Treatment satisfaction with molidustat in CKD-related anemia in non-dialysis patients: a post-hoc analysis of two clinical trials
Yamamoto H, Yamada T, Miyazaki K, Yamashita T, Kato T, Ohara K, Nakamura Y, Akizawa T
Clinical and experimental nephrology. 2023
BACKGROUND Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) are the standard treatment for patients with renal anemia to increase hemoglobin (Hb) levels and reduce the need for blood transfusions. However, treatments targeting high Hb levels require high doses of ESAs administered intravenously, which is associated with an elevated risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Furthermore, there have been some problems such as hemoglobin variability and low achievement of target hemoglobin due to the shorter half-lives of ESAs. Consequently, erythropoietin-promoting medications, such as hypoxia-inducible factor-prolyl hydroxylase (HIF-PH) inhibitors, have been developed. This study aimed to evaluate changes in the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medicine version II (TSQM-II) domain scores relative to baseline in each trial, to assess patient satisfaction with molidustat versus darbepoetin alfa. METHODS This post-hoc analysis of two clinical trials compared treatment satisfaction with an HIF-PH inhibitor, molidustat, versus a standard ESA, darbepoetin alfa, as part of therapy in patients with non-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) and renal anemia. RESULTS Exploratory outcome data using the TSQM-II showed that both arms in both trials had enhanced treatment satisfaction over the course of the study period, as well as improvements in most TSQM-II domains at week 24 of treatment. Molidustat was associated with convenience domain scores at multiple time points depending on the trial. More patients were highly satisfied with the convenience of molidustat than that of darbepoetin alfa. Patients treated with molidustat had increased global satisfaction domain scores compared with those treated with darbepoetin alfa; however, the differences in global satisfaction domain scores were not significant. CONCLUSION These patient-reported satisfaction outcomes support the use of molidustat as a patient-centered treatment option for CKD-related anemia. REGISTRATION OF CLINICAL TRIALS ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03350321 (November 22, 2017). CLINICALTRIALS gov Identifier: NCT03350347 (November 22, 2017).
Intravenous ferric carboxymaltose versus oral ferrous sulfate replacement in elderly patients after acute non-variceal gastrointestinal bleeding (FIERCE): protocol of a multicentre, open-label, randomised controlled trial
Teutsch, B., Váncsa, S., Farkas, N., Szakács, Z., Vörhendi, N., Boros, E., Szabó, I., Hágendorn, R., Alizadeh, H., Hegyi, P., et al
BMJ open. 2023;13(3):e063554
INTRODUCTION Acute gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) is a life-threatening emergency with a critical economic burden. As a result of bleeding, anaemia often requires intravenous or oral iron supplementation. Elderly patients are even more prone to untoward outcomes after hospital discharge if iron supplementation is inefficient. There is a gap in current guidelines on which supplementation route clinicians should choose. We aim to investigate the effect of one dose of intravenous iron therapy versus 3-month oral iron administration on anaemia in an elderly population. METHODS AND ANALYSIS The FIERCE study is an open-label, randomised controlled, two-armed trial. At least 48 hours after the acute non-variceal GIB treatment, patients will be recruited in participating centres. A random sequence generator will allocate the participants to group A (intravenous ferric carboxymaltose, 1000 mg) or group B (oral ferrous sulfate (FS), ca. 200 mg every day) with an allocation ratio of 1:1 on the day of the planned discharge from the hospital. Randomisation will be stratified for participating centres and the need for transfusion within the same hospitalisation before recruitment to the trial. Quality of life assessment, functional measurement and laboratory tests will be performed at baseline, 1 and 3 months±7 days after enrolment to the trial. The primary endpoint is a composite endpoint, including all-cause mortality, anaemia-associated unplanned emergency visit and anaemia-associated unplanned hospital admission within 3 months of enrolment in the trial. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION The study has been approved by the relevant organisation, the Scientific and Research Ethics Committee of the Hungarian Medical Research Council (46395-5/2021/EÜIG). We will disseminate our results to the medical community and will publish our results in peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION The trial has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT05060731).
