Effects of delayed cord clamping at different time intervals in late preterm and term neonates: a randomized controlled trial
European journal of pediatrics. 2023;:1-11
Delayed cord clamping (DCC) at delivery has well-recognized benefits; however, current scientific guidelines lack uniformity in its definition. This parallel-group, three-arm assessor-blinded randomized controlled trial compared the effects of three different timings of DCC at 30, 60, and 120 s on venous hematocrit and serum ferritin levels in late preterm and term neonates not requiring resuscitation. Eligible newborns (n = 204) were randomized to DCC 30 (n = 65), DCC 60 (n = 70), and DCC 120 (n = 69) groups immediately after delivery. The primary outcome variable was venous hematocrit at 24 ± 2 h. Secondary outcome variables were respiratory support, axillary temperature, vital parameters, incidences of polycythemia, neonatal hyperbilirubinemia (NNH), need and duration of phototherapy, and postpartum hemorrhage (PPH). Additionally, serum ferritin levels, the incidence of iron deficiency, exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) rate, and anthropometric parameters were assessed during post-discharge follow-up at 12 ± 2 weeks. Over one-third of the included mothers were anemic. DCC 120 was associated with a significant increase in the mean hematocrit by 2%, incidence of polycythemia, and duration of phototherapy, compared to DCC30 and DCC60; though the incidence of NNH and need for phototherapy was similar. No other serious neonatal or maternal adverse events including PPH were observed. No significant difference was documented in serum ferritin, incidences of iron deficiency, and growth parameters at 3 months even in the presence of a high EBF rate. Conclusion: The standard recommendation of DCC at 30-60 s may be considered a safe and effective intervention in the busy settings of low-middle-income countries with a high prevalence of maternal anemia. Trial registration: Clinical trial registry of India (CTRI/2021/10/037070). What is Known: • The benefits of delayed cord clamping (DCC) makes it an increasingly well-accepted practice in the delivery room. • However, uncertainty continues regarding the optimal timing of clamping; this may be of concern both in the neonate and the mother. What is New: • DCC at 120 s led to higher hematocrit, polycythemia and longer duration of phototherapy, without any difference in serum ferritin, and incidence of iron deficiency. • DCC at 30-60 s may be considered a safe and effective intervention in LMICs.
Premature infants receiving delayed cord clamping with and without cord milking: a randomized control trial
BMC pediatrics. 2023;23(1):123
BACKGROUND Preterm infants often have long hospital stays and frequent blood tests; they often develop anemia requiring multiple blood transfusions. Placental transfusion via delayed cord clamping (DCC) or umbilical cord milking (UCM) helps increase blood volume. We hypothesized umbilical cord milking (UCM), together with DCC, would be superior in reducing blood transfusions. OBJECTIVES To compare the effects of DCC and DCC combined with UCM on hematologic outcomes among preterm infants. METHODS One hundred twenty singleton preterm infants born at 280/7- 336/7 weeks of gestation at Thammasat University Hospital were enrolled in an open-label, randomized, controlled trial. They were placed into three groups (1:1:1) by a block-of-three randomization: DCC for 45 s, DCC with UCM performed before clamping (DCM-B), and DCC with UCM performed after clamping (DCM-A). The primary outcomes were hematocrit levels and number of infants receiving blood transfusions during the first 28 days of life. Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) were secondary outcomes. Analyses were performed with an intent-to-treat approach. RESULTS One hundred twenty preterm infants were randomized. There was no statistically significant difference in neonatal outcomes; hematocrit on admission 54.0 ± 5.5, 53.3 ± 6.0, and 54.3 ± 5.8 (p = 0.88), receiving blood transfusions 25%, 20%, and 12.5% (p = 0.24), incidence of NEC 7.5, 0 and 10% (p = 0.78) in the DCC, DCM-B and DCM-A groups, respectively. There were no preterm infants with severe IVH, polycythemia, maternal or neonatal death. CONCLUSION The placental transfusion techniques utilized, DCC and DCC combined with UCM, provided the same benefits for preterm infants born at GA 28 and 33 weeks in terms of reducing the need for RBC transfusions, severities of IVH and incidence of NEC without increasing comorbidity. TRIAL REGISTRATION TCTR20190131002 . Registered 31 January 2019-Retrospectively registered.
