Impact of Intravenous Iron Substitution on Serum Phosphate Levels and Bone Turnover Markers-An Open-Label Pilot Study
The association between intravenous iron substitution therapy and hypophosphatemia was previously reported in patients with iron deficiency anemia. However, the extent of hypophosphatemia is thought to depend on the type of iron supplementation. We hypothesized that the intravenous application of ferric carboxymaltose and iron sucrose leads to a different longitudinal adaptation in serum phosphate levels. In this open-label pilot study, a total of 20 patients with inflammatory bowel diseases or iron deficiency anemia were randomly assigned to one of two study groups (group 1: ferric carboxymaltose, n = 10; group 2: iron sucrose, n = 10). Serum values were controlled before iron substitution therapy, as well as 2, 4, and 12 weeks after the last drug administration. The primary objective of the study was the longitudinal evaluation of serum phosphate levels after iron substitution therapy with ferric carboxymaltose and iron sucrose. The secondary objective was the longitudinal investigation of calcium, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), intact parathyroid hormone, procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP), beta-CrossLaps (CTX), hemoglobin (Hb), iron, ferritin, and transferrin saturation levels. Two weeks after drug administration, phosphate levels were significantly lower (p < 0.001) in group 1 and ferritin levels were significantly higher (p < 0.001) in group 1. Phosphate levels (0.8-1.45 mmol/L) were below the therapeutic threshold and ferritin levels (10-200 ng/mL for women and 30-300 ng/mL for men) were above the therapeutic threshold in group 1. P1NP (15-59 µg/L) and CTX (<0.57 ng/mL) levels were above the therapeutic threshold in group 2. Four weeks after drug administration, significant differences were still observed between both study groups for phosphate (p = 0.043) and ferritin (p = 0.0009). All serum values except for Hb were within the therapeutic thresholds. Twelve weeks after drug administration, no differences were observed in all serum values between both study groups. Hb values were within the therapeutic threshold in both study groups. Serum 25(OH)D levels did not differ between both study groups throughout the whole study period and remained within the therapeutic threshold.
Intravenous ferric carboxymaltose versus oral ferrous sulfate replacement in elderly patients after acute non-variceal gastrointestinal bleeding (FIERCE): protocol of a multicentre, open-label, randomised controlled trial
BMJ open. 2023;13(3):e063554
INTRODUCTION Acute gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) is a life-threatening emergency with a critical economic burden. As a result of bleeding, anaemia often requires intravenous or oral iron supplementation. Elderly patients are even more prone to untoward outcomes after hospital discharge if iron supplementation is inefficient. There is a gap in current guidelines on which supplementation route clinicians should choose. We aim to investigate the effect of one dose of intravenous iron therapy versus 3-month oral iron administration on anaemia in an elderly population. METHODS AND ANALYSIS The FIERCE study is an open-label, randomised controlled, two-armed trial. At least 48 hours after the acute non-variceal GIB treatment, patients will be recruited in participating centres. A random sequence generator will allocate the participants to group A (intravenous ferric carboxymaltose, 1000 mg) or group B (oral ferrous sulfate (FS), ca. 200 mg every day) with an allocation ratio of 1:1 on the day of the planned discharge from the hospital. Randomisation will be stratified for participating centres and the need for transfusion within the same hospitalisation before recruitment to the trial. Quality of life assessment, functional measurement and laboratory tests will be performed at baseline, 1 and 3 months±7 days after enrolment to the trial. The primary endpoint is a composite endpoint, including all-cause mortality, anaemia-associated unplanned emergency visit and anaemia-associated unplanned hospital admission within 3 months of enrolment in the trial. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION The study has been approved by the relevant organisation, the Scientific and Research Ethics Committee of the Hungarian Medical Research Council (46395-5/2021/EÜIG). We will disseminate our results to the medical community and will publish our results in peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION The trial has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT05060731).