Comparative Study of Recombinant Human Erythropoietin (rhEPO) Products on CKD (Chronic Kidney Disease) Patients
Dwitanto K, Angginy N, Sutandar W
Drug research. 2023
PURPOSE This study was conducted to evaluate whether the efficacy and safety profile of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) manufactured by Daewoong Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd was similar to biological products approved by the drug safety regulatory authority. PATIENTS AND METHODS It was an open-label, randomized, comparative, parallel, multi-center study in hemodialysis patients with anemia. The reference product at an individualized dose 3 times a week was given in 4-8 weeks of titration period and hemoglobin (Hb) level was controlled to reach the range of 10-12 g/dL. Then, the subjects were randomly administered with reference or test product with the same dose regimen. The primary endpoints were to demonstrate the Hb level change between baseline and evaluation period in both treatment groups, while the secondary endpoints were the mean change in weekly dosage per kg body weight and the instability rate of Hb level during maintenance and evaluation period. The safety was evaluated based on the adverse events incidence. RESULTS There was no statistical difference in the change of Hb between test and reference (0.14 g/dL and 0.75 g/dL respectively, with p>0.05), also for the mean changes of weekly dosage between groups (1091.40 IU and 570.15 IU respectively, with p>0.05). The instability rate of Hb in both test and reference was not statistically significantly different as well (26 and 15% respectively, with p>0.05). CONCLUSION This study proves that the efficacy indicated by the change instability of Hb and safety indicated by adverse event incidence of Epodion and the reference product on chronic kidney disease were similar.
Effects of Intravenous Iron Replacement Therapy on Cardiovascular Outcomes in Patients with Heart Failure: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Reinhold, J., Burra, V., Corballis, N., Tsampasian, V., Matthews, G., Papadopoulou, C., Vassiliou, V. S.
Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease. 2023;10(3)
(1) Background: Iron deficiency (ID) is an important adverse prognostic marker in patients with heart failure (HF); however, it is unclear whether intravenous iron replacement reduces cardiovascular mortality in this patient group. Here, we estimate the effect of intravenous iron replacement therapy on hard clinical outcomes following the publication of IRONMAN, the largest trial in this field. (2) Methods: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, prospectively registered with PROSPERO and reported according to PRISMA guidelines, we searched PubMed and Embase for randomized controlled trials investigating intravenous iron replacement in patients with HF and co-existing ID. The primary outcome was cardiovascular mortality and secondary outcomes were all-cause mortality, hospitalizations for HF and a combination of the primary outcome and hospitalizations for HF. (3) Results: A total of 1671 items were identified and after removal of duplicates we screened titles and abstracts of 1202 records. Some 31 studies were identified for full-text review and 12 studies were included in the final review. The odds ratio (OR) for cardiovascular death using a random effects model was 0.85 (95% CI 0.69 to 1.04) and for all-cause mortality it was 0.83 (95% CI 0.59 to 1.15). There was a significant reduction in hospitalizations for HF (OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.35 to 0.69) and the combination of hospitalizations for HF and cardiovascular death (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.5 to 0.85). (4) Conclusions: This review supports the use of IV iron replacement reducing hospitalization rates for HF, however more research is required to determine the effect on cardiovascular mortality and to identify the patient population most likely to benefit.
