Pharmacological pain and sedation interventions for the prevention of intraventricular hemorrhage in preterm infants on assisted ventilation - an overview of systematic reviews
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2023;8:Cd012706
BACKGROUND Germinal matrix hemorrhage and intraventricular hemorrhage (GMH-IVH) may contribute to neonatal morbidity and mortality and result in long-term neurodevelopmental sequelae. Appropriate pain and sedation management in ventilated preterm infants may decrease the risk of GMH-IVH; however, it might be associated with harms. OBJECTIVES To summarize the evidence from systematic reviews regarding the effects and safety of pharmacological interventions related to pain and sedation management in order to prevent GMH-IVH in ventilated preterm infants. METHODS We searched the Cochrane Library August 2022 for reviews on pharmacological interventions for pain and sedation management to prevent GMH-IVH in ventilated preterm infants (< 37 weeks' gestation). We included Cochrane Reviews assessing the following interventions administered within the first week of life: benzodiazepines, paracetamol, opioids, ibuprofen, anesthetics, barbiturates, and antiadrenergics. Primary outcomes were any GMH-IVH (aGMH-IVH), severe IVH (sIVH), all-cause neonatal death (ACND), and major neurodevelopmental disability (MND). We assessed the methodological quality of included reviews using the AMSTAR-2 tool. We used GRADE to assess the certainty of evidence. MAIN RESULTS We included seven Cochrane Reviews and one Cochrane Review protocol. The reviews on clonidine and paracetamol did not include randomized controlled trials (RCTs) matching our inclusion criteria. We included 40 RCTs (3791 infants) from reviews on paracetamol for patent ductus arteriosus (3), midazolam (3), phenobarbital (9), opioids (20), and ibuprofen (5). The quality of the included reviews was high. The certainty of the evidence was moderate to very low, because of serious imprecision and study limitations. Germinal matrix hemorrhage-intraventricular hemorrhage (any grade) Compared to placebo or no intervention, the evidence is very uncertain about the effects of paracetamol on aGMH-IVH (risk ratio (RR) 0.89, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.38 to 2.07; 2 RCTs, 82 infants; very low-certainty evidence); midazolam may result in little to no difference in the incidence of aGMH-IVH (RR 1.68, 95% CI 0.87 to 3.24; 3 RCTs, 122 infants; low-certainty evidence); the evidence is very uncertain about the effect of phenobarbital on aGMH-IVH (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.19; 9 RCTs, 732 infants; very low-certainty evidence); opioids may result in little to no difference in aGMH-IVH (RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.65 to 1.12; 7 RCTs, 469 infants; low-certainty evidence); ibuprofen likely results in little to no difference in aGMH-IVH (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.81 to 1.21; 4 RCTs, 759 infants; moderate-certainty evidence). Compared to ibuprofen, the evidence is very uncertain about the effects of paracetamol on aGMH-IVH (RR 1.17, 95% CI 0.31 to 4.34; 1 RCT, 30 infants; very low-certainty evidence). Compared to midazolam, morphine may result in a reduction in aGMH-IVH (RR 0.28, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.87; 1 RCT, 46 infants; low-certainty evidence). Compared to diamorphine, the evidence is very uncertain about the effect of morphine on aGMH-IVH (RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.40 to 1.07; 1 RCT, 88 infants; very low-certainty evidence). Severe intraventricular hemorrhage (grade 3 to 4) Compared to placebo or no intervention, the evidence is very uncertain about the effect of paracetamol on sIVH (RR 1.80, 95% CI 0.43 to 7.49; 2 RCTs, 82 infants; very low-certainty evidence) and of phenobarbital (grade 3 to 4) (RR 0.91, 95% CI 0.66 to 1.25; 9 RCTs, 732 infants; very low-certainty evidence); opioids may result in little to no difference in sIVH (grade 3 to 4) (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.71 to 1.34; 6 RCTs, 1299 infants; low-certainty evidence); ibuprofen may result in little to no difference in sIVH (grade 3 to 4) (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.54 to 1.26; 4 RCTs, 747 infants; low-certainty evidence). No studies on midazolam reported this outcome. Compared to ibuprofen, the evidence is very uncertain about the effects of paracetamol on sIVH (RR 2.65, 95% CI 0.12 to 60.21; 1 RCT, 30 infants; very low-certainty evidence). Compared to midazolam, the evidence is very uncertain about the effect of morphine on sIVH (grade 3 to 4) (RR 0.08, 95% CI 0.00 to 1.43; 1 RCT, 46 infants; very low-certainty evidence). Compared to fentanyl, the evidence is very uncertain about the effect of morphine on sIVH (grade 3 to 4) (RR 