Skin-to-Skin Contact in the Third Stage of Labor and Postpartum Hemorrhage Prevention: A Scoping Review
Maternal and child health journal. 2023
INTRODUCTION Literature supports numerous benefits of skin-to-skin contact for neonatal adaptation to extrauterine life and bonding/attachment, but few studies explore the effects of skin-to-skin contact on maternal outcomes. This review aims to map the evidence on skin-to-skin contact in the third stage of labor for postpartum hemorrhage prevention. METHODS Scoping review, which covered stages recommended by the Institute Joanna Briggs, including studies from the PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, LILACS, Web of Science, and Scopus databases, using the descriptors "Postpartum hemorrhage", "Labor stages, third", "Prevention" and "Kangaroo care/Skin-to-skin". RESULTS 100 publications on the subject found, 13 articles met the inclusion criteria, with 10,169 dyads were assessed in all studies. Publications from 2008 to 2021 were mostly written in English and designed as a randomized controlled trial. Skin-to-skin contact was effective and significant in: reducing the duration of the third stage of labor; placenta delivery; uterine contractility and physiological involution; absence of atony, decreasing blood loss with lower rates of erythrocyte and hemoglobin drop; reducing the need for synthetic oxytocin and/or ergometrine to control bleeding; and reducing changing pads per period and length of stay. DISCUSSION Skin-to-skin contact was considered an effective, low-cost, and safe strategy, with positive effects already established in the literature for infants and extremely favorable results in postpartum hemorrhage prevention cases, being highly recommended in assistance for the dyad. Open Science Framework Registry ( https://osf.io/n3685 ).
Safety and efficacy of intrauterine balloon tamponade vs uterine gauze packing in managing postpartum hemorrhage: A systematic review and meta-analysis
AJOG global reports. 2023;3(1):100135
BACKGROUND There is debate on whether uterine gauze packing or intrauterine balloon tamponade is safer and more effective as a surgical management option for treating postpartum hemorrhage. OBJECTIVE This study aimed to compare intra- and postoperative outcomes of intrauterine balloon tamponade and uterine gauze packing in patients with postpartum hemorrhage. STUDY DESIGN A range of databases such as Cochrane and PubMed were searched using terms including "post-partum haemorrhage," "uterine balloon tamponade," and "uterine gauze packing." All observational studies comparing intrauterine balloon tamponade with uterine gauze packing were included. Five studies were identified enrolling 821 adult patients diagnosed with postpartum hemorrhage. Primary outcomes included blood loss volume, success rates, and maternal mortality. Secondary outcomes comprised requiring additional interventions, postoperative hemoglobin levels, and requiring blood transfusions. Fixed and random models were used for analysis. RESULTS Intrauterine balloon tamponade seemed to be a superior option to uterine gauze packing. Intrauterine balloon tamponade was better in reducing intraoperative blood loss, with a statistically significant improvement (P<.0001). Cases managed with intrauterine balloon tamponade seemed to have statistically significant shorter operative time (P=.023) and hospital length of stay (P=.020) in one study. CONCLUSION Intrauterine balloon tamponade remains more effective and safer as a first-line surgical management option for postpartum hemorrhage compared with uterine gauze packing.
Placental Transfusion Strategies in Preterm Infants in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis
INTRODUCTION Placental transfusion strategies in preterm newborns have not been evaluated in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The objective of this systematic review was to compare placental transfusion strategies in preterm newborns in LMICs, including delayed cord clamping (DCC) for various time intervals, DCC until cord pulsations stop, umbilical cord milking, and immediate cord clamping (ICC). METHODS Medline, Embase, CINAHL, and CENTRAL were searched from inception. Observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included. Two authors independently extracted data for Bayesian random-effects network meta-analysis (NMA) if more than 3 interventions reported an outcome or a pairwise meta-analysis was utilized. RESULTS Among newborns <34 weeks of gestation, NMA of 9 RCTs could not rule out benefit or harm for survival from DCC 30-60 s compared to ICC: relative risk (RR) (95% credible interval) 0.96 (0.78-1.12), moderate certainty, or any included strategy compared to each other (low to very low certainty). Among late preterm newborns, DCC 120 s might be associated with improved survival: RR (95% confidence interval) 1.11 (1.01-1.22), very low certainty. We could not detect differences in the risk of intraventricular hemorrhage grade > II and bronchopulmonary dysplasia for any included intervention (low to very low certainty). DCC 60 s and 120 s might improve the hematocrit level among all preterm newborns (very low certainty), and DCC 45 s may decrease the risk of receipt of inotropes among newborns <34 weeks of gestation (low certainty). CONCLUSIONS In LMICs, DCC for 60 s and 120 s might improve hematocrit level in preterm newborns, and DCC for 45 s may decrease the risk of receipt of inotropes in newborns <34 weeks, with no conclusive effect on survival.
