Bromelain-based enzymatic burn debridement: A systematic review of clinical studies on patient safety, efficacy and long-term outcomes
International wound journal. 2023
In 2012 the European Medicines Agency approved a pineapple stem-derived Bromelain-based debridement concentrate of proteolytic enzymes (NexoBrid®, MediWound Ltd, Yavne, Israel) for adult deep burns. Over 10 000 patients have been successfully treated with NexoBrid® globally, including in the US. The aim of our study is to perform a systematic review of the current literature on Nexobrid® outcomes. We conducted a literature search in PubMed, Google Scholar, Embase, and other search engines (2013-2023). The online screening process was performed by two independent reviewers with the Covidence tool. The protocol was reported using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses, and it was registered at the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews of the National Institute for Health Research. We identified 103 relevant studies of which 34 were found eligible. The included studies report the positive effects of Nexobrid® on burn debridement, functional and cosmetic outcomes, scarring, and quality of life. Also, they validate the high patient satisfaction thanks to enhanced protocols of analgosedation and/or locoregional anaesthesia during Bromelain-based debridement. Two studies investigate potential risks (coagulopathy, burn wound infection) which concluded there is no strong evidence of these adverse events. NexoBrid® is a safe, selective, non-surgical eschar removal treatment modality. The benefits of Bromelain-based debridement are faster debridement and healing times, reduced operations, length of stay, cases of sepsis, blood transfusions, and prevention of compartment syndrome. Existing evidence suggests that the indications and the role of Bromelain-based debridement are expanding to cover "off-label" cases with significant benefits to the global healthcare economy.
Non-operative management for high-grade splenic injury: a systematic review protocol
JBI evidence synthesis. 2023
OBJECTIVE The objective of this review is to establish whether embolization is more effective than clinical observation for adult patients with grade III-V splenic injuries. Findings will be used to guide future practice and, if necessary, inform future research design and conduct. INTRODUCTION The spleen is one of the most frequently injured intra-abdominal organs, with a reported adult mortality of 7% to 18% following trauma. Non-operative management has become a standard of care for hemodynamically stable patients. In clinical practice, the decision whether to prophylactically embolize or manage high-grade injuries with observation alone remains controversial. INCLUSION CRITERIA Sources including adult patients with grade III-V splenic injuries secondary to blunt trauma will be included in this review. Eligible studies must include comparisons between 2 cohorts of patients undergoing either prophylactic embolization or clinical observation only. Outcomes will include mortality rate, failure of treatment, intensive care unit admission, length-of-hospital stay, blood transfusion requirements, and patient satisfaction. METHODS A systematic review with meta-analysis will be conducted. PubMed, Embase, and CINAHL will be searched for eligible studies, as will trial registries and sources of gray literature. Study selection, quality appraisal, and outcome data extraction will be performed in duplicate. Methodological quality will be evaluated with appropriate JBI critical appraisal tools. Studies will, where possible, be pooled in statistical meta-analysis. A random effects model will be used and statistical analysis will be performed. The certainty of the findings will be assessed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE) approach. REVIEW REGISTRATION PROSPERO CRD42023420220.
Artificial intelligence and machine learning for hemorrhagic trauma care
Military Medical Research. 2023;10(1):6
Artificial intelligence (AI), a branch of machine learning (ML) has been increasingly employed in the research of trauma in various aspects. Hemorrhage is the most common cause of trauma-related death. To better elucidate the current role of AI and contribute to future development of ML in trauma care, we conducted a review focused on the use of ML in the diagnosis or treatment strategy of traumatic hemorrhage. A literature search was carried out on PubMed and Google scholar. Titles and abstracts were screened and, if deemed appropriate, the full articles were reviewed. We included 89 studies in the review. These studies could be grouped into five areas: (1) prediction of outcomes; (2) risk assessment and injury severity for triage; (3) prediction of transfusions; (4) detection of hemorrhage; and (5) prediction of coagulopathy. Performance analysis of ML in comparison with current standards for trauma care showed that most studies demonstrated the benefits of ML models. However, most studies were retrospective, focused on prediction of mortality, and development of patient outcome scoring systems. Few studies performed model assessment via test datasets obtained from different sources. Prediction models for transfusions and coagulopathy have been developed, but none is in widespread use. AI-enabled ML-driven technology is becoming integral part of the whole course of trauma care. Comparison and application of ML algorithms using different datasets from initial training, testing and validation in prospective and randomized controlled trials are warranted for provision of decision support for individualized patient care as far forward as possible.