0.59, 95% CI 0.18 to 1.95; 1 RCT, 163 infants; very low-certainty evidence). All-cause neonatal death Compared to placebo or no intervention, the evidence is very uncertain about the effect of phenobarbital on ACND (RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.51 to 1.72; 3 RCTs, 203 infants; very low-certainty evidence); opioids likely result in little to no difference in ACND (RR 1.12, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.55; 5 RCTs, 1189 infants; moderate-certainty evidence); the evidence is very uncertain about the effect of ibuprofen on ACND (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.38 to 2.64; 2 RCTs, 112 infants; very low-certainty evidence). Compared to midazolam, the evidence is very uncertain about the effect of morphine on ACND (RR 0.31, 95% CI 0.01 to 7.16; 1 RCT, 46 infants; very low-certainty evidence). Compared to diamorphine, the evidence is very uncertain about the effect of morphine on ACND (RR 1.17, 95% CI 0.43 to 3.19; 1 RCT, 88 infants; very low-certainty evidence). Major neurodevelopmental disability Compared to placebo, the evidence is very uncertain about the effect of opioids on MND at 18 to 24 months (RR 2.00, 95% CI 0.39 to 10.29; 1 RCT, 78 infants; very low-certainty evidence) and at five to six years (RR 1.6, 95% CI 0.56 to 4.56; 1 RCT, 95 infants; very low-certainty evidence). No studies on other drugs reported this outcome. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS None of the reported studies had an impact on aGMH-IVH, sIVH, ACND, or MND. The certainty of the evidence ranged from moderate to very low. Large RCTs of rigorous methodology are needed to achieve an optimal information size to assess the effects of pharmacological interventions for pain and sedation management for the prevention of GMH-IVH and mortality in preterm infants. Studies might compare interventions against either placebo or other drugs. Reporting of the outcome data should include the assessment of GMH-IVH and long-term neurodevelopment.
Postnatal phenobarbital for the prevention of intraventricular haemorrhage in preterm infants
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2023;3(3):Cd001691
BACKGROUND Intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) is a major complication of preterm birth. Large haemorrhages are associated with a high risk of disability and hydrocephalus. Instability of blood pressure and cerebral blood in the newborn flow are postulated as causative factors. Another mechanism may involve reperfusion damage from oxygen free radicals. It has been suggested that phenobarbital stabilises blood pressure and may protect against free radicals. This is an update of a review first published in 2001 and updated in 2007 and 2013. OBJECTIVES To assess the benefits and harms of the postnatal administration of phenobarbital in preterm infants at risk of developing IVH compared to control (i.e. no intervention or placebo). SEARCH METHODS We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Medline, Embase, CINAHL and clinical trial registries in January 2022. A new, more sensitive search strategy was developed, and searches were conducted without date limits. SELECTION CRITERIA We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs in which phenobarbital was given within the first 24 hours of life to preterm infants identified as being at risk of IVH because of gestational age below 34 weeks, birth weight below 1500 g or respiratory failure. Phenobarbital was compared to no intervention or placebo. We excluded infants with serious congenital malformations. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS We used standard Cochrane methods. Our primary outcomes were all grades of IVH and severe IVH (i.e. grade III and IV); secondary outcomes were ventricular dilation or hydrocephalus, hypotension, pneumothorax, hypercapnia, acidosis, mechanical ventilation, neurodevelopmental impairment and death. We used GRADE to assess the certainty of the evidence for each outcome. MAIN RESULTS We included 10 RCTs (792 infants). The evidence suggests that phenobarbital results in little to no difference in the incidence of IVH of any grade compared with control (risk ratio (RR) 1.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84 to 1.19; risk difference (RD) 0.00, 95% CI -0.06 to 0.07; I² for RD = 65%; 10 RCTs, 792 participants; low certainty evidence) and in severe IVH (RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.64 to 1.21; 10 RCTs, 792 participants; low certainty evidence). The evidence is very uncertain about the effect of phenobarbital on posthaemorrhagic ventricular dilation or hydrocephalus (RR 0.62, 95% CI 0.31 to 1.26; 4 RCTs, 271 participants; very low certainty evidence), mild neurodevelopmental impairment (RR 0.57, 95% CI 0.15 to 2.17; 1RCT, 101 participants; very low certainty evidence), and severe neurodevelopmental impairment (RR 1.12, 95% CI 0.44 to 2.82; 2 RCTs, 153 participants; very low certainty evidence). Phenobarbital may result in little to no difference in death before discharge (RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.64 to 1.21; 9 RCTs, 740 participants; low certainty evidence) and mortality during study period (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.72 to 1.33; 10 RCTs, 792 participants; low certainty evidence) compared with control. We identified no ongoing trials. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS The evidence suggests that phenobarbital results in little to no difference in the incidence of IVH (any grade or severe) compared with control (i.e. no intervention or placebo). The evidence is very uncertain about the effects of phenobarbital on ventricular dilation or hydrocephalus and on neurodevelopmental impairment. The evidence suggests that phenobarbital results in little to no difference in death before discharge and all deaths during the study period compared with control. Since 1993, no randomised studies have been published on phenobarbital for the prevention of IVH in preterm infants, and no trials are ongoing. The effects of postnatal phenobarbital might be assessed in infants with both neonatal seizures and IVH, in both randomised and observational studies. The assessment of benefits and harms should include long-term outcomes.
Clinical effect of combination of octreotide and omeprazole in children with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding and the levels of serum creatinine and serum urea nitrogen
Pakistan journal of pharmaceutical sciences. 2022;35(1(Special)):343-347
Pediatric upper gastrointestinal bleeding refers to an acute massive hemorrhage of the upper digestive tract and biliary tract, which is a common clinical emergency in pediatrics. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical effect of octreotide combined with omeprazole in pediatric upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Totally 84 cases of pediatric upper gastrointestinal bleeding admitted to Ningbo Women and Children's Hospital from November 2019 to April 2021 were divided into groups according to the admission order. The control group received omeprazole treatment and the observation group received octreotide plus. The total clinical effective rate of children in the observation group was higher than that of the control group. The observation group was superior to the control group with respect to the average hemostasis time, hemostasis rate, rebleeding rate and length of stay after treatment. The observation group witnessed a significantly better quality of life than the control group. For children with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding, the combination of omeprazole and octreotide yields a promising effect in the adjustment of blood creatinine and serum urea nitrogen levels and hemostasis, which is worthy of clinical application.
Addition of terlipressin to norepinephrine in septic shock and effect of renal perfusion: a pilot study
Renal Failure. 2022;44(1):1207-1215
PURPOSE Terlipressin improves renal function in patients with septic shock. However, the mechanism remains unclear. Here, we aimed to evaluate the effects of terlipressin on renal perfusion in patients with septic shock. MATERIALS AND METHODS This pilot study enrolled patients with septic shock in the intensive care unit of the tertiary hospital from September 2019 to May 2020. We randomly assigned patients to terlipressin and usual care groups using a 1:1 ratio. Terlipressin was intravenously pumped at a rate of 1.3 μg/kg/hour for 24 h. We monitored renal perfusion using renal contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS). The primary outcome was peak sonographic signal intensity (a renal perfusion parameter monitored by CEUS) at 24 h after enrollment. RESULTS 22 patients were enrolled in this study with 10 in the terlipressin group and 12 in the usual care group. The baseline characteristics of patients between the two groups were comparable. The peak sonographic signal intensity at 24 h after enrollment in the terlipressin group (60.5 ± 8.6 dB) was significantly higher than that in the usual care group (52.4 ± 7.0 dB; mean difference, 7.1 dB; 95% CI, 0.4-13.9; adjusted p = .04). Patients in the terlipressin group had a lower time to peak, heart rates, norepinephrine dose, and a higher stroke volume at 24 h after enrollment. No significant difference in the urine output within 24 h and incidence of acute kidney injury within 28 days was found between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS Terlipressin improves renal perfusion, increases stroke volume, and decreases norepinephrine dose and heart rates in patients with septic shock.