Safety Endpoints With Vadadustat Versus Darbepoetin Alfa in Patients With Non-Dialysis-Dependent CKD: A Post Hoc Regional Analysis of the PRO(2)TECT Randomized Clinical Trial of ESA-Naïve Patients
Kidney medicine. 2023;5(7):100666
RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE Prespecified analyses of the PRO(2)TECT trials comparing the safety of the oral hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor vadadustat with darbepoetin alfa in patients with non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (NDD-CKD) found no difference in major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE; death from any cause or nonfatal myocardial infarction or stroke) among US patients and a higher risk among patients treated with vadadustat outside the United States. We investigated regional differences in MACE in the PRO(2)TECT trial that enrolled 1,751 patients previously untreated with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents. STUDY DESIGN Phase 3, global, open-label, randomized, active-controlled clinical trial. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS Erythropoiesis-stimulating agent-untreated patients with anemia and NDD-CKD. INTERVENTION Eligible patients were randomized 1:1 to receive vadadustat or darbepoetin alfa. OUTCOMES The primary safety end point was time to first MACE. Secondary safety end points included time to first expanded MACE (MACE plus hospitalization for heart failure or thromboembolic event, excluding vascular access thrombosis). RESULTS In the non-US/non-Europe region, there was a higher proportion of patients with baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) level of ≤10 mL/min/1.73 m(2) in the vadadustat group [96 (34.7%)] than in the darbepoetin alfa group [66 (24.0%)]. In this region, there were 21 excess MACEs reported in the vadadustat group [78 events (n=276)] versus the darbepoetin alfa [57 events (n=275)], including 13 excess noncardiovascular deaths, largely from kidney failure. Noncardiovascular deaths were concentrated in Brazil and South Africa, which enrolled higher proportions of patients with an eGFR of ≤10 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and who may not have had access to dialysis. LIMITATIONS Different regional treatment patterns of patients with NDD-CKD. CONCLUSIONS The higher MACE rate in the non-US/non-Europe vadadustat group may have been partly because of imbalances in the baseline eGFR level in countries where dialysis was not uniformly available resulting in many kidney-related deaths.
Methodology and Baseline Data of a Comparative Exploratory Double-Blinded Randomized Study of Intravenous Iron on Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 and Phosphate in Chronic Kidney Disease
Kidney & blood pressure research. 2023;48(1):151-164
Modern intravenous iron compounds (e.g., ferric carboxymaltose [FCM] and ferric derisomaltose [FDI]) are utilized in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia in non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (ND-CKD). Product-specific alterations in the metabolism of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) leading to hypophosphatemia have been described for certain intravenous iron compounds, such as FCM, with potential effects on bone and cardiovascular health and quality of life. No prior head-to-head comparison between FCM and FDI exists in ND-CKD. This single-center exploratory double-blind randomized controlled trial primarily aimed to investigate the differential impact of FCM and FDI on FGF-23 and phosphate in patients with iron deficiency +/- anemia and ND-CKD (stages 3a-5 - serum ferritin <200 Î¼g/L or serum ferritin 200-299 Î¼g/L and transferrin saturation <20%). Patients were randomized (1:1) to receive either FCM or FDI over two infusions (1 month apart). Follow-up was 3 months. Measurements of serum intact FGF-23, phosphate, vitamin D metabolites, parathyroid hormone, other bone metabolism, cardiovascular, and quality of life markers were monitored. 168 patients were prescreened. Thirty-five patients were screened; 26 patients were randomized. The mean (standard deviation) age was 67.9 (12.4) years and 17 participants were male. Most participants had stage 4 CKD (median [interquartile range] estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR]: 18.0 [11.3] mL/min/1.73 m2). A higher than normal median (interquartile range) level of intact FGF-23 (212.1 [116.4] pg/mL) was noted. Serum phosphate was within normal range, while parathyroid hormone was higher and 1,25 (OH)2 vitamin D lower than the normal range. The "Iron and Phosphaturia - ExplorIRON-CKD" trial will provide important information regarding the differential effect of intravenous iron products in terms of FGF-23, phosphate, and other markers of bone and cardiovascular metabolism, alongside patient-reported outcome measures in patients with ND-CKD.