Characterization and Analysis of Chitosan-Gelatin Composite-Based Biomaterial Effectivity as Local Hemostatic Agent: A Systematic Review
Chitosan and gelatin were the most widely used natural materials in pharmaceutical and medical fields, especially as local hemostatic agents, independently or as a composite material with the addition of other active substances. Chitosan and gelatin have excellent properties in biocompatibility, biodegradability, non-toxicity and water absorption capacity. The objective of this review was to analyze the characteristics of chitosan-gelatin (CG) composite-based biomaterial and its effectivity as a local hemostatic agent. We used PRISMA guidelines and the PICO framework to compile this review. The findings demonstrated that the CG composite-based biomaterial had excellent physical, chemical, mechanical properties and local hemostatic agent activity by adding other active substances such as oxidized fibers (OF), silica nanoparticles (SiNPs), calcium (Ca) and biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) or by setting the CG composite proportion ratio.
The Impact of the Addition of a Virtual Reality Trainer on Skill Retention of Tourniquet Application for Hemorrhage Control Among Emergency Medical Technician Students: A Pilot Study
INTRODUCTION Trauma is a leading cause of preventable death in the United States. Emergency Medical Technicians (EMTs) often arrive first at the scene of traumatic injuries to perform life-saving skills such as tourniquet placement. While current EMT courses teach and test tourniquet application, studies have shown efficacy and retention of EMT skills such as tourniquet placement decay over time, with educational interventions needed to improve retention of skills. METHODS A prospective randomized pilot study was conducted to determine differences in retention of tourniquet placement among 40 EMT students after initial training. Participants were randomly assigned to either a virtual reality (VR) intervention or a control group. The VR group received instruction from a refresher VR program 35 days after initial training as a supplement to their EMT course. Both the VR and control participants' tourniquet skills were assessed 70 days after initial training by blinded instructors. Results: There was no significant difference in correct tourniquet placement between both groups (Control, 63% vs Intervention, 57%, p = 0.57). It was found that 9/21 participants (43%) in the VR intervention group failed to correctly apply the tourniquet while 7/19 of the control participants (37%) failed in tourniquet application. Additionally, the VR group was more likely to fail the tourniquet application due to improper tightening than the control group during the final assessment (p = 0.04). Conclusion: In this pilot study, using a VR headset in conjunction with in-person training did not improve the efficacy and retention of tourniquet placement skills. Participants who received the VR intervention were more likely to have errors relating to haptics, rather than procedure-related errors.
ECMO in adult patients with severe trauma: a systematic review and meta-analysis
European journal of medical research. 2023;28(1):412
BACKGROUND Severe trauma can result in cardiorespiratory failure, and when conventional treatment is ineffective, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) can serve as an adjunctive therapy. However, the indications for ECMO in trauma cases are uncertain and clinical outcomes are variable. This study sought to describe the prognosis of adult trauma patients requiring ECMO, aiming to inform clinical decision-making and future research. METHODS A comprehensive search was conducted on Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane, and Scopus databases until March 13, 2023, encompassing relevant studies involving over 5 trauma patients (aged ≥ 16 years) requiring ECMO support. The primary outcome measure was survival until discharge, with secondary measures including length of stay in the ICU and hospital, ECMO duration, and complications during ECMO. Random-effects meta-analyses were conducted to analyze these outcomes. The study quality was assessed using the Joanna Briggs Institute checklist, while the certainty of evidence was evaluated using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE) approach. RESULTS The meta-analysis comprised 36 observational studies encompassing 1822 patients. The pooled survival rate was 65.9% (95% CI 61.3-70.5%). Specifically, studies focusing on traumatic brain injury (TBI) (16 studies, 383 patients) reported a survival rate of 66.1% (95% CI 55.4-76.2%), while studies non-TBI (15 studies, 262 patients) reported a survival rate of 68.1% (95% CI 56.9-78.5%). No significant difference was observed between these two survival comparisons (p = 0.623). Notably, studies utilizing venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA ECMO) (15 studies, 39.0%, 95% CI 23.3-55.6%) demonstrated significantly lower survival rates than those using venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO) (23 studies, 72.3%, 95% CI 63.2-80.7%, p < 0.001). The graded assessment of evidence provided a high degree of certainty regarding the pooled survival. CONCLUSIONS ECMO is now considered beneficial for severely traumatized patients, improving prognosis and serving as a valuable tool in managing trauma-related severe cardiorespiratory failure, haemorrhagic shock, and cardiac arrest.