Safety of Roxadustat Versus Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents in Patients with Anemia of Non-dialysis-Dependent or Incident-to-Dialysis Chronic Kidney Disease: Pooled Analysis of Four Phase 3 Studies
Barratt J, Dellanna F, Portoles J, Choukroun G, De Nicola L, Young J, Dimković N, Reusch M
Advances in therapy. 2023
INTRODUCTION This study was conducted to elucidate the safety of roxadustat, an oral medication, in patients with non-dialysis-dependent (NDD) or incident dialysis dialysis-dependent (ID-DD) chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS Safety results from four phase 3, randomized, open-label studies comparing roxadustat to an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) in men and women with NDD or ID-DD CKD with anemia were pooled and evaluated. Endpoints were time to major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE; myocardial infarction, stroke, and all-cause mortality) and MACE+ (MACE plus congestive heart failure or unstable angina requiring hospitalization), all-cause mortality, and treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs). MACE and MACE+ were evaluated for non-inferiority at 1.8- and 1.3-margins using hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). TEAEs were descriptively summarized. RESULTS In total, 2142 patients were evaluated (1083 roxadustat; 1059 ESA). Roxadustat was comparable to ESA for risk of MACE (HR 0.79, 95% CI 0.61-1.02), MACE+ (HR 0.78, 95% CI 0.62-0.98), and all-cause mortality (HR 0.78, 95% CI 0.57-1.05). TEAEs were comparable between roxadustat and ESA groups, including any TEAE [incidence rate per 100 (IR/100) patient-exposure years 56.1 vs. 53.5], TEAEs leading to study drug discontinuation (IR/100 patient-exposure years 6.7 vs. 5.1), and TEAEs leading to death (IR/100 patient-exposure years 6.9 vs. 7.4). CONCLUSION There was no evidence of increased risk of cardiovascular events or mortality with roxadustat compared with ESA in patients with anemia who have NDD or ID-DD CKD. Although TEAEs occurred commonly in both the roxadustat and ESA groups, patients infrequently discontinued the study drug because of an adverse event. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBERS DOLOMITES, 1517-CL-0610 [NCT02021318]; HIMALAYAS, FGCL-4592-063 [NCT02052310]; SIERRAS, FGCL-4592-064 [NCT02273726]; and ROCKIES, D5740C00002 [NCT02174731].
Economic evaluation of ferric carboxymaltose compared with placebo in iron-deficient patients with heart failure: a systematic review
Rezapour A, Souresrafil A, Shamsaei M, Barzegar M, Tashakori-Miyanroudi M, Ketabchi E
International journal of clinical pharmacy. 2023
BACKGROUND It has been shown that ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) improves symptoms and quality of life in iron-deficient patients with heart failure (HF). AIM: We aimed to systematically review studies conducted on the cost-effectiveness of FCM compared to placebo in iron-deficient patients with HF. METHOD We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, and Web of Science to find the relevant studies. After removing duplicates, two authors independently evaluated the titles, abstracts, and full texts. We included studies that investigated the full economic evaluations of FCM in HF patients with iron deficiency (cost-effectiveness analysis, cost-utility analysis, and cost-benefit analysis) and used the CHEERS tool to evaluate the quality of the studies. RESULTS Seven studies were included which evaluated the economic analysis of treatments with FCM in iron-deficient patients with HF. The CHEERS scores for most of the studies (n = 6) were 0.77 or higher (very good quality). The lowest incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) per quality-adjusted life years (QALY) of FCM ($1801.96) was from Italy, and the highest ICER per QALY of FCM ($25,981.28) South Korea. Results of the studies showed that FCM, compared to placebo, was cost-effective in iron-deficient patients with HF. CONCLUSION FCM is a cost-effective treatment for iron-deficient patients with HF. Considering the fact that all the included studies in the present systematic review took place in high-income countries, we recommend further studies investigating the cost-effectiveness of FCM in low- and middle-income countries.
Iron-deficient patients with heart failure (HF), (7 studies).
Ferric carboxymaltose (FCM).
The included studies investigated cost-effectiveness analysis, cost-utility analysis, and cost-benefit analysis, and used the CHEERS tool to evaluate the quality of the studies. The CHEERS scores for most of the studies (n = 6) were 0.77 or higher (very good quality). The lowest incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) per quality-adjusted life years (QALY) of FCM ($1,801.96) was from Italy, and the highest ICER per QALY of FCM ($25,981.28) South Korea. Results of the studies showed that FCM, compared to placebo, was cost-effective in iron-deficient patients with HF.