Vasoactive and/or inotropic drugs in initial resuscitation of burn injuries: A systematic review
Acta anaesthesiologica Scandinavica. 2022
BACKGROUND According to current guidelines initial burn resuscitation should be performed with fluids alone. The aims of the study were to review the frequency of use of vasoactive and/or inotropic drugs in initial burn resuscitation, and assess benefits and harms of adding such drugs to fluids. METHODS A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, UpToDate, and SveMed+ through 3 December 2021. The search included studies on critically ill burn patients receiving vasoactive and/or inotropic drugs in addition to fluids within 48 hours after burn injury. RESULTS The literature search identified 1058 unique publications that were screened for inclusion. After assessing 115 publications in full text, only two retrospective cohort studies were included. One study found that 16 out of 52 (31%) patients received vasopressor(s). Factors associated with vasopressor use were increasing age, burn depth and % total body surface area (TBSA) burnt. Another study observed that 20 out of 111 (18%) patients received vasopressor(s). Vasopressor use was associated with increasing age, Baux score and %TBSA burnt in addition to more frequent dialysis treatment and increased mortality. Study quality assessed by the Newcastle-Ottawa quality assessment scale was considered good in one study, but uncertain due to limited description of methods in the other. CONCLUSION This systematic review revealed that there is lack of evidence regarding benefits and harms of using vasoactive and/or inotropic drugs in addition to fluids during early resuscitation of patients with major burns.
Effects of Alprostadil Combined with Edaravone on Inflammation, Oxidative Stress and Pulmonary Function in Patients with Traumatic Hemorrhagic Shock
Cellular and Molecular Biology (Noisy-Le-Grand, France). 2022;68(8):123-128
The study aimed to explore the roles of alprostadil combined with edaravone in inflammation, oxidative stress and Pulmonary function in patients with traumatic hemorrhagic shock (HS). 80 patients with traumatic HS treated in Feicheng Hospital Affiliated to Shandong First Medical University and Tai'an City Central Hospital from January 2018 to January 2022 were enrolled and divided into observation group (n=40) and control group (n=40) according to the randomized control method. Patients in the control group were given alprostadil alone (5 g alprostadil + 10 mL normal saline) in addition to conventional treatment, while those in the observation group received edaravone (30 mg edaravone + 250 mL normal saline) on the basis of treatment in the control group. The patients in both groups were treated via intravenous infusion once a day for 5 days. 24 hours (h) after resuscitation, venous blood were collected to detect serum biochemical indicators such as blood urea nitrogen (BUN), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was conducted to determine serum inflammatory factors. Lung lavage fluid was collected to examine pulmonaryfunction indicators such as myeloperoxidase (MPO) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity and to observe the oxygenation index (OI). Blood pressure was measured at admission and 24 h after surgery. The observation group had significantly lowered serum BUN, AST and ALT (p<0.05), the content of serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) as well as oxidative stress indexes like superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) (p<0.05) and pulmonary function indicators (p<0.05) but overtly increased content of SOD and OI. Furthermore, the blood pressure in the observation group dropped to 30 mmHg at admission and rose to the normal range. Alprostadil combined with edaravone effectively reduces inflammatory factors and improves oxidative stress and pulmonary function in patients with traumatic HS, whose efficacy is significantly better than that of alprostadil alone.