An innovated elastic compression hemostasis technique for extremity excision in patients with extensive burns: A prospective clinical randomized controlled trial
OBJECTIVE To introduce an innovative elastic compression hemostasis technique for extremity excision in extensively burnt patients and investigate its effectiveness. METHODS Ten patients were included and divided into 2 groups: the control group (4 patients, 12 extremities) receiving the conventional hemostasis technique and the experimental group (6 patients, 14 extremities) receiving the innovative technique. General data of the patients were collected, excision size measured, hemostasis time recorded, average blood loss per 1% total body surface area of the excised wound calculated, incidence of subcutaneous hematoma and take rate determined. RESULTS The 2 groups had no statistical difference in the baseline data. Average blood loss per 1% total body surface area of the excised wound in the upper and the lower extremities was (62.1 Â± 11.5) mL and (35.6 Â± 11.0) mL in the experimental group, significantly less than (94.3 Â± 6.9) mL and (82.3 Â± 6.2) mL in the control group; a reduction of 34.1% and 56.8% respectively. Hemostasis time in the upper and the lower extremities were (5.0 Â± 0.7) min/1% total body surface area and (2.6 Â± 0.3) min/1% total body surface area, respectively, in the experimental group, significantly less than (7.4 Â± 0.6) min/1% total body surface area and (4.0 Â± 0.9) min/1% total body surface area in the control group; a reduction of 31.8% and 34.9% respectively. The incidences of subcutaneous hematoma were 7.1% and 8.3%, and the take rate (85.9 Â± 6.0)% and (86.5 Â± 4.8)% in the experimental and the control group, respectively, with no statistically significant differences. CONCLUSION The innovative elastic compression hemostasis technique is a reliable new method that significantly reduces blood loss during extremity excision in patients with extensive burns and is worth wider understanding and application.
Routine Versus On-Demand Blood Sampling in Critically Ill Patients: A Systematic Review
Critical care medicine. 2023
OBJECTIVES We aimed to provide an overview of the current evidence on routine versus on-demand blood sampling in critical care. We assessed the reported proportion of patients exposed to daily routine blood sampling, the tests performed, characteristics associated with more frequent blood sampling, and the reported benefits and harms of routine blood sampling compared with on-demand sampling. DATA SOURCES We systematically searched the Cochrane Library, the Excerpta Medica Database, and the Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online for studies assessing routine versus on-demand blood testing in critically ill patients from inception to September 2022. STUDY SELECTION Abstracts and full texts were assessed independently and in duplicate by two reviewers. STUDY EXTRACTION Data were extracted independently and in duplicate by two reviewers using predefined extraction forms. DATA SYNTHESIS Of 12,212 records screened, 298 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility. We included 70 studies; 50 nonrandomized interventional studies and 20 observational studies. Exposure to routine blood testing was 52-100% (very low certainty of evidence). Blood testing seemed to occur more frequently in medical intensive care settings with a median of 18 blood tests per patient day (interquartile range, 10-33) (very low certainty of evidence). Mixed biochemistry seemed to be the most frequently performed blood tests across all settings (five tests per patient day; interquartile range, 2-10) (very low certainty of evidence). Reductions in routine blood testing seemed to be associated with reduced transfusion rates and costs without apparent adverse patient outcomes (low certainty of evidence). CONCLUSIONS In this systematic review, routine blood testing in critically ill patients was common and varied considerably. A reduction in routine blood testing appeared to be associated with reduced transfusion rates and costs without adverse effects, but the evidence was very uncertain.