Efficacy of Ferric carboxymaltose in heart failure with iron deficiency: an individual patient data meta-analysis
European heart journal. 2023
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Whereas a beneficial effect of intravenous ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) on symptoms and exercise capacity among patients with iron deficiency (ID) and heart failure (HF) has been consistently demonstrated, the effects of treatment on clinical events remain the subject of research. This meta-analysis aimed to characterize the effects of FCM therapy on hospitalizations and mortality. METHODS Patient-level data from randomized, placebo-controlled FCM trials including adults with HF and ID with ≥52 weeks follow-up were analysed. The co-primary efficacy endpoints were (1) composite of total/recurrent cardiovascular hospitalizations and cardiovascular death, and (2) composite of total HF hospitalizations and cardiovascular death, through 52 weeks. Key secondary endpoints included individual composite endpoint components. Event rates were analysed using a negative binomial model. Treatment-emergent adverse events were also examined. RESULTS Three FCM trials with a total of 4501 patients were included. FCM was associated with a significantly reduced risk of co-primary endpoint 1 (rate ratio [RR] 0.86; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.75-0.98; P=0.029; Cochran Q: 0.008), with a trend towards a reduction of co-primary endpoint 2 (RR 0.87; 95% CI 0.75-1.01; P=0.076; Cochran Q: 0.024). Treatment effects appeared to result from reduced hospitalization rates, not improved survival. Treatment appeared to have a good safety profile and was well-tolerated. CONCLUSIONS In iron-deficient patients with HF with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, intravenous FCM was associated with significantly reduced risk of hospital admissions for HF and cardiovascular causes, with no apparent effect on mortality.
Adults with heart failure (HF) and iron deficiency enrolled in the ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) trials: CONFIRM-HF, AFFIRM-AHF, and HEART-FID (3 randomised controlled trials, n= 4,501).
FCM (n= 2,251).
Placebo (n= 2,250).
The co-primary efficacy endpoints were (1) composite of total/recurrent cardiovascular hospitalizations and cardiovascular death, and (2) composite of total HF hospitalizations and cardiovascular death, through 52 weeks. FCM was associated with a significantly reduced risk of co-primary endpoint 1 (rate ratio [RR] 0.86; 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.75, 0.98]; Cochran Q: 0.008), with a trend towards a reduction of co-primary endpoint 2 (RR 0.87; 95% CI [0.75, 1.01]; Cochran Q: 0.024).
Effect of Intravenous Iron-Carbohydrate Complexes in Patients With Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction and Iron Deficiency: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Hellenic journal of cardiology : HJC = Hellenike kardiologike epitheorese. 2023
Effects of Intravenous Iron Replacement Therapy on Cardiovascular Outcomes in Patients with Heart Failure: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease. 2023;10(3)
(1) Background: Iron deficiency (ID) is an important adverse prognostic marker in patients with heart failure (HF); however, it is unclear whether intravenous iron replacement reduces cardiovascular mortality in this patient group. Here, we estimate the effect of intravenous iron replacement therapy on hard clinical outcomes following the publication of IRONMAN, the largest trial in this field. (2) Methods: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, prospectively registered with PROSPERO and reported according to PRISMA guidelines, we searched PubMed and Embase for randomized controlled trials investigating intravenous iron replacement in patients with HF and co-existing ID. The primary outcome was cardiovascular mortality and secondary outcomes were all-cause mortality, hospitalizations for HF and a combination of the primary outcome and hospitalizations for HF. (3) Results: A total of 1671 items were identified and after removal of duplicates we screened titles and abstracts of 1202 records. Some 31 studies were identified for full-text review and 12 studies were included in the final review. The odds ratio (OR) for cardiovascular death using a random effects model was 0.85 (95% CI 0.69 to 1.04) and for all-cause mortality it was 0.83 (95% CI 0.59 to 1.15). There was a significant reduction in hospitalizations for HF (OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.35 to 0.69) and the combination of hospitalizations for HF and cardiovascular death (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.5 to 0.85). (4) Conclusions: This review supports the use of IV iron replacement reducing hospitalization rates for HF, however more research is required to determine the effect on cardiovascular mortality and to identify the patient population most likely to benefit.