Cut umbilical cord milking (C-UCM) as a mode of placental transfusion in non-vigorous preterm neonates: a randomized controlled trial
European journal of pediatrics. 2023
Routine practice of delayed cord clamping (DCC) is the standard of care in vigorous neonates. However there is no consensus on the recommended approach to placental transfusion in non-vigorous neonates. In this trial, we tried to examine the effect of cut umbilical cord milking (C-UCM) as compared to early cord clamping (ECC) on hematological and clinical hemodynamic parameters in non-vigorous preterm neonates of 30-35 weeks gestation. The primary outcome assessed was venous hematocrit (Hct) at 48 (± 4) hours of postnatal age. The important secondary outcomes assessed were serum ferritin at 6 weeks of age, mean blood pressure in the initial transitional phase along with important neonatal morbidities and potential complications. In this single centre randomized controlled trial, 134 non vigorous neonates of 30-35 weeks gestation were allocated in a 1:1 ratio to either C-UCM (n = 67) or ECC (n = 67). For statistical analysis, unpaired Student t and Chi square or Fisher's exact test were used. The mean Hct at 48 h was higher in the C-UCM group as compared to the control group, 50.24(4.200) vs 46.16(2.957), p < .0001. Also significantly higher was the mean Hct at 12 h, 6 weeks and mean serum ferritin at 6 weeks of age in the milked group (p < .0001). Mean blood pressure at 1 h and 6 h was also significantly higher in the milked arm. Need for transfusion and inotropes was less in the milked group but not statistically significant. No significant difference in potential complications was observed between the groups. Conclusion: C-UCM stabilizes initial blood pressure and results in higher hematocrit and improved iron stores. It can be an alternative to DCC in non-vigorous preterm neonates of 30-35 weeks' gestation. Further large multicentric studies are needed to fully establish its efficacy and safety. Trial registration: CTRI/2021/12/038606; registration date December 14, 2021. What is Known: • DCC is the routinely recommended method of placental transfusion for vigorous neonates but no consensus exist for neonates requiring resuscitation at birth. • C-UCM is easier to perform in non-vigorous neonates but there is paucity of studies in the preterm population. What is New: • C-UCM is effective as well as safe in non-vigorous preterm neonates of 30-35 weeks gestational age. • C-UCM holds promise as an alternative to DCC, especially in resource limited settings and in situations where the later is not feasible.
Effects of spontaneous first breath on placental transfusion in term neonates born by cesarean section: A randomized controlled trial
Frontiers in pediatrics. 2022;10:925656
BACKGROUND The role of umbilical cord management in placental transfusion in cesarean section (CS) requires clarification. The spontaneous first breath may be more important than the timing of cord clamping for placental transfusion in neonates born by CS. OBJECTIVE This study aimed to evaluate the impact of cord clamping after the first spontaneous breath on placental transfusion in neonates born by CS. METHODS We recruited women with a live singleton pregnancy at ≥37.0 weeks of gestation admitted for CS. The interventions performed, such as physiologic-based cord clamping (PBCC), intact-umbilical cord milking (I-UCM), 30-s delay in cord clamping (30-s DCC), and 60-s delay in cord clamping (60-s DCC), were noted and placed in a sealed envelope. The sealed envelope was opened immediately before delivery to perform randomization. RESULTS A total of 123 infants were eligible for evaluation. Of these, 31, 30, 32, and 30 were assigned to the PBCC, I-UCM, 30-s DCC, and 60-s DCC groups, respectively. The mean hemoglobin (Hb) and mean hematocrit (Hct) were significantly higher in the 60-s DCC group than in the PBCC group (p = 0.028 and 0.019, respectively), but no difference was noted among the I-UCM, 30-s DCC, and PBCC groups at 36 h of age. Further, no significant differences were observed in the mean Hb and mean Hct among the I-UCM, 60-s DCC, and 30-s DCC groups. Peak total serum bilirubin (TSB) levels were higher in the 60-s DCC group than in the I-UCM and PBCC groups (p = 0.017), but there was no difference between the 60-s DCC and 30-s DCC groups during the first week of life. The phototherapy requirement was higher in 60-s DCC than in IUCM and 30-sDCC (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Our findings demonstrated that PBCC, 30-s DCC, and I-UCM in neonates born by CS had no significant differences from each other on placental transfusion. The Hb and Hct in the neonates were higher after 60-s DCC than after PBCC.