Efficacy and safety of intravenous iron repletion in patients with heart failure: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Vukadinović D, Abdin A, Emrich I, Schulze PC, von Haehling S, Böhm M
Clinical research in cardiology : official journal of the German Cardiac Society. 2023;:1-13
INTRODUCTION AFFIRM-AHF and IRONMAN demonstrated lower rates of the combined endpoint recurrent heart failure (HF) hospitalizations and cardiovascular death (CVD) using intravenous (IV) ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) and ferric derisomaltose (FDI), respectively in patients with HF and iron deficiency (ID) utilizing prespecified COVID-19 analyses. MATERIAL AND METHODS We meta-analyzed efficacy, between trial heterogeneity and data robustness for the primary endpoint and CVD in AFFIRM-AHF and IRONMAN. As sensitivity analysis, we analyzed data from all eligible exploratory trials investigating FCM/FDI in HF. RESULTS FCM/FDI reduced the primary endpoint (RR = 0.81, 95% CI 0.69-0.95, p = 0.01, I(2) = 0%), with the number needed to treat (NNT) being 7. Power was 73% and findings were robust with fragility index (FI) of 94 and fragility quotient (FQ) of 0.041. Effects of FCM/FDI were neutral concerning CVD (OR = 0.88, 95% CI 0.71-1.09, p = 0.24, I(2) = 0%). Power was 21% while findings were fragile with reverse FI of 14 and reversed FQ of 0.006. The sensitivity analysis from all eligible trials (n = 3258) confirmed positive effects of FCM/FDI on the primary endpoint (RR = 0.77, 95% CI 0.66-0.90, p = 0.0008, I(2) = 0%), with NNT being 6. Power was 91% while findings were robust (FI of 147 and FQ of 0.045). Effect on CVD was neutral (RR = 0.87, 95% CI 0.71-1.07, p = 0.18, I(2) = 0%). Power was 10% while findings were fragile (reverse FI of 7 and reverse FQ of 0.002). Rate of infections (OR = 0.85, 95% CI 0.71-1.02, p = 0.09, I(2) = 0%), vascular disorder (OR = 0.84, 95% CI 0.57-1.25, p = 0.34, I(2) = 0%) and general or injection-site related disorders (OR = 1.39, 95% CI 0.88-1.29, p = 0.16, I(2) = 30%) were comparable between groups. There was no relevant heterogeneity (I(2) > 50%) between the trials for any of the analyzed outcomes. CONCLUSIONS Use of FCM/FDI is safe and reduces the composite of recurrent HF hospitalizations and CVD, while effects on CVD alone are based on available level of data indeterminate. Findings concerning composite outcomes exhibit a high level of robustness without heterogeneity between trials with FCM and FDI.
Effects of hypoxia-inducible factor-prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors vs. erythropoiesis-stimulating agents on iron metabolism in non-dialysis-dependent anemic patients with CKD: A network meta-analysis
Yang, J., Xing, J., Zhu, X., Xie, X., Wang, L., Zhang, X.