Intravenous ferric carboxymaltose for iron repletion following acute heart failure in patients with and without diabetes: a subgroup analysis of the randomized AFFIRM-AHF trial
Cardiovascular diabetology. 2023;22(1):215
BACKGROUND In AFFIRM-AHF, treatment of iron deficiency with intravenous ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) reduced the risk of heart failure (HF) hospitalization and improved quality of life (QoL) vs placebo in patients stabilized following an acute HF (AHF) episode, with no effect on cardiovascular (CV) death. Diabetes and iron deficiency frequently accompany AHF. This post hoc analysis explored the effects of diabetes on outcomes in AFFIRM-AHF patients. METHODS Patients were stratified by diabetes yes/no at baseline. The effects of FCM vs placebo on primary (total HF hospitalizations and CV death) and secondary (total CV hospitalizations and CV death; CV death; total HF hospitalizations; time to first HF hospitalization or CV death; and days lost due to HF hospitalizations or CV death) endpoints at Week 52 and change vs baseline in disease-specific QoL (12-item Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire [KCCQ-12]) at Week 24 were assessed by subgroup. For each endpoint, the interaction between diabetes status and treatment outcome was explored. RESULTS Of 1108 AFFIRM-AHF patients, 475 (FCM: 231; placebo: 244) had diabetes and 633 (FCM: 327; placebo: 306) did not have diabetes. Patients with diabetes were more commonly male (61.5% vs 50.9%), with a higher frequency of ischemic HF etiology (57.9% vs 39.0%), prior HF history (77.7% vs 66.5%), and comorbidities (including previous myocardial infarction [49.3% vs 32.9%] and chronic kidney disease [51.4% vs 32.4%]) than those without diabetes. The annualized event rate/100 patient-years with FCM vs placebo for the primary endpoint was 66.9 vs 80.9 in patients with diabetes (rate ratio [RR]: 0.83, 95% CI 0.58-1.81) and 51.3 vs 66.9 in patients without diabetes (RR: 0.77, 95% CI 0.55-1.07), with no significant interaction between diabetes status and treatment effect (p(interaction) = 0.76). Similar findings were observed for secondary outcomes. Change from baseline in KCCQ-12 overall summary score was numerically greater with FCM vs placebo at almost all time points in both subgroups, with no interaction between diabetes and treatment effect at Week 24. CONCLUSIONS The clinical and QoL benefits observed with intravenous FCM in patients with iron deficiency following stabilization from an AHF episode are independent of diabetes status. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02937454 (registered 10.18.2016).