Placental Transfusion Strategies in Preterm Infants in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis
INTRODUCTION Placental transfusion strategies in preterm newborns have not been evaluated in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The objective of this systematic review was to compare placental transfusion strategies in preterm newborns in LMICs, including delayed cord clamping (DCC) for various time intervals, DCC until cord pulsations stop, umbilical cord milking, and immediate cord clamping (ICC). METHODS Medline, Embase, CINAHL, and CENTRAL were searched from inception. Observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included. Two authors independently extracted data for Bayesian random-effects network meta-analysis (NMA) if more than 3 interventions reported an outcome or a pairwise meta-analysis was utilized. RESULTS Among newborns <34 weeks of gestation, NMA of 9 RCTs could not rule out benefit or harm for survival from DCC 30-60 s compared to ICC: relative risk (RR) (95% credible interval) 0.96 (0.78-1.12), moderate certainty, or any included strategy compared to each other (low to very low certainty). Among late preterm newborns, DCC 120 s might be associated with improved survival: RR (95% confidence interval) 1.11 (1.01-1.22), very low certainty. We could not detect differences in the risk of intraventricular hemorrhage grade > II and bronchopulmonary dysplasia for any included intervention (low to very low certainty). DCC 60 s and 120 s might improve the hematocrit level among all preterm newborns (very low certainty), and DCC 45 s may decrease the risk of receipt of inotropes among newborns <34 weeks of gestation (low certainty). CONCLUSIONS In LMICs, DCC for 60 s and 120 s might improve hematocrit level in preterm newborns, and DCC for 45 s may decrease the risk of receipt of inotropes in newborns <34 weeks, with no conclusive effect on survival.
Preterm newborns in low- and middle-income countries (9 studies).
Delayed cord clamping (DCC) for various time intervals.
DCC until cord pulsations stop. Umbilical cord milking. Immediate cord clamping (ICC).
Network meta-analysis of 9 randomised controlled trials could not rule out benefit or harm for survival from DCC 30-60s compared to ICC: relative risk (RR), (95% credible interval) 0.96 (0.78 to 1.12), moderate certainty, or any included strategy compared to each other (low to very low certainty). Among late preterm newborns, DCC 120s might be associated with improved survival: RR (95% confidence interval) 1.11 (1.01 to 1.22), very low certainty. Differences were not detected in the risk of intraventricular hemorrhage grade > II and bronchopulmonary dysplasia for any included intervention (low to very low certainty). DCC 60s and 120s might improve the haematocrit level among all preterm newborns (very low certainty), and DCC 45 s may decrease the risk of receipt of inotropes among newborns <34 weeks of gestation (low certainty).
Effects of Umbilical Cord Management Strategies on Stem Cell Transfusion, Delivery Room Adaptation, and Cerebral Oxygenation in Term and Late Preterm Infants
Frontiers in pediatrics. 2022;10:838444
BACKGROUND The umbilical cord blood contains a high concentration of stem cells. There is not any published study evaluating the amount of stem cells that have the potential to be transferred to the infant through placental transfusion methods as delayed cord clamping (DCC) and umbilical cord milking (UCM). The aim of this study is to measure the concentrations of endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) and CD34+ hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) in the placental residual blood volume (PRBV), and evaluate the delivery room adaptation and cerebral oxygenation of these infants. METHODS Infants with ≥36 gestational weeks were randomized to receive DCC (120 s), UCM, or immediate cord clamping (ICC). EPC and CD34+ HSC were measured by flow cytometry from the cord blood. PRBV was collected in the setup. The cord blood gas analysis and complete blood count were performed. The heart rate (HR), oxygen saturation (SpO2), and cerebral regional oxygen saturation (crSO2) were recorded. RESULTS A total of 103 infants were evaluated. The amount of PRBV (in ml and ml/kg) was higher in the ICC group (p < 0.001). The number of EPCs in the PRBV content (both ml and ml/kg) were the highest in the ICC group (p = 0.002 and p = 0.001, respectively). The number of CD34+ HSCs in PRBV content (ml and ml/kg) was similar in all groups, but nonsignificantly higher in the ICC group. The APGAR scores at the first and fifth min were lower in the ICC group (p < 0.05). The mean crSO2 values were higher at the 3rd and 10th min in the DCC group (p = 0.042 and p = 0.045, respectively). cFOE values were higher at the 3rd and 10th min in the ICC group (p = 0.011 and p < 0.001, respectively). CONCLUSION This study showed that placental transfusion methods, such as DCC and UCM, provide both higher blood volume, more stem cells transfer to the infant, and better cerebral oxygenation in the first minutes of life, whereas many lineages of stem cells is lost to the placenta by ICC with higher residual blood volume. These cord management methods rather than ICC do not require any cost or technology, and may be a preemptive therapeutic source for diseases of the neonatal period.
