints included biological efficacy and clinical outcomes. Forty-two participants were recruited and randomly allocated, all participants received the allocated intervention, but one withdrew their consent and refused the use of their data, leaving 20 in the erythropoietin group and 21 in placebo group. Follow-up was completed for all patients who survived. The overall recruitment rate was 73.7% with 8.4 participants recruited on average per month. The last haemoglobin measured before hospital discharge (or death) was similar between the groups with a mean (SD) haemoglobin of 107 (21) vs. 95 (25) g.l(-1) , mean difference (95%CI) 11 (-4-26), g.l(-1) , p = 0.154. A large, multicentre randomised controlled trial of erythropoietin to treat anaemia in ICU patients is feasible and necessary to determine effects of erythropoietin on mortality in ICU anaemic patients.
Early erythropoietin for preventing necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm neonates - an updated meta-analysis
European Journal of Pediatrics. 2022;181(5):1821-1833
Previous systematic reviews suggest reduction in necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) among preterm infants supplemented with erythropoietin (EPO). We aimed to update our 2018 systematic review in this field considering the evidence accumulated over the last 3 years. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reporting the effect of early EPO supplementation vs placebo/no EPO supplementation on any stage NEC in preterm infants were included. Fixed effect model was used for meta-analysis. Trial sequential analysis (TSA) was conducted to verify the effects of EPO on NEC after accounting for repeated significance testing. A total of 22 RCTs (n = 5359) were included, of which six were new (n = 2541 additional preterm infants) in comparison to our previous systematic review. EPO significantly decreased the risk of any stage NEC (232/2669 (8.7%) vs 313/2690 (11.6%); RR: 0·76; TSA adjusted 95% CI (0·64, 0·90); p = 0·0008, number needed to treat (NNT) = 34). The risk of definite NEC (≥ Stage II) was also significantly reduced by EPO administration (105/2219 (4.7%) vs 141/2246 (6.3%); RR: 0.77; 95% CI (0.61, 0.98); p = 0.03, NNT: 62). However, the results for definite NEC were no longer significant on sensitivity analyses that included (a) only double-blind RCTs and (b) only prospectively registered trials. The quality of evidence was deemed moderate-to-low for the reported outcomes. CONCLUSION There is moderate to low-quality evidence that early prophylactic EPO reduces any stage and ≥ Stage II NEC in preterm neonates. Prospectively registered, adequately powered, double-blind RCTs are required to confirm these findings. WHAT IS KNOWN • Experimental studies have shown that erythropoietin (EPO) has gastrointestinal trophic effects. • Systematic reviews have shown that early treatment with EPO may decrease the risk of gut injury in preterm or low birth weight infants. WHAT IS NEW • Early EPO supplementation significantly reduced the incidence of any stage NEC and definite NEC in preterm infants < 34 weeks of gestation. • EPO had no significant effect on definite NEC in the analyses that included only double-blinded and prospectively registered RCTs. How might it impact clinical practice in the foreseeable future? • Early prophylactic EPO can be recommended for NEC prevention if its benefits are consistently demonstrated in adequately powered randomized trials with a low risk of bias.
Management strategies for perioperative anaemia in the severely burn-injured Jehovah's Witness patients who decline a blood transfusion: A systematic review with illustrative case reports
Burns: journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries. 2022
BACKGROUND The management of severe burn-injured Jehovah's Witness patients who decline a blood transfusion poses unique challenges. The literature is scant for guiding perioperative anaemia management in these patients. We present a systematic review of this patient group, along with illustrative, consecutive case reports of our experience. METHODS A systematic review was performed on Embase, MEDLINE and PubMed databases on articles discussing the treatment of burn-injured Jehovah's Witness patients. Articles were excluded if discussing isolated inhalation injury, or if blood transfusions were permitted. RESULTS Nine articles including a total of 11 patients revealed consistent themes. A multimodal medical and surgical approach is suggested. Medical strategies are directed at reducing blood loss and optimising haematopoiesis and include rationalising blood collection, reversing coagulopathy, administering tranexamic acid and regular erythropoietin. Surgical strategies include staged aggressive debridement, tumescent adrenaline infiltration and limb tourniquets. We found that the argon beam coagulator was an effective haemostatic adjunct not previously described in literature. DISCUSSION Management of anaemia in severely burn-injured Jehovah's Witness patients is challenging. This systematic review presents a summary of strategies directed at minimising blood loss, and optimising haematopoiesis. Careful preoperative planning, meticulous surgical technique, and postoperative physiological support are caveats to success.