Preterm newborns in low- and middle-income countries (9 studies).
Delayed cord clamping (DCC) for various time intervals.
DCC until cord pulsations stop. Umbilical cord milking. Immediate cord clamping (ICC).
Network meta-analysis of 9 randomised controlled trials could not rule out benefit or harm for survival from DCC 30-60s compared to ICC: relative risk (RR), (95% credible interval) 0.96 (0.78 to 1.12), moderate certainty, or any included strategy compared to each other (low to very low certainty). Among late preterm newborns, DCC 120s might be associated with improved survival: RR (95% confidence interval) 1.11 (1.01 to 1.22), very low certainty. Differences were not detected in the risk of intraventricular hemorrhage grade > II and bronchopulmonary dysplasia for any included intervention (low to very low certainty). DCC 60s and 120s might improve the haematocrit level among all preterm newborns (very low certainty), and DCC 45 s may decrease the risk of receipt of inotropes among newborns <34 weeks of gestation (low certainty).
LNG-IUS vs. medical treatments for women with heavy menstrual bleeding: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Frontiers in medicine. 2022;9:948709
INTRODUCTION To compare efficacy and safety of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) with medical treatments for women with heavy menstrual bleeding. MATERIALS AND METHODS We searched PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wanfang databases for relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in November 2021. All meta-analyses were performed using the random-effects model. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42021295379. RESULTS A total of trials (with 14 references) reporting on 1,677 women were included in this systematic review. The majority of the included RCTs were rated with low-to-unclear risk of bias in selection, detection, attrition, reporting, and other bias. All RCTs were rated as high risk in performance bias because blinding was difficult to ensure in the compared groups. Results of meta-analyses revealed that the number of clinical responders was greater in the LNG-IUS group than that in the medical treatments group at both 6-month (steroidal: five RCTs; n = 490; risk ratio [RR]: 1.72 [1.13, 2.62]; I (2) = 92%; nonsteroidal: one RCT; n = 42; RR: 2.34 [1.31, 4.19]) and 12-month (steroidal: three RCTs; n = 261; RR: 1.31 [1.01, 1.71]; I (2) = 74%) endpoints, with no clear differences on number of dropouts, and the incidence of adverse events. CONCLUSION Evidence indicates that LNG-IUS is superior to the medical treatments in short-term and medium-term clinical responses, blood loss control, compliance, and satisfaction. Meanwhile, frequency of adverse events related to LNG-IUS is acceptable. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION PROSPERO, identifier CRD42021259335, https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?ID=CRD42021295379.
Obstetric and Maternal Outcomes After B-Lynch Compression Sutures: A Meta-Analysis
This review article aimed to determine the obstetric and maternal outcomes after B-Lynch compression sutures to control atonic postpartum hemorrhage (PPH). This meta-analysis was performed after registering the protocol in the PROSPERO database with the registration number CRD42022355358. Two independent reviewers systematically searched electronic databases and search engines (PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar) to retrieve published articles from inception to July 2022. The obstetric and maternal outcomes after the B-Lynch compression suture were computed using the random-effects model in pooled proportion with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Meta-regression analysis and subgroup analysis were performed to explain any source of possible heterogeneity. Quality assessment of the included studies was done using Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) tools which are critical appraisal tools for systematic reviews and meta-analyses. This meta-analysis included a total of 30 studies involving 1,270 subjects. The pooled proportion of B-Lynch suture alone was 91% (95% CI = 82-97%). The combined proportion of B-Lynch suture plus another compression suture was 1% (95% CI = 0-3%), and the pooled proportion of B-Lynch suture plus vessel ligation was 3% (95% CI = 1-6%). The pooled proportions of PPH controlled and hysterectomies were 94% (95% CI = 91-97%, I(2) = 65.3%) and 7% (95% CI = 4-10%, I(2) = 72.13%), respectively. Therefore, B-Lynch suture (either alone or in combination with other techniques) is a simple and effective measure to control atonic PPH.
