Vasoactive and/or inotropic drugs in initial resuscitation of burn injuries: A systematic review
Acta anaesthesiologica Scandinavica. 2022
BACKGROUND According to current guidelines initial burn resuscitation should be performed with fluids alone. The aims of the study were to review the frequency of use of vasoactive and/or inotropic drugs in initial burn resuscitation, and assess benefits and harms of adding such drugs to fluids. METHODS A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, UpToDate, and SveMed+ through 3 December 2021. The search included studies on critically ill burn patients receiving vasoactive and/or inotropic drugs in addition to fluids within 48 hours after burn injury. RESULTS The literature search identified 1058 unique publications that were screened for inclusion. After assessing 115 publications in full text, only two retrospective cohort studies were included. One study found that 16 out of 52 (31%) patients received vasopressor(s). Factors associated with vasopressor use were increasing age, burn depth and % total body surface area (TBSA) burnt. Another study observed that 20 out of 111 (18%) patients received vasopressor(s). Vasopressor use was associated with increasing age, Baux score and %TBSA burnt in addition to more frequent dialysis treatment and increased mortality. Study quality assessed by the Newcastle-Ottawa quality assessment scale was considered good in one study, but uncertain due to limited description of methods in the other. CONCLUSION This systematic review revealed that there is lack of evidence regarding benefits and harms of using vasoactive and/or inotropic drugs in addition to fluids during early resuscitation of patients with major burns.
A prospective double blind randomized study comparing the need for blood transfusion with terlipressin or a placebo during early excision and grafting of burns
INTRODUCTION Early excision and skin grafting has become the standard of good burn management, but it is associated with major blood loss. AIM: To determine the haemostatic effect of terlipressin compared with placebo. MATERIAL AND METHODS Fifty-one patients with burns of 10-20% total body surface area had early excision and split skin grafting of deep burns. The surface area of the burn wound and of the healed graft were measured by planimetry. The patients were randomly allocated to medication, either terlipressin or placebo. Blood loss and number of transfused units of blood were recorded. RESULTS Twenty-one patients received terlipressin, 13 received terlipressin late (cross-over) and 17 received placebo. Six out of 21 patients exposed to terlipressin were transfused with eleven units of packed red blood cells. Seven out of 13 patients crossed over from placebo to terlipressin (late terlipressin) were transfused with 17 units of blood. Eight out of 17 patients exposed to the placebo were transfused with 22 units of blood (P < 0. 05). Graft healing was 1055 +/- 609 cm2 out of 1452 +/- 11 cm2 in terlipressin and 914 +/- 633 cm2 out of 1288 +/- 720 cm2 in the placebo group (n.s.). CONCLUSION Terlipressin reduced the need for blood transfusion by a factor of 2. 5 compared to a placebo without impairment of graft healing.