Optimal timing of venous thromboembolic chemoprophylaxis initiation following blunt solid organ injury: meta-analysis and systematic review
European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery : Official Publication of the European Trauma Society. 2022;48(3):2039-2046
PURPOSE The need to prevent venous thromboembolism (VTE) following blunt solid organ injury must be balanced against the concern for exacerbation of hemorrhage. The optimal timing for initiation of VTE chemoprophylaxis is not known. The objective was to determine the safety and efficacy of early (≤ 48 h) VTE chemoprophylaxis initiation following blunt solid organ injury. METHODS An electronic search was performed of medical libraries for English language studies on timing of VTE chemoprophylaxis initiation following blunt solid organ injury published from inception to April 2020. Included studies compared early (≤ 48 h) versus late (> 48 h) initiation of VTE chemoprophylaxis in adults with blunt splenic, liver, and/or kidney injury. Estimates were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Odds ratios were utilized to quantify differences in failure of nonoperative management, need for blood transfusion and rates of VTE. RESULTS The search identified 2,111 studies. Of these, ten studies comprising 14,675 patients were included. All studies were non-randomized and only one was prospective. The overall odds of failure of nonoperative management were no different between early and late groups, OR 1.09 (95%CI 0.92-1.29). Similarly, there was no difference in the need for blood transfusion either during overall hospital stay, OR 0.91 (95%CI 0.70-1.18), or post prophylaxis initiation, OR 1.23 (95%CI 0.55-2.73). There were significantly lower odds of VTE when patients received early VTE chemoprophylaxis, OR 0.51 (95%CI 0.33-0.81). CONCLUSIONS Patients undergoing nonoperative management for blunt solid organ injury can be safely and effectively prescribed early VTE chemoprophylaxis. This results in significantly lower VTE rates without demonstrable harm.
Prophylactic Perioperative Terlipressin Therapy for Preventing Acute Kidney Injury in Living Donor Liver Transplant Recipients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Journal of clinical and experimental hepatology. 2022;12(2):417-427
BACKGROUND Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in the perioperative transplant period and is associated with poor outcomes. Few studies reported a reduction in AKI incidence with terlipressin therapy by counteracting the hemodynamic alterations occurring during liver transplantation. However, the effect of terlipressin on posttransplant outcomes has not been systematically reviewed. METHODS A comprehensive search of electronic databases was performed. Studies reporting the use of terlipressin in the perioperative period of living donor liver transplantation were included. We expressed the dichotomous outcomes as risk ratio (RR, 95% confidence interval [CI]) using the random effects model. The primary aim was to assess the posttransplant risk of AKI. The secondary aims were to assess the need for renal replacement therapy (RRT), vasopressors, effect on hemodynamics, blood loss during surgery, hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) stay, and in-hospital mortality. RESULTS A total of nine studies reporting 711 patients (309 patients in the terlipressin group and 402 in the control group) were included for analysis. Terlipressin was administered for a mean duration of 53.44 ± 28.61 h postsurgery. The risk of AKI was lower with terlipressin (0.6 [95% CI, 0.44-0.8]; P = 0.001). However, on sensitivity analysis including only four randomized controlled trials (I(2) = 0; P = 0.54), the risk of AKI was similar in both the groups (0.7 [0.43-1.09]; P = 0.11). The need for RRT was similar in both the groups (0.75 [0.35-1.56]; P = 0.44). Terlipressin therapy reduced the need for another vasopressor (0.34 [0.25-0.47]; P < 0.001) with a concomitant rise in mean arterial pressure and systemic vascular resistance by 3.2 mm Hg (1.64-4.7; P < 0.001) and 77.64 dyne cm(-1).sec(-5) (21.27-134; P = 0.007), respectively. Blood loss, duration of hospital/ICU stay, and mortality were similar in both groups. CONCLUSIONS Perioperative terlipressin therapy has no clinically relevant benefit.