Uterine arteriovenous malformation (UAVM) as a rare cause of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH): a literature review
Archives of gynecology and obstetrics. 2022
PURPOSE Uterine arteriovenous malformations (UAVM) are rare vascular lesions characterized by an abnormal arteriovenous communication between the branches of uterine artery and the myometrial venous plexus. UAVM can be a serious cause of massive post-partum hemorrhage (PPH) leading to potentially life-threatening anemic shock. This review aims to summarize main experiences on clinical presentation and management of UAVM in the setting of unexplained PPH. METHODS A systematic review of the literature in Scopus, PubMed and MEDLINE was conducted. A case report of a PPH UAVM-related in a patient managed at the authors' center is also provided. RESULTS Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria. The mean age of cases was 30. In 3/11 cases, previous uterine surgeries were reported and 72.7% cases gave birth by cesarean section. Nine cases had a secondary PPH (24 h up to 12 week post-partum), whereas only one case had a primary PPH. Our case report had both a primary and a secondary PPH. Reported vaginal bleedings were profuse and blood loss entity ranged from 1000 to 2000 ml. In all cases a color Doppler ultrasound was performed first to suspect UAVM and in 10/11 cases a subsequent pelvic angiography confirmed the diagnosis of UAVM as leading cause of the unexplained PPH. In 81.8% cases a conservative management by uterine artery embolization (UAE) was adopted: bilateral UAE was always successful; in 1 out of 2 cases treated by unilateral UEA, emergency total hysterectomy was performed for a sudden hemodynamic instability. CONCLUSION Maternal mortality pregnancy-correlated is a major health concern worldwide, mostly due by PPH. UAVM should be considered in clinical practice among possible causes of unexplained PPH.
Clinical Presentation and Management of Endometriosis-Related Hemorrhagic Ascites: A Case Report and Systematic Review of the Literature
This study aims to analyze the patient profile and presentation of endometriosis-related hemorrhagic ascites and review its management to raise awareness among gynecologists and improve treatment strategies. We present a case report and engage in a systematic review involving human cases of histologically proven endometriosis with hemorrhagic ascites. Keywords were searched in PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and Ovid Discovery databases from inception until December 2018. Studies that did not include a description of ascites or histopathologic results confirming endometriosis or those that involved patients with other conditions that may contribute to ascites were excluded. The review yielded 73 articles describing 84 premenopausal women with histologically proven endometriosis-related hemorrhagic ascites. Of note, 83% (65/78) of the patients were nulliparous and 69.35% (43/62) were of African descent. The most common chief complaint was abdominal enlargement (58.33%, 49/84) but a host of other symptoms were also reported. Pleural effusion was reported in 32.14% (27/84), and elevated CA-125 was seen in 74.42% (32/43). The majority (64.29%, 54/84) of the patients underwent laparotomy, and an increasing trend of minimally invasive surgical approaches (p<0.001) and fertility-sparing techniques (p<0.001) was observed. The mean ascites volume was 4228.27 mL (SD: 2625.66). Moderate to severe endometriosis was seen in 97.44% (76/78) of cases. The majority of the patients who received medical treatment were given gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists (63.79%, 37/58). The rate of recurrence after termination or suppression of ovarian function was 8.33% (7/84), and there was a mortality rate of 1.19% (1/84). Diagnosis of endometriosis-related hemorrhagic ascites may be challenging because it mimics several disease entities that cause ascites, thereby warranting a heightened clinical suspicion. Minimally invasive techniques are usually employed to establish a histologic diagnosis. The prevention of recurrence involves the recognition of endometriosis-related hemorrhagic ascites as a manifestation of severe endometriosis, which should prompt therapies directed at suppressing ovarian function. Since affected women are of childbearing age, ovary-preserving surgeries are generally preferred. The rate of recurrence is low after appropriate surgical and medical interventions.
Healthcare providers experiences of using uterine balloon tamponade (UBT) devices for the treatment of post-partum haemorrhage: A meta-synthesis of qualitative studies
PloS one. 2021;16(3):e0248656
BACKGROUND Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is a leading cause of maternal mortality and severe morbidity globally. When PPH cannot be controlled using standard medical treatments, uterine balloon tamponade (UBT) may be used to arrest bleeding. While UBT is used by healthcare providers in hospital settings internationally, their views and experiences have not been systematically explored. The aim of this review is to identify, appraise and synthesize available evidence about the views and experiences of healthcare providers using UBT to treat PPH. METHODS Using a pre-determined search strategy, we searched MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, EMBASE, LILACS, AJOL, and reference lists of eligible studies published 1996-2019, reporting qualitative data on the views and experiences of health professionals using UBT to treat PPH. Author findings were extracted and synthesised using techniques derived from thematic synthesis and confidence in the findings was assessed using GRADE-CERQual. RESULTS Out of 89 studies we identified 5 that met our inclusion criteria. The studies were conducted in five low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) in Africa and reported on the use of simple UBT devices for the treatment of PPH. A variety of cadres (including midwives, medical officers and clinical officers) had experience with using UBTs and found them to be effective, convenient, easy to assemble and relatively inexpensive. Providers also suggested regular, hands-on training was necessary to maintain skills and highlighted the importance of community engagement in successful implementation. CONCLUSIONS Providers felt that administration of a simple UBT device offered a practical and cost-effective approach to the treatment of uncontrolled PPH, especially in contexts where uterotonics were ineffective or unavailable or where access to surgery was not possible. The findings are limited by the relatively small number of studies contributing to the review and further research in other contexts is required to address wider acceptability and feasibility issues.