Frontiers in Endocrinology. 2023;14:1131516
OBJECTIVE To compare the effects of five hypoxia-inducible factor-prolyl hydroxylase domain inhibitors (HIF-PHIs), two erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs), and placebo on iron metabolism in renal anemia patients with non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (NDD-CKD). METHOD Five electronic databases were searched for studies. Randomized controlled clinical trials comparing HIF-PHIs, ESAs, and placebo in NDD-CKD patients were selected. The statistical program used for network meta-analysis was Stata/SE 15.1. The main outcomes were the change in hepcidin and hemoglobin (Hb) levels. The merits of intervention measures were predicted by the surface under the cumulative ranking curve method. RESULTS Of 1,589 original titles screened, data were extracted from 15 trials (3,228 participants). All HIF-PHIs and ESAs showed greater Hb level-raising ability than placebo. Among them, desidustat demonstrated the highest probability of increasing Hb (95.6%). Hepcidin [mean deviation (MD) = -43.42, 95%CI: -47.08 to -39.76], ferritin (MD= -48.56, 95%CI: -55.21 to -41.96), and transferrin saturation (MD = -4.73, 95%CI: -5.52 to -3.94) were decreased, while transferrin (MD = 0.09, 95%CI: 0.01 to 0.18) and total iron-binding capacity (MD = 6.34, 95%CI: 5.71 to 6.96) was increased in HIF-PHIs versus those in ESAs. In addition, this study observed heterogeneity in the ability of HIF-PHIs to decrease hepcidin. Compared with darbepoetin, only daprodustat (MD = -49.09, 95% CI: -98.13 to -0.05) could significantly reduce hepcidin levels. Meanwhile, daprodustat also showed the highest hepcidin-lowering efficacy (84.0%), while placebo was the lowest (8.2%). CONCLUSION For NDD-CKD patients, HIF-PHIs could ameliorate functional iron deficiency by promoting iron transport and utilization, which may be achieved by decreasing hepcidin levels. Interestingly, HIF-PHIs had heterogeneous effects on iron metabolism. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?RecordID=242777, Identifier CRD42021242777.
Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents for anaemia in adults with chronic kidney disease: a network meta-analysis
Chung, E. Y., Palmer, S. C., Saglimbene, V. M., Craig, J. C., Tonelli, M., Strippoli, G. F.
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2023;2(2):Cd010590
BACKGROUND Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) are commonly used to treat anaemia in people with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, their use has been associated with cardiovascular events. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2014. OBJECTIVES To compare the efficacy and safety of ESAs (epoetin alfa, epoetin beta, darbepoetin alfa, methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta, and biosimilar ESAs against each other, placebo, or no treatment) to treat anaemia in adults with CKD. SEARCH METHODS In this update, we searched the Cochrane Kidney and Transplant Register of Studies up to 29 April 2022 through contact with the Information Specialist using search terms relevant to this review. Studies in the Register are identified through searches of CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and EMBASE, conference proceedings, the International Clinical Trials Register (ICTRP) Search Portal and ClinicalTrials.gov. SELECTION CRITERIA Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that included a comparison of an ESA (epoetin alfa, epoetin beta, darbepoetin alfa, methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta, a biosimilar epoetin or a biosimilar darbepoetin alfa) with another ESA, placebo or no treatment in adults with CKD were considered for inclusion. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Two independent authors screened the search results and extracted data. Data synthesis was performed using random-effects pairwise meta-analysis (expressed as odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI)) and network meta-analysis. We assessed for heterogeneity and inconsistency within meta-analyses using standard techniques and planned subgroup and meta-regression to explore sources of heterogeneity or inconsistency. We assessed certainty in treatment estimates for the primary outcomes (preventing blood transfusions and death (any cause)) using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. MAIN RESULTS Sixty-two new studies (9237 participants) were included in this update, so the review now includes 117 studies with 25,237 participants. Most studies were at high or unclear risk of bias in most methodological domains. Overall, results remain similar in this update compared to our previous review in 2014. For preventing blood transfusion, epoetin alfa (OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.61; low certainty evidence) and epoetin beta (OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.47; low certainty evidence) may be superior to placebo, and darbepoetin alfa was probably superior to placebo (OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.67; moderate certainty