Critically ill patients (70 studies).
Routine blood sampling.
On-demand blood sampling.
Exposure to routine blood testing was 52-100% (very low certainty of evidence). Blood testing seemed to occur more frequently in medical intensive care settings with a median of 18 blood tests per patient day (interquartile range, 10-33), (very low certainty of evidence). Mixed biochemistry seemed to be the most frequently performed blood tests across all settings (five tests per patient day; interquartile range, 2-10), (very low certainty of evidence). Reductions in routine blood testing seemed to be associated with reduced transfusion rates and costs without apparent adverse patient outcomes (low certainty of evidence).
Comparison of a polysaccharide hemostatic powder and conventional therapy for peptic ulcer bleeding
Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association. 2023
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Hemostatic powders have been clinically used in the treatment of gastrointestinal bleeding. We investigated the non-inferiority of a polysaccharide hemostatic powder (PHP), compared with conventional endoscopic treatments, for peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB). METHODS This study was a prospective multicenter randomized open-label controlled trial at four referral institutions. We consecutively enrolled patients who had undergone emergency endoscopy for PUB. The patients were randomly assigned to either a PHP or conventional treatment group. In the PHP group, diluted epinephrine was injected, and the powder was applied as a spray. Conventional endoscopic treatment included the use of electrical coagulation or hemoclipping after injection of diluted epinephrine. RESULTS Between July 2017 and May 2021, 216 patients were enrolled in this study (PHP group, 105; control group, 111). Initial hemostasis was achieved in 92 of 105 patients (87.6%) in the PHP group and 96 of 111 patients (86.5%) in the conventional treatment group. Re-bleeding did not differ between the two groups. In subgroup analysis, the initial hemostasis failure rate in the conventional treatment group was 13.6% for Forrest IIa cases; however, there was no initial hemostasis failure in the PHP group (P=0.023). Large ulcer size (≥15mm) and chronic kidney disease with dialysis were independent risk factors for re-bleeding at 30 days. No adverse events were associated with PHP use. CONCLUSION PHP is not inferior to conventional treatments and could be of use in initial endoscopic treatment for PUB. Further studies are needed to confirm the re-bleeding rate of PHP (ClinicalTrials.gov 02717416).
Efficacy of the Military Tactical Emergency Tourniquet for Lower Extremity Arterial Occlusion Compared with the Combat Application Tourniquet: A Randomized Crossover Study
Journal of special operations medicine : a peer reviewed journal for SOF medical professionals. 2023
INTRODUCTION Extremity bleeding and subsequent hemorrhagic shock is one of the main causes of preventable battlefield death, leading to mass-fielding of modern tourniquets, such as the Combat Application Tourniquet (CAT; Composite Resources). Numerous look-alike tourniquets, such as the Military Tactical Emergency Tourniquet (MTET; SZCTKlink), flood commercial markets, offering visually near-identical tourniquets for drastically reduced prices. We examined the performance of the MTET compared with that of the CAT. METHODS We undertook a randomized crossover trial to observe self-applied tourniquets to the lower extremity by combat medics, comparing the CAT to the MTET in application time and success rates, proven by loss of distal pulse assessed by Doppler ultrasound in <1 minute. RESULTS All 50 participants (100%) successfully applied the CAT versus 40 participants (80%) using the MTET (p = .0001). Median application time for the CAT (29.03 seconds; range, 18.63 to 59.50 seconds) was significantly less than those of successful MTET applications (35.27 seconds; range, 17.00 to 58.90 seconds) or failed MTET applications (72.26 seconds; range, 62.84 to 83.96 seconds) (p = .0012). Of 10 MTET failures, three (30%) were from application time >1 minute and seven (70%) from tourniquet mechanical failure. CONCLUSION The MTET performed worse than the CAT did in all observed areas. Despite identical appearance, look-alike tourniquets should not be assumed to be equivalent in quality or functionality to robustly tested tourniquets.