Effect of Vasopressin and Methylprednisolone vs Placebo on Return of Spontaneous Circulation in Patients With In-Hospital Cardiac Arrest: A Randomized Clinical Trial
IMPORTANCE Previous trials have suggested that vasopressin and methylprednisolone administered during in-hospital cardiac arrest might improve outcomes. OBJECTIVE To determine whether the combination of vasopressin and methylprednisolone administered during in-hospital cardiac arrest improves return of spontaneous circulation. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted at 10 hospitals in Denmark. A total of 512 adult patients with in-hospital cardiac arrest were included between October 15, 2018, and January 21, 2021. The last 90-day follow-up was on April 21, 2021. INTERVENTION Patients were randomized to receive a combination of vasopressin and methylprednisolone (n = 245) or placebo (n = 267). The first dose of vasopressin (20 IU) and methylprednisolone (40 mg), or corresponding placebo, was administered after the first dose of epinephrine. Additional doses of vasopressin or corresponding placebo were administered after each additional dose of epinephrine for a maximum of 4 doses. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome was return of spontaneous circulation. Secondary outcomes included survival and favorable neurologic outcome at 30 days (Cerebral Performance Category score of 1 or 2). RESULTS Among 512 patients who were randomized, 501 met all inclusion and no exclusion criteria and were included in the analysis (mean [SD] age, 71  years; 322 men [64%]). One hundred of 237 patients (42%) in the vasopressin and methylprednisolone group and 86 of 264 patients (33%) in the placebo group achieved return of spontaneous circulation (risk ratio, 1.30 [95% CI, 1.03-1.63]; risk difference, 9.6% [95% CI, 1.1%-18.0%]; P = .03). At 30 days, 23 patients (9.7%) in the intervention group and 31 patients (12%) in the placebo group were alive (risk ratio, 0.83 [95% CI, 0.50-1.37]; risk difference: -2.0% [95% CI, -7.5% to 3.5%]; P = .48). A favorable neurologic outcome was observed in 18 patients (7.6%) in the intervention group and 20 patients (7.6%) in the placebo group at 30 days (risk ratio, 1.00 [95% CI, 0.55-1.83]; risk difference, 0.0% [95% CI, -4.7% to 4.9%]; P > .99). In patients with return of spontaneous circulation, hyperglycemia occurred in 77 (77%) in the intervention group and 63 (73%) in the placebo group. Hypernatremia occurred in 28 (28%) and 27 (31%), in the intervention and placebo groups, respectively. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Among patients with in-hospital cardiac arrest, administration of vasopressin and methylprednisolone, compared with placebo, significantly increased the likelihood of return of spontaneous circulation. However, there is uncertainty whether this treatment results in benefit or harm for long-term survival. TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03640949.
Race/ethnicity and response to blood pressure lowering treatment after intracerebral hemorrhage
European stroke journal. 2021;6(4):343-348
BACKGROUND It is unknown if race/ethnicity modifies the response to blood pressure (BP) lowering treatment after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We aimed to examine the race/ethnicity differences in the response to BP lowering treatment after ICH. METHODS This is a post hoc analysis of the Antihypertensive Treatment of Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage II (ATACH-2) trial. The primary outcome is good outcome, defined as 90-day modified Rankin Scale 0-3. The primary predictor is race/ethnicity for which we included non-Hispanic categories of White, Black, Asian, and the category of Hispanic. We fit adjusted logistic regression models with the predictor of race/ethnicity and models with the interaction term of treatment*race/ethnicity. RESULTS We included a total of 953 patients in our analysis (White = 213, Black = 112, Asian = 554, and Hispanic = 74). In the models with the interaction between race/ethnicity and treatment, we found that White patients assigned to the intensive treatment arm had lower predicted probability of good outcome than those assigned to the standard treatment arm (Model 1: 56.2% vs. 68.1%, p = .027; Model 2: 53.4% vs. 68.3%, p = .009). When divided into White and non-White groups, intensive treatment was associated with higher odds of serious adverse events in White group but not in the non-White group. In addition, there was an association between intensive treatment and higher risk of hematoma expansion in White patients and lower risk of hematoma expansion in non-White patients. CONCLUSIONS In the ATACH-2, there was an interaction between race/ethnicity and response to BP lowering treatment after ICH, with White patients having an association between intensive blood pressure reduction and worse outcome.