Interventions to minimize blood loss in very preterm infants-A systematic review and meta-analysis
PloS one. 2021;16(2):e0246353
Blood loss in the first days of life has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality in very preterm infants. In this systematic review we included randomized controlled trials comparing the effects of interventions to preserve blood volume in the infant from birth, reduce the need for sampling, or limit the blood sampled. Mortality and major neurodevelopmental disabilities were the primary outcomes. Included studies underwent risk of bias-assessment and data extraction by two review authors independently. We used risk ratio or mean difference to evaluate the treatment effect and meta-analysis for pooled results. The certainty of evidence was assessed using GRADE. We included 31 trials enrolling 3,759 infants. Twenty-five trials were pooled in the comparison delayed cord clamping or cord milking vs. immediate cord clamping or no milking. Increasing placental transfusion resulted in lower mortality during the neonatal period (RR 0.51, 95% CI 0.26 to 1.00; participants = 595; trials = 5; I2 = 0%, moderate certainty of evidence) and during first hospitalization (RR 0.70, 95% CI 0.51, 0.96; 10 RCTs, participants = 2,476, low certainty of evidence). The certainty of evidence was very low for the other primary outcomes of this review. The six remaining trials compared devices to monitor glucose levels (three trials), blood sampling from the umbilical cord or from the placenta vs. blood sampling from the infant (2 trials), and devices to reintroduce the blood after analysis vs. conventional blood sampling (1 trial); the certainty of evidence was rated as very low for all outcomes in these comparisons. Increasing placental transfusion at birth may reduce mortality in very preterm infants; However, extremely limited evidence is available to assess the effects of other interventions to reduce blood loss after birth. In future trials, infants could be randomized following placental transfusion to different blood saving approaches. Trial registration: PROSPERO CRD42020159882.
Association of Umbilical Cord Management Strategies With Outcomes of Preterm Infants: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-analysis
JAMA pediatrics. 2021;:e210102
IMPORTANCE It is unclear which umbilical cord management strategy is the best for preventing mortality and morbidities in preterm infants. OBJECTIVE To systematically review and conduct a network meta-analysis comparing 4 umbilical cord management strategies for preterm infants: immediate umbilical cord clamping (ICC), delayed umbilical cord clamping (DCC), umbilical cord milking (UCM), and UCM and DCC. DATA SOURCES PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and Cochrane CENTRAL databases were searched from inception until September 11, 2020. STUDY SELECTION Randomized clinical trials comparing different umbilical cord management strategies for preterm infants were included. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS Data were extracted for bayesian random-effects meta-analysis to estimate the relative treatment effects (odds ratios [OR] and 95% credible intervals [CrI]) and surface under the cumulative ranking curve values. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome was predischarge mortality. The secondary outcomes were intraventricular hemorrhage, severe intraventricular hemorrhage, need for packed red blood cell transfusion, and other neonatal morbidities. Confidence in network meta-analysis software was used to assess the quality of evidence and grade outcomes. RESULTS Fifty-six studies enrolled 6852 preterm infants. Compared with ICC, DCC was associated with lower odds of mortality (22 trials, 3083 participants; 7.6% vs 5.0%; OR, 0.64; 95% CrI, 0.39-0.99), intraventricular hemorrhage (25 trials, 3316 participants; 17.8% vs 15.4%; OR, 0.73; 95% CrI, 0.54-0.97), and need for packed red blood cell transfusion (18 trials, 2904 participants; 46.9% vs 38.3%; OR, 0.48; 95% CrI, 0.32-0.66). Compared with ICC, UCM was associated with lower odds of intraventricular hemorrhage (10 trials, 645 participants; 22.5% vs 16.2%; OR, 0.58; 95% CrI, 0.38-0.84) and need for packed red blood cell transfusion (9 trials, 688 participants; 47.3% vs 32.3%; OR, 0.36; 95% CrI, 0.23-0.53), with no significant differences for other secondary outcomes. There was no significant difference between UCM and DCC for any outcome. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Compared with ICC, DCC was associated with the lower odds of mortality in preterm infants. Compared with ICC, DCC and UCM were associated with reductions in intraventricular hemorrhage and need for packed red cell transfusion. There was no significant difference between UCM and DCC for any outcome. Further studies directly comparing DCC and UCM are needed.