Interventions to minimize blood loss in very preterm infants-A systematic review and meta-analysis
PloS one. 2021;16(2):e0246353
Blood loss in the first days of life has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality in very preterm infants. In this systematic review we included randomized controlled trials comparing the effects of interventions to preserve blood volume in the infant from birth, reduce the need for sampling, or limit the blood sampled. Mortality and major neurodevelopmental disabilities were the primary outcomes. Included studies underwent risk of bias-assessment and data extraction by two review authors independently. We used risk ratio or mean difference to evaluate the treatment effect and meta-analysis for pooled results. The certainty of evidence was assessed using GRADE. We included 31 trials enrolling 3,759 infants. Twenty-five trials were pooled in the comparison delayed cord clamping or cord milking vs. immediate cord clamping or no milking. Increasing placental transfusion resulted in lower mortality during the neonatal period (RR 0.51, 95% CI 0.26 to 1.00; participants = 595; trials = 5; I2 = 0%, moderate certainty of evidence) and during first hospitalization (RR 0.70, 95% CI 0.51, 0.96; 10 RCTs, participants = 2,476, low certainty of evidence). The certainty of evidence was very low for the other primary outcomes of this review. The six remaining trials compared devices to monitor glucose levels (three trials), blood sampling from the umbilical cord or from the placenta vs. blood sampling from the infant (2 trials), and devices to reintroduce the blood after analysis vs. conventional blood sampling (1 trial); the certainty of evidence was rated as very low for all outcomes in these comparisons. Increasing placental transfusion at birth may reduce mortality in very preterm infants; However, extremely limited evidence is available to assess the effects of other interventions to reduce blood loss after birth. In future trials, infants could be randomized following placental transfusion to different blood saving approaches. Trial registration: PROSPERO CRD42020159882.
Effectiveness of uterine tamponade devices for refractory postpartum haemorrhage after vaginal birth: a systematic review
BJOG : an international journal of obstetrics and gynaecology. 2021
OBJECTIVES To evaluate uterine tamponade devices' effectiveness for atonic refractory postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) after vaginal birth and the effect of including them in institutional protocols. SEARCH STRATEGY PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, LILACS, POPLINE, from inception to January 2021. STUDY SELECTION randomised and non-randomised comparative studies. OUTCOMES composite outcome including surgical interventions (artery ligations, compressive sutures or hysterectomy) or maternal death, and hysterectomy. RESULTS all included studies were at high risk of bias. The certainty of the evidence was rated as very low to low. One randomised study measured the effect of the condom-catheter balloon compared to standard care and found unclear results for the composite outcome (RR 2.33, 95%CI 0.76-7.14) and hysterectomy (RR 4.14, 95%CI 0.48-35.93). Three comparative studies assessed the effect of including UBTs in institutional protocols. A stepped wedge cluster RCT suggested an increase in the composite outcome (RR 4.08, 95%CI 1.07-15.58) and unclear results for hysterectomy (RR 4.38, 95% CI 0.47-41.09) with the use of the condom-catheter or surgical glove balloon. One non-randomised study showed unclear effects on the composite outcome (RR 0.33, 95%CI 0.11-1.03) and hysterectomy (RR 0.49, 95%CI 0.04-5.38) after the inclusion of the Bakri balloon. The second non-randomised study found unclear effects on the composite outcome (RR 0.95, 95%CI 0.32-2.81) and hysterectomy (RR 1.84, 95%CI 0.44-7.69) after the inclusion of Ebb or Bakri balloon. CONCLUSIONS the effect of uterine tamponade devices for the management of atonic refractory PPH after vaginal delivery is unclear, as is the role of the type of device and the setting.