Tissue Sealants for Facial Rhytidectomy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Chien, W. Y., Huang, Y. L., Chiu, W. K., Kang, Y. N., Chen, C.
Facial Plastic Surgery & Aesthetic Medicine. 2023;25(2):90-96
Background: The aging face can be surgically treated with a face-lift (rhytidectomy); however, bleeding and hematoma are complications that surgeons seek to prevent. Objective: To compare the drainage volume and rate of hematoma in studies of rhytidectomy among those having tissue sealants and those without. Methods: This systematic review and meta-analysis was prospectively registered in PROSPERO (CRD42022325404). We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that the enrolled participants undergoing rhytidectomy and used tissue sealants as the intervention. We calculated the mean and standard deviation for the drainage volume; risk ratios (RRs) were used for hematoma incidents. Results: Seven RCTs were included. The drainage volume was significantly lower in the tissue sealant group than in the control group (mean difference [MD]: -11.01, confidence interval [95% CI]: -18.39 to -3.63, p < 0.00001). As for hematomas, the incidence was also lower in the tissue sealant group (RR: 0.29, 95% CI: 0.08-0.99, p = 0.05). Conclusion: This study suggests that tissue sealants can be effective in reducing drainage volume and hematoma in face-lift; however, autologous and homologous tissue sealants can be further compared in future RCTs.
Hemorrhagic complications in implant surgery: a scoping review of etiology, prevention, and management
La Monaca G, Pranno N, Polimeni A, Annibali S, Di Carlo S, Pompa G, Cristalli MP
The Journal of oral implantology. 2023
PURPOSE To provide the most relevant aspects of the etiology, prevention, and management of bleeding in routine implant surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS A comprehensive and systematic electronic search was conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews databases until Jun 2021. Further references of interest were retrieved from bibliographic lists of the selected articles and the "Related Articles" feature of PubMed. Eligibility criteria were papers about bleeding, hemorrhage or hematoma associated with routine implant surgery on human subjects. RESULTS Twenty reviews and 41 case reports fulfilled eligibility criteria and were included in the scoping review. Involved implants were mandibular in 37 and maxillary in 4 cases. The major number of bleeding complications was in the mandibular canine region. The most injured vessels were sublingual and submental arteries, mainly due to perforation of the lingual cortical plate. Time to bleeding occurred intraoperatively, at suturing, or postoperatively. The most reported clinical manifestations were swelling and elevation of the mouth floor and the tongue with partial or complete airway obstructions. The first aid to manage airway obstruction was intubation and tracheostomy. For active bleeding control, gauze tamponade, manual or digital compression, hemostatic agents and cauterization were applied. When conservative procedures failed, hemorrhage was controlled by intra- or extraoral surgical approaches to ligate injured vessels or by angiographic embolization. CONCLUSIONS The present scoping review provides knowledge and evidence on the most relevant aspects of the etiology, prevention, and management of implant surgery bleeding complications.
"Signs and Symptoms Tell All"-Pseudoaneurysm as a Cause of Postoperative Bleeding after Orthognathic Surgery-Report of a Case and a Systematic Review of Literature
Kumar A, Kaur A, Singh M, Rattan V, Rai S
Journal of maxillofacial and oral surgery. 2021;20(3):345-355
PURPOSE Pseudoaneurysms are one of the rare complications that can be encountered after the orthognathic surgery. We are presenting a new case of pseudoaneurysm of bilateral sphenopalatine artery after Bijaw Surgery in a young male and a systematic review of all the cases in the literature emphasizing on signs and symptoms, epistaxis or bleeding episodes and treatment outcomes. METHODS A systematic research strategy was planned according to the PRISMA guidelines, and articles were taken from 1986 to September, 2019. A total of 899 articles were selected for screening, out of which only 26 articles met our inclusion and exclusion criteria. These were included in the study for qualitative analysis. RESULTS Most PAs were associated with Lefort I osteotomy (69.7%), followed by sagittal split osteotomy (24.24%). Average intraoperative blood was 635 ml. Maximum number of episodes of epistaxis/swelling or bleeding occurred in second week. Mean bleeding episodes were 2.58 ± 0.996. The arteries commonly affected were internal maxillary artery (42%), sphenopalatine artery (27.27%), facial artery (15.15%), descending palatine artery (12.12%), internal carotid artery (9.09%) and infraorbital artery (3.03%). Embolization was treatment of choice in 81.81% cases. CONCLUSION If a patient has recurrent epistaxis or swelling after orthognathic surgery, it is advisable to go for diagnostic imaging like angiography without any delay. In recent times, advanced techniques and expertise are readily available for early diagnosis and management of pseudoaneurysm.