Delayed cord clamping for prevention of intraventricular hemorrhage in preterm neonates: a randomized control trial
The journal of maternal-fetal & neonatal medicine : the official journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians. 2020;:1-7
BACKGROUND Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is a common condition in preterm neonates and is responsible for substantial adverse neurodevelopmental outcome in preterm neonates. Prevention of IVH is an important intervention for better neurological outcome in these preterm neonates. AIMS AND OBJECTIVE This study aimed to determine whether delayed cord clamping (DCC) was superior to immediate cord clamping (ICC) for the prevention of IVH in preterm neonates. PATIENTS AND METHODS In this two centered prospective double-blind randomized controlled trial, eligible neonates with gestational age from 26 to 34 weeks were randomized to receive either ICC (cord clamped in 10-15 s) or DCC (cord clamped in 30-45 s) groups. The grading and severity of IVH were evaluated by cranial ultrasound scan done on the 3-4th and 7-10th days after birth. RESULTS Among the 148 enrolled neonates, 79 were in the ICC group and 69 were in the DCC group. There was no difference in maternal and neonatal baseline characteristics except the neonates in the DCC group weighed more (ICC 1528.77 ± 365.5 g vs. DCC 1658.11 ± 419.52 g; p = .047) at birth. There was no significant difference in the incidence of any grade of IVH in both groups (ICC 12.8% vs. DCC 14.5%; p = .745). There was a significantly higher incidence of grade I IVH (ICC 2.5% vs. DCC 13%; p = .024) in the DCC group. The incidence of grade II IVH (ICC 5.1% vs. DCC 0%; p = .123); grade III IVH (ICC 3.8% vs. DCC 1.4%; p = .623); and grade IV IVH (ICC 1.3% vs. DCC 0%; p>.999) were comparable between the two groups. The incidence of a significant IVH (grades II, III, and IV) was significantly less in the DCC group (ICC 10.1% vs. DCC 1.4%, p = .036). The mean initial hemoglobin levels were significantly higher in neonates enrolled in DCC (15.41 ± 2.1 vs. 16.46 ± 2.45 g/dL; p = .007). There was a significant reduction in the number of days of hospital stay (ICC 18.78 ± 15.42 vs. DCC 13.21 ± 16.16; p = .002). There was no difference in initial hematocrit, platelet count, maximum bilirubin level, and Apgar score (p>.05). CONCLUSIONS Although there was no reduction in any grade of IVH, the incidence of significant IVH (grades II, III, and IV) was significantly decreased with the use of DCC in preterm neonates. Delayed cord clamping also resulted in a significant increase in birth weight, higher hemoglobin levels, and shorter hospital stays without any increase in the risks of hyper-bilirubinemia, low Apgar score, and neonatal mortality. TRIAL REGISTRY IRCT2014031116936N1, https://www.irct.ir/trial/15707.
Effect of Umbilical Cord Milking vs Delayed Cord Clamping on Venous Hematocrit at 48 Hours in Late Preterm and Term Neonates: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Indian pediatrics. 2020
OBJECTIVE To compare the effect of intact umbilical cord milking (MUC) and delayed cord clamping (DCC) on venous hematocrit at 48 (±6) hours in late preterm and term neonates (350/7- 426/7 wk). STUDY DESIGN Randomized trial. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS All late preterm and term neonates (350/7 - 426/7 wk) neonates born in the labor room and maternity operation theatre of tertiary care unit were included. INTERVENTION We randomly allocated enrolled neonates to MUC group (cord milked four times towards the baby while being attached to the placenta; n=72) or DCC group (cord clamped after 60 seconds; n=72). OUTCOME Primary outcome was venous hematocrit at 48 ((±6) hours of life. Additional outcomes were venous hematocrit at 48 ((±6) hours in newborns delivered through lower segment caesarean section (LSCS), incidence of polycythemia requiring partial exchange transfusion, incidence of hyperbilirubinemia requiring phototherapy, and venous hematocrit and serum ferritin levels at 6 (±1) weeks of age. RESULTS The mean (SD) hematocrit at 48 ((±6) hours in the MUC group was higher than in DCC group [57.7 (4.3) vs. 55.9 (4.4); P=0.002]. Venous hematocrit at 6 ((±1) weeks was higher in MUC than in DCC group [mean (SD), 37.7 (4.3) vs. 36 (3.4); mean difference 1.75 (95% CI 0.53 to 2.9); P=0.005]. Other parameters were similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS MUC leads to a higher venous hematocrit at 48 (±6) hours in late preterm and term neonates when compared with DCC.