Iron supplementation and the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in extremely low gestational age newborns
Pediatric research. 2022
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between iron exposure and the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). METHODS A secondary analysis of the PENUT Trial dataset was conducted. The primary outcome was BPD at 36 weeks gestational age and primary exposures of interest were cumulative iron exposures in the first 28 days and through 36 weeks' gestation. Descriptive statistics were calculated for study cohort characteristics with analysis adjusted for the factors used to stratify randomization. RESULTS Of the 941 patients, 821 (87.2%) survived to BPD evaluation at 36 weeks, with 332 (40.4%) diagnosed with BPD. The median cohort gestational age was 26 weeks and birth weight 810 g. In the first 28 days, 76% of infants received enteral iron and 55% parenteral iron. The median supplemental cumulative enteral and parenteral iron intakes at 28 days were 58.5 and 3.1 mg/kg, respectively, and through 36 weeks' 235.8 and 3.56 mg/kg, respectively. We found lower volume of red blood cell transfusions in the first 28 days after birth and higher enteral iron exposure in the first 28 days after birth to be associated with lower rates of BPD. CONCLUSIONS We find no support for an increased risk of BPD with iron supplementation. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER NCT01378273. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01378273 IMPACT Prior studies and biologic plausibility raise the possibility that iron administration could contribute to the pathophysiology of oxidant-induced lung injury and thus bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm infants. For 24-27-week premature infants, this study finds no association between total cumulative enteral iron supplementation at either 28-day or 36-week postmenstrual age and the risk for developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia.
Prophylactic Erythropoietin for Neuroprotection in Very Preterm Infants: A Meta-Analysis Update
Frontiers in pediatrics. 2021;9:657228
A meta-analysis update of randomized controlled trials investigating recombinant human erythropoietin suggests improved neurodevelopmental outcome in preterm infants. There was substantial heterogeneity, which could be ascribed to a single trial. Exclusion of this trial featuring a high risk of bias abolished heterogeneity and any effects of recombinant human erythropoietin treatment.
Erythropoietin Improves Poor Outcomes in Preterm Infants with Intraventricular Hemorrhage
CNS drugs. 2021
BACKGROUND Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is a common complication in preterm infants that has poor outcomes, especially in severe cases, and there are currently no widely accepted effective treatments. Erythropoietin has been shown to be neuroprotective in neonatal brain injury. OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of repeated low-dose recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) in preterm infants with IVH. METHODS This was a single-blinded prospective randomized controlled trial. Preterm infants ≤ 32 weeks gestational age who were diagnosed with IVH within 72 h after birth were randomized to receive rhEPO 500 IU/kg or placebo (equivalent volume of saline) every other day for 2 weeks. The primary outcome was death or neurological disability assessed at 18 months of corrected age. RESULTS A total of 316 eligible infants were included in the study, with 157 in the rhEPO group and 159 in the placebo group. Although no significant differences in mortality (p = 0.176) or incidence of neurological disability (p = 0.055) separately at 18 months of corrected age were seen between the rhEPO and placebo groups, significantly fewer infants had poor outcomes (death and neurological disability) in the rhEPO group: 14.9 vs. 26.4%; odds ratio (OR) 0.398; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.199-0.796; p = 0.009. In addition, the incidence of Mental Development Index scores of < 70 was lower in the rhEPO group than in the placebo group: 7.2 vs. 15.3%; OR 0.326; 95% CI 0.122-0.875; p = 0.026. CONCLUSIONS Treatment with repeated low-dose rhEPO improved outcomes in preterm infants with IVH. TRIAL REGISTRATION The study was retrospectively registered on ClinicalTrials.gov on 16 April 2019 (NCT03914690).
The effects of monotherapy with erythropoietin in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy on neurobehavioral development: a systematic review and meta-analysis
European review for medical and pharmacological sciences. 2021;25(5):2318-2326
OBJECTIVE Previous systematic review has shown the safety and efficiency of EPO (erythropoietin) for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). To date, the evidence is limited that EPO is beneficial to therapeutic hypothermia as an adjuvant. There has not a brief discussion about the neuroprotection effects of EPO without hypothermia. To evaluate the long-term prognosis of HIE treated with EPO alone, we carried out this study that can be a supplement to the previous meta-analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS 7 databases (including PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, CKNI, CBM, WanFang, and VIP) and the ClinicalTrials.gov were retrieved from inception to 1 March 2020. The inclusion criteria were RCTs with EPO treatment without hypothermia. The outcomes were tested by using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID), including the Bayley Mental Development Index Score (MDI) and the Bayley Psychomotor Development Index Score (PDI). This meta-analysis was done to compare the Risk Ratio (RR) for the scores of BSID less than 70 after over 6 months of follow-up. RESULTS 11 RCTs (1099 newborns) were included, excluding deaths and lost visits, and 917 patients finally were performed the statistical analysis. In neonatal HIE infants, investigation results showed a lower risk of cognitive impairment and psychomotor disability with EPO monotherapy. The pooled event rates of MDI <70 saw a reduction of 36% (95% CI 24%-54%) compared to the control group. There was a decrease of 37% (95% CI 24%-56%) of Psychomotor abnormal (PDI <70) in the EPO group. CONCLUSIONS EPO administration alone could improve the scores of mental and psychomotor in neonates with HIE. However, the level of evidence is low to moderate for the insufficient sample size, so large-scale, multicenter clinical trials are still needed.