Intraoperative Blood Loss and Postoperative Pain in the Sagittal Split Ramus Osteotomy and Intraoral Vertical Ramus Osteotomy: A Literature Review
Lee KT, Lin SS, Hsu KJ, Tsai CY, Lee YH, Chang YJ, Wus TJ
BioMed research international. 2021;2021:4439867
PURPOSE The purpose of the present study was to review the literature regarding the blood loss and postoperative pain in the isolated sagittal split ramus osteotomy (SSRO) and intraoral vertical ramus osteotomy (IVRO). MATERIALS AND METHODS Investigating the intraoperative blood loss and postoperative pain, articles were selected from 1970 to 2021 in the English published databases (PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library). Article retrieval and selection were performed by two authors, and they independently evaluated them based on the eligibility criteria. The articles meeting the search criteria had especially at least 30 patients. RESULTS In the review of intraoperative blood loss, a total of 139 articles were retrieved and restricted to 6 articles (SSRO: 4; IVRO 2). In the review of postoperative pain, a total of 174 articles were retrieved and restricted to 4 articles (SSRO: 3; IVRO 1). The mean blood loss of SSRO and IVRO was ranged from 55 to 167 mL and 82 to 104 mL, respectively. The mean visual analog scale (VAS) scores of the first postoperative day were 2 to 5.3 in SSRO and 2.93 to 3.13 in IVRO. The mean VAS scores of the second postoperative day were 1 to 3 in SSRO and 1.1 to 1.8 in IVRO. CONCLUSION Compared to traditional SSRO, IVRO had a significantly lower amount of blood loss. However, the blood transfusion is not necessary in a single-jaw operation (SSRO or IVRO). Postoperative pain was similar between SSRO and IVRO.
Effectiveness of local hemostatic to prevent bleeding in dental patients on anticoagulation: A systematic review and network meta-analysis
Moreno-Drada JA, Abreu LG, Lino PA, Parreiras Martins MA, Pordeus IA, Nogueira Guimarães de Abreu MH
Journal of cranio-maxillo-facial surgery : official publication of the European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. 2021
This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of hemostatic protocols to prevent bleeding in dental procedures among individuals undergoing oral anticoagulation therapy. A systematic review and network meta-analysis were accomplished. Searches of literature and grey literature were performed in different electronic databases. Clinical trials were considered as part of the inclusion criteria. Data extraction and assessment of the risk of bias of the included articles were performed. Assessment of the certainty of evidence was also performed. As results we find that the N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate [RR -35.00 (95% CI - 107.12, -5.78)], calcium sulfate (CaSO(4)) [RR -5.62 (95% CI -11.41, -1.03)], and tranexamic acid (TXA) [RR -3.46 (95% CI -7.63, -0.77)] showed beneficial effects compared to placebo. However, only TXA presented beneficial effects with moderate certainty evidence. N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate and CaSO(4) presented very low certainty evidence. In the comparisons between the hemostatic agents, no differences were observed. For the mean bleeding time, no significant difference in the comparisons was observed as well. Concluding, bleeding events in individuals on oral anticoagulation decreased with the use of TXA compared to placebo. N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate and CaSO(4) were also superior to placebo, but the certainty of evidence was low. For the mean bleeding time, no significant difference in hemostatic agents was observed.
