Head midline position for preventing the occurrence or extension of germinal matrix-intraventricular haemorrhage in preterm infants
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020;7:Cd012362
BACKGROUND Head position during care may affect cerebral haemodynamics and contribute to the development of germinal matrix-intraventricular haemorrhage (GM-IVH) in very preterm infants. Turning the head toward one side may occlude jugular venous drainage while increasing intracranial pressure and cerebral blood volume. It is suggested that cerebral venous pressure is reduced and hydrostatic brain drainage improved if the infant is cared for in the supine 'head midline' position. OBJECTIVES To assess whether head midline position is more effective than other head positions for preventing (or preventing extension) of GM-IVH in very preterm infants (< 32 weeks' gestation at birth). SEARCH METHODS We used the standard search strategy of Cochrane Neonatal to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2019, Issue 9), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to 12 September 2019), Embase (1980 to 12 September 2019), and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL; 1982 to 12 September 2019). We searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings, and reference lists of retrieved articles. SELECTION CRITERIA Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing caring for very preterm infants in a supine head midline position versus a prone or lateral decubitus position, or undertaking a strategy of regular position change, or having no prespecified position. We included trials enrolling infants with existing GM-IVH and planned to assess extension of haemorrhage in a subgroup of infants. We planned to analyse horizontal (flat) versus head elevated positions separately for all body positions. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS We used standard methods of Cochrane Neonatal. For each of the included trials, two review authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias. The primary outcomes were GM-IVH, severe IVH, and neonatal death. We evaluated treatment effects using a fixed-effect model with risk ratio (RR) for categorical data; and mean, standard deviation (SD), and mean difference (MD) for continuous data. We used the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of evidence. MAIN RESULTS Three RCTs, with a total of 290 infants (either < 30 weeks' gestational age or < 1000 g body weight), met the inclusion criteria. Two trials compared supine midline head position versus head rotated 90 degrees with the cot flat. One trial compared supine midline head position versus head rotated 90 degrees with the bed tilted at 30 degrees . We found no trials that compared supine versus prone midline head position. Meta-analysis of three trials (290 infants) did not show an effect on rates of GM-IVH (RR 1.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.78 to 1.56; I(2) = 0%) and severe IVH (RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.37 to 1.33; I(2) = 0%). Neonatal mortality (RR 0.49, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.93; I(2) = 0%; RD -0.09, 95% CI -0.16 to -0.01) and mortality until hospital discharge (typical RR 0.50, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.90; I(2) = 0%; RD -0.10, 95% CI -0.18 to -0.02) were lower in the supine midline head position. The certainty of the evidence was very low for all outcomes because of limitations in study design and imprecision of estimates. We identified one ongoing study. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS We found few trial data on the effects of head midline position on GM-IVH in very preterm infants. Although meta-analyses suggest that mortality might be reduced, the certainty of the evidence is very low and it is unclear whether any effect is due to cot tilting (a co-intervention in one trial). Further high-quality RCTs would be needed to resolve this uncertainty.
What clinical practice strategies have been shown to decrease incidence rates of intraventricular haemorrhage in preterm infants?
Journal of paediatrics and child health. 2019;55(10):1269-1278
AIM: To answer the clinical question 'In infants about to be delivered and admitted to neonatal units, what clinical practice strategies, compared to standard care, have been shown to decrease incidence rates of intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH)?' METHODS MEDLINE via Ovid (1943 to 5 January 2018), Embase via Ovid (1974 to 5 January 2018) and the Cochrane Library (5 January 2018) were searched for relevant articles. RESULTS A total of 478 articles, after the removal of duplicates, were found and screened by title and abstract. Forty full-text articles were subsequently reviewed, and 19 were included as relevant to the structured clinical question. An additional article was included based on expert advice. CONCLUSION There are various levels of research evidence for clinical practice strategies to decrease the incidence rates of IVH. Higher-quality evidence suggests that antenatal corticosteroids decrease the rates of IVH, and multiple evidence-based intervention bundles implemented in the neonatal unit are associated with decreased rates of IVH.
Head midline position for preventing the occurrence or extension of germinal matrix-intraventricular hemorrhage in preterm infants
Infants at high risk of intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) due to prematurity (20 studies).
Clinical practice strategies to decrease (IVH) incidence rates, including: perinatal and delivery room practices, respiratory and cardiovascular management, and quality improvement strategies.
Higher-quality evidence suggested that antenatal corticosteroids decreased the rates of IVH, and multiple evidence-based intervention bundles implemented in the neonatal unit were associated with decreased rates of IVH.
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2017;((7)):CD012362.