evidence). Methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta (OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.11 to 1.02; very low certainty evidence), a biosimilar epoetin (OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.11 to 1.03; very low certainty evidence) and a biosimilar darbepoetin alfa (OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.07 to 1.91; very low certainty evidence) had uncertain effects on preventing blood transfusion compared to placebo. The comparative effects of ESAs compared with another ESA on preventing blood transfusions were uncertain, in low to very low certainty evidence. Effects on death (any cause) were uncertain for epoetin alfa (OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.51 to 1.22; low certainty evidence), epoetin beta (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.40 to 1.20; low certainty evidence), methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta (OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.67 to 1.71; very low certainty evidence), a biosimilar epoetin (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.47 to 1.36; low certainty evidence) and a biosimilar darbepoetin alfa (OR 1.63, 95% CI 0.51 to 5.23; very low certainty evidence) compared to placebo. There was probably no difference between darbepoetin alfa and placebo on the odds of death (any cause) (OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.81 to 1.21; moderate certainty evidence). The comparative effects of ESAs compared with another ESA on death (any cause) were uncertain in low to very low certainty evidence. Epoetin beta probably increased the odds of hypertension when compared to placebo (OR 2.17, 95% CI 1.17 to 4.00; moderate certainty evidence). Compared to placebo, epoetin alfa (OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.22 to 3.59; very low certainty evidence), darbepoetin alfa (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.12 to 3.14; low certainty evidence) and methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta (OR 1.98, 95% CI 1.05 to 3.74; low certainty evidence) may increase the odds of hypertension, but a biosimilar epoetin (OR 1.88, 95% CI 0.96 to 3.67; low certainty evidence) and biosimilar darbepoetin alfa (OR 1.98, 95% CI 0.84 to 4.66; low certainty evidence) had uncertain effects on hypertension. The comparative effects of all ESAs compared with another ESA, placebo or no treatment on cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, vascular access thrombosis, kidney failure, and breathlessness were uncertain. Network analysis for fatigue was not possible due to sparse data. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS The comparative effects of different ESAs on blood transfusions, death (any cause and cardiovascular), major cardiovascular events, myocardial infarction, stroke, vascular access thrombosis, kidney failure, fatigue and breathlessness were uncertain.
Vadadustat for treatment of anemia in patients with dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease receiving peritoneal dialysis
Sarnak MJ, Agarwal R, Boudville N, Chowdhury PCP, Eckardt KU, Gonzalez CR, Kooienga LA, Koury MJ, Ntoso KA, Luo W, et al
Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association. 2023
BACKGROUND Hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors such as vadadustat may provide an oral alternative to injectable erythropoiesis-stimulating agents for treating anemia in patients receiving peritoneal dialysis. In two randomized (1:1), global, phase 3, open-label, sponsor-blind, parallel-group, active-controlled noninferiority trials in patients with dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (INNO2VATE), vadadustat was noninferior to darbepoetin alfa with respect to cardiovascular safety and hematological efficacy. Vadadustat's effects in patients receiving only peritoneal dialysis is unclear. METHODS We conducted a post hoc analysis of patients in the INNO2VATE trials receiving peritoneal dialysis at baseline. The prespecified primary safety endpoint was time to first major cardiovascular event (MACE; defined as all-cause mortality or nonfatal myocardial infarction or stroke). The primary efficacy endpoint was mean change in hemoglobin from baseline to the primary efficacy period (weeks 24-36). RESULTS Of the 3923 patients randomized in the two INNO2VATE trials, 309 were receiving peritoneal dialysis (vadadustat, n = 152; darbepoetin alfa, n = 157) at baseline. Time to first MACE was similar in the vadadustat and darbepoetin alfa groups (hazard ratio 1.10; 95% CI 0.62, 1.93). In patients receiving peritoneal dialysis, the difference in mean change in hemoglobin concentrations was -0.10 g/dL (95% CI -0.33, 0.12) in the primary efficacy period. The incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) was 88.2% versus 95.5%, and serious TEAEs was 52.6% versus 73.2% in the vadadustat and darbepoetin alfa groups, respectively. CONCLUSIONS In the subgroup of patients receiving peritoneal dialysis in the phase 3 INNO2VATE trials, safety and efficacy of vadadustat were similar to darbepoetin alfa.