Local haemostatic measures after tooth removal in patients on antithrombotic therapy: a systematic review
Ockerman A, Miclotte I, Vanhaverbeke M, Verhamme P, Poortmans LL, Vanassche T, Politis C, Jacobs R
Clinical Oral Investigations. 2018
OBJECTIVE The interruption of antithrombotics prior to tooth removal because of the fear of bleeding or following postoperative bleeding increases the risk of thromboembolic events. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate which local haemostatic measures can effectively prevent postoperative bleeding in patients continuing oral antithrombotics. METHODS A systematic review was conducted by running a search in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and Cochrane Library. Clinical randomised trials investigating bleeding and haemostatics after tooth removal in patients on antithrombotics were identified. RESULTS In total, 15 articles were included. The investigated haemostatics included gauze pressure, tranexamic acid-soaked gauze, sponges, glue, calcium sulfate, plant extract Ankaferd Blood Stopper, epsilon-aminocaproic acid and tranexamic acid. In patients treated with vitamin K antagonists, tranexamic acid mouthwash significantly reduced bleeding compared to placebo. Further, histoacryl glue was proven better than gelatin sponges. Other studies failed to show significant differences between haemostatics, but bleeding events were low. CONCLUSIONS Tranexamic acid seems to effectively reduce bleeding, although its superiority to other haemostatics was not proven. In view of the rapidly changing landscape of antithrombotics and the lack of standardization of bleeding outcome, adequately powered clinical studies are required to optimise postoperative management in patients on antithrombotics. CLINICAL RELEVANCE In order to optimise postoperative management, the best haemostatics over different patient groups have to be identified and implemented in guidelines.
No evidence available on best therapies for postextraction haemorrhage
Veitz-Keenan A, Keenan J
Evidence-Based Dentistry. 2017;18((2)):52-53.
Data sourcesThe review searched for published and ongoing trials in several databases with no restrictions on language or date of publication which included the Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials, Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, CINAHL, Embase, WHO Clinical Trials Registry Platform and clinical trial.gov.Study selectionRandomised clinical trials were considered that evaluated any intervention compared with another or with placebo for treating postoperative bleeding (PEB), post extraction. The primary outcome measures sought were: bleeding, amount of blood loss and cessation time required to control bleeding. The secondary outcomes: patient reported outcomes, such as pain or discomfort and adverse events.Data extraction and synthesisThree pairs of review authors independently screened the records.ResultsThe search strategy identified 1526 articles and abstracts. After removal of duplicates, 943 records were screened. Thirty-four full texts were examined. No trials met the inclusion criteria for the review.ConclusionsWe were unable to identify any reports of randomised controlled trials that evaluated the effects of different interventions for the treatment of post-extraction bleeding. In view of the lack of reliable evidence on this topic, clinicians must use their clinical experience to determine the most appropriate means of treating this condition, depending on patient-related factors. There is a need for well designed and appropriately conducted clinical trials on this topic, which conform to the CONSORT statement (www.consort-statement.org/).
Haemostatic agents in apical surgery. A systematic review
Cle-Ovejero A, Valmaseda-Castellon E
Medicina Oral, Patologia Oral Y Cirugia Bucal. 2016;21((5):):e652-7.
BACKGROUND Blood presence in apical surgery can prevent the correct vision of the surgical field, change the physical properties of filling materials and reduce their sealing ability. OBJECTIVES To describe which are the most effective and safest haemostatic agents to control bleeding in patients undergoing apical surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS We carried out a systematic review, using Medline and Cochrane Library databases, of human clinical studies published in the last 10 years. RESULTS The agents that proved more effective in bleeding control were calcium sulphate (100%) and collagen plus epinephrine (92.9%) followed by ferric sulphate (60%), gauze packing (30%) and collagen (16.7%). When using aluminium chloride (Expasyl(R)), over 90% of the apical lesions improved, but this agent seemed to increase swelling. Epinephrine with collagen did not significantly raise either blood pressure or heart rate. CONCLUSIONS Despite the use of several haemostatic materials in apical surgery, there is little evidence on their effectiveness and safety. The most effective haemostatic agents were calcium sulphate and epinephrine plus collagen. Epinephrine plus collagen did not seem to significantly raise blood pressure or heart rate during surgery. Aluminium chloride did not increase postoperative pain but could slightly increase postoperative swelling. Randomized clinical trials are needed to assess the haemostatic effectiveness and adverse effects of haemostatic materials in apical surgery.