BACKGROUND Preterm birth is known to constitute the major risk factor for development of germinal matrix-intraventricular hemorrhage (GM-IVH). Head position may affect cerebral hemodynamics and thus may be involved indirectly in development of GM-IVH. Turning the head toward one side may functionally occlude jugular venous drainage on the ipsilateral side while increasing intracranial pressure and cerebral blood volume. Thus, it has been suggested that cerebral venous pressure is reduced and hydrostatic brain drainage improved if the patient is in supine midline position with the bed tilted 30 degrees . The midline position might be achieved in the supine position and, with the use of physical aids, in the lateral position as well. Midline position should be kept, at least when the incidence of GM-IVH is greatest, that is, during the first two to three days of life. OBJECTIVES Primary objective To assess whether head midline position is more effective than any other head position for preventing or extending germinal matrix-intraventricular hemorrhage in infants born at ≤ 32 weeks' gestational age. Secondary objectives To perform subgroup analyses regarding gestational age, birth weight, intubated versus not intubated, and with or without GM-IVH at trial entry. SEARCH METHODS We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 8), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to September 19, 2016), Embase (1980 to September 19,.2016), and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL; 1982 to September 19, 2016). We searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings, and reference lists of retrieved articles for randomized controlled trials and quasi-randomized trials. SELECTION CRITERIA Randomized clinical controlled trials, quasi-randomized trials, and cluster-randomized controlled trials comparing placing very preterm infants in a head midline position versus placing them in a prone or lateral decubitus position, or undertaking a strategy of regular position change, or having no prespecified position. We included trials enrolling infants with existing GM-IVH and planned to assess extension of hemorrhage in a subgroup of infants. We planned to analyze horizontal (flat) versus head elevated positions separately for all body positions. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS We used standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. For each of the included trials, two review authors independently extracted data (e.g., number of participants, birth weight, gestational age, initiation and duration of head midline position, co-intervention with horizontal vs head elevated position, use of physical aids to maintain head position) and assessed risk of bias (e.g., adequacy of randomization, blinding, completeness of follow-up). The primary outcomes considered in this review are GM-IVH , severe IVH, and neonatal death. MAIN RESULTS Our search strategy yielded 2696 references. Two review authors independently assessed all references for inclusion. Two randomized controlled trials, for a total of 110 infants, met the inclusion criteria of this review. Both trials compared supine midline head position with the bed at 0 degrees versus supine head rotated 90 degrees with the bed at 0 degrees . We found no trials that compared supine versus prone midline head position, and no trials that compared effects of head tilting. We found no significant differences in rates of GM-IVH (typical risk ratio [RR] 1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.55 to 2.35; typical risk difference [RD] 0.03, 95% CI -0.13 to 0.18; two studies, 110 infants; I2 = 0% for RR and I2 = 0% for RD), severe IVH (typical RR 1.57, 95% CI 0.28 to 8.98; typical RD 0.02, 95% CI -0.06 to 0.10; two studies, 110 infants; I2 = 0% for RR and I2 = 0% for RD), and neonatal mortality (typical RR 0.52, 95% CI 0.16 to 1.65; typical RD -0.07, 95% CI -0.18 to 0.05; two studies, 110 infants; I2 = 28% for RR and I2 = 44% for RD). Among secondary outcomes, we f
Role of hemocoagulase in pulmonary hemorrhage in preterm infants: a systematic review
Indian Journal of Pediatrics. 2011;78((7):):838-44.
Pulmonary hemorrhage (PH) in neonates is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Hemocoagulase is an established hemostatic agent and may be beneficial in neonates with severe PH.This systematic review was performed to investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of hemocoagulase therapy in preterm infants with Pulmonary hemorrhage (PH). The search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group was used to determine outcomes following PH in neonates. The primary outcomes were mortality, duration of PH and length of mechanical ventilation. Other morbidities included: Respiratory Distress Syndrome, sepsis, intraventricular hemorrhage, necrotizing enterocolitis and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL and bibliographies of identified trials were searched. The standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group and van Tulder's guidelines were followed independently by the authors to assess study quality, enter data and report outcomes. Typical treatment effects were calculated using fixed confidence intervals (CI). Heterogeneity tests were performed. Two 'randomized' controlled studies related to the role of hemocoagulase in neonates were identified: One for treatment of PH and the other for prevention of PH. All preterm infants' of gestational age<=32 weeks and birth weight<=1500 g with PH were included in the study. A total of 48 and 72 preterm infants were enrolled and randomized into two groups in trial 1 and trial 2 respectively. Mortality risk was significantly lower in the treatment group (RR 0.52; 95%CI 0.31, 0.89, p<0.02) when hemocoagulase was used as therapy compared to prophylactic use in neonates (RR 0.52; 95%CI 0.26, 1.07, p=0.07). Duration of PH and mean duration of ventilation were shorter in both treatment and prophylactic groups. Use of hemocoagulase appeared to be effective in preventing PH in premature infants and reduced mortality. However, the potential risks of use of hemocoagulase including adverse effects and the effectiveness of hemocoagulase still remain uncertain due to the lack of good quality large randomized controlled studies. This needs further evaluation, before routine use can be recommended.