Effect of Intravenous Iron Replacement on Recurrent Heart Failure Hospitalizations and Cardiovascular Mortality in Patients with Heart Failure and Iron Deficiency: A Bayesian Meta-Analysis
European journal of heart failure. 2023
AIMS: Iron deficiency is common in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and is associated with a poor prognosis. Whether intravenous iron replacement improves recurrent HF hospitalizations and cardiovascular mortality of these patients is uncertain although several trials were conducted. Moreover, none of the trials were powered to assess the effect of intravenous iron in clinically important subgroups. Therefore, we conducted a Bayesian analysis to derive precise estimates of the effect of intravenous iron replacement on recurrent HF hospitalizations and cardiovascular mortality in iron-deficient HFrEF patients using consistent subgroup definitions across trials. METHODS Individual participant data was used from the FAIR-HF (n=459), CONFIRM-HF (n=304) and AFFIRM-AHF (n=1,108) trials. This data was re-analyzed following as closely as possible the approach taken in the analyses of IRONMAN (n=1,137), for which study level data was used. Definitions of outcomes and subgroups from the FAIR-HF, CONFIRM-HF and AFFIRM-AHF were matched with those used in IRONMAN. The primary endpoint was recurrent HF hospitalizations and cardiovascular mortality. The analysis of recurrent events was based on rate ratios (RR) derived from the Lin-Wei-Yang-Ying model, and the data were pooled using Bayesian random effect meta-analysis. RESULTS Compared with placebo, intravenous iron significantly reduced the rates of recurrent HF hospitalizations and cardiovascular mortality (RR: 0.73, 95% credible interval (CI) [0.48-0.99]; between-trial heterogeneity tau=0.16). The pooled treatment effects did not provide evidence for any differential effects for subgroups based on sex (ratio of rate ratios [RRR]: 1.49 , 95% CI [0.95-2.37], age < vs ≥69.4 years (RRR= 0.68 [0.40-1.15]), ischemic vs non-ischemic etiology of HF (RRR=0.73 [0.42-1.33]), transferrin saturation < vs ≥20% (RRR=0.75 [0.40-1.34]), estimated glomerular filtration rate (≤ vs >60 mL/min/1.73m(2) (RRR=0.97 [0.56-1.68]), haemoglobin < vs ≥ 11.8 (RRR=0.95 [0.53-1.60]), ferritin < vs ≥35 μg/L (RRR=1.26 [0.72-2.48]) and New York Heart Association Class II vs III/IV (RRR=0.91 [0.54-1.56]). CONCLUSIONS Treatment of iron-deficient HFrEF patients with intravenous iron - namely with ferric carboxymaltose or ferric derisomaltose - results in significant reduction in recurrent HF hospitalizations and cardiovascular mortality. Results were nominally consistent across the subgroups studied, but for several of these subgroups uncertainty remains present. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Ferric Carboxymaltose in Iron-Deficient Patients with Hospitalized Heart Failure and Reduced Kidney Function
Clinical journal of the American Society of Nephrology : CJASN. 2023
BACKGROUND Reduced kidney function is common among patients with heart failure. In patients with heart failure and/or kidney disease, iron deficiency is an independent predictor of adverse outcomes. In the AFFIRM-AHF trial, acute heart failure patients with iron deficiency treated with intravenous ferric carboxymaltose demonstrated reduced risk of heart failure hospitalization, with improved quality of life. We aimed to further characterize the impact of ferric carboxymaltose among patients with coexisting kidney impairment. METHODS The double-blind, placebo-controlled AFFIRM-AHF trial randomized 1132 stabilized adults with acute heart failure (left ventricular ejection fraction <50%) and iron deficiency. Patients on dialysis were excluded. The primary endpoint was a composite of total heart failure hospitalizations and cardiovascular death during the 52-week follow-up period. Additional endpoints included cardiovascular hospitalizations, total heart failure hospitalizations, and days lost to heart failure hospitalizations or cardiovascular death. For this subgroup analysis, patients were stratified according to baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). RESULTS Overall, 60% of patients had an eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m 2 (the lower eGFR subgroup). These patients were significantly older, more likely to be female and to have ischemic heart failure, and had higher baseline serum phosphate levels and higher rates of anemia. For all endpoints, event rates were higher in the lower eGFR group. In the lower eGFR group, the annualized event rates for the primary composite outcome were 68.96 and 86.30 per 100 patient-years in the ferric carboxymaltose and placebo arms, respectively (rate ratio, 0.76; 95% confidence interval, 0.54-1.06). The treatment effect was similar in the higher eGFR subgroup (rate ratio, 0.65; 95% confidence interval, 0.42-1.02; Pinteraction =0.60). A similar pattern was observed for all endpoints ( Pinteraction >0.05). CONCLUSIONS In a cohort of patients with acute heart failure, left ventricular ejection fraction <50%, and iron deficiency, the safety and efficacy of ferric carboxymaltose were consistent across a range of eGFR values.