Desmopressin acetate (DDAVP) to prevent bleeding in percutaneous kidney biopsy: a systematic review
Internal medicine journal. 2020
BACKGROUND Kidney biopsy is the gold standard for the diagnosing kidney disease but may result in bleeding, especially in uremia. DDAVP (1-deamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin) may reduce uremic bleeding but guidelines on its use are lacking. We aimed to evaluate whether DDAVP reduced bleeding complications after percutaneous kidney biopsies. METHODS We searched CENTRAL, PubMed, Embase, LILACS, WHO Trials Registry and ClinicalTrials.gov until May 2019 for randomised controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-RCTs and prospective cohort studies that compared DDAVP with placebo or no intervention, prior to native or allograft kidney biopsy. The primary outcome was post-biopsy bleeding. Secondary outcome was adverse events related to DDAVP. RESULTS Abstracts of 270 identified papers were examined and 24 selected for evaluation. Two studies, one RCT and one prospective cohort that collectively evaluated 738 native kidney biopsies, met the inclusion criteria. One enrolled individuals with serum creatinine ≤1.5 mg/dL (132 mumol/L) and/or eGFR ≥60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) while the other evaluated biopsies with serum creatinine >150 mumol/L. DDAVP was administered as a single subcutaneous dose of 0.3 mug/kg in both studies. Data were not pooled for meta-analysis due to clinical heterogeneity. GRADE quality of evidence from these two studies was low for DDAVP preventing any bleeding complication after native kidney biopsy. Low quality evidence suggested that adverse effects were not increased in DDAVP therapy. No prospective studies evaluated DDAVP in transplant kidney biopsies. CONCLUSIONS Currently available prospective data is insufficient to support the routine use of DDAVP prior to percutaneous kidney biopsies hence high quality trials are required. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Terlipressin is superior to noradrenaline in the management of acute kidney injury in acute on chronic liver failure
Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.). 2018
BACKGROUND Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) carries a high short-term mortality in patients with cirrhosis and ACLF. Terlipressin and noradrenaline are routinely used in cirrhosis with HRS and have been found to be equally effective. There is no data comparing the efficacy of terlipressin with noradrenaline in ACLF patients with HRS. METHODS In an open-label RCT, consecutive patients with ACLF diagnosed with HRS-AKI, were randomised to albumin with infusion of terlipressin (2-12 mg/d) (n=60) or noradrenaline (0.5-3 mg/hr) (n=60). The response to treatment, course of AKI and outcome were studied. RESULTS Baseline characteristics including AKI stage and sepsis-related HRS-AKI were comparable between the groups. Compared to noradrenaline, terlipressin achieved greater day4 (26.1% vs.11.7%,p=0.03) and day 7 (41.7% vs. 20%,p=0.01) response. Reversal of HRS was also better with terlipressin (40% vs.16.7%,p=0.004) with a significant reduction in the requirement of renal replacement therapy(56.6% vs. 80%,p=0.006)and improved 28-day survival (48.3% vs. 20%,p=0.001). Adverse events limiting use of drugs were higher with terlipressin than noradrenaline[23.3% versus 8.3%,p=0.02], but were reversible. On multivariate analysis, high MELD (OR 1.10, CI=1.009-1.20,p=0.03) and noradrenaline compared to terlipressin (OR 3.05,CI=1.27-7.33,p=0.01)predicted non-response to therapy. Use ofnoradrenaline compared to terlipressin was also predictive of higher mortality (HR 2.08, CI=1.323.30,p=0.002). CONCLUSIONS Acute kidney injury in ACLF carries a high mortality. Infusion of terlipressin gives earlier and higher response than noradrenaline with improved survival in ACLF patients with HRS-AKI. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Desmopressin improves platelet dysfunction measured by in vitro closure time in uremic patients
Clinical Practice. 2010;114((4):):c248-52.
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Desmopressin decreases bleeding time in uremic patients. Although bleeding time is the most frequently used measure of global platelet function, this test has important disadvantages. In vitro closure time (CT) is a relatively new and efficient test of primary hemostasis. We designed a prospective randomized study to evaluate the effect of desmopressin on platelet function, as measured by in vitro CT, in uremic patients. METHODS Forty-eight uremic patients, about to commence hemodialysis and with prolonged CT, were randomized to infusion with desmopressin (n = 24) or saline alone (n = 24). Complete blood count, prothrombin time, activated partial thrombin time, levels of plasma fibrinogen, von Willebrand factor (VWF), factor VIII (FVIII) and CT were measured before and 1 h after desmopressin or saline infusion. RESULTS Following desmopressin infusion, collagen/epinephrine and collagen/adenosine diphosphate CT were significantly shortened from 212 +/- 58 to 152 +/- 45 s (p = 0. 01) and from 189 +/- 78 to 147 +/- 58 s (p = 0. 012), respectively; levels of FVIII and VWF were significantly increased from 188 +/- 66 to 252 +/- 93% (p = 0. 017) and from 113 +/- 9 to 121 +/- 9% (p = 0. 043), respectively. There were no significant changes in the control group. CONCLUSIONS Desmopressin improved platelet dysfunction and increased the plasma concentrations of VWF and FVIII, suggesting that desmopressin may play a role in improving the bleeding tendency in uremic patients.
Deamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin shortens the bleeding time in uremia
New England Journal of Medicine. 1983;308((1):):8-12.
In a randomized double-blind cross-over trial we gave either 1-deamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin or placebo to 12 patients with uremia, hemorrhagic tendencies, and prolonged bleeding times. After vasopressin infusion, all patients had shortened bleeding times, with the effect lasting for at least four hours in most cases. Platelet count, platelet cyclic AMP levels, platelet retention on glass beads, plasma fibronectin, serum thromboxane B2 and residual prothrombin, hematocrit, and plasma osmolarity were unchanged after vasopressin. A consistent post-infusion increase in factor VIII coagulant activity and, to a lesser extent, in factor VIII-related antigen and ristocetin cofactor accompanied the shortening of bleeding time. In addition, vasopressin induced the appearance in plasma of larger von Willebrand-factor multimers than those present in the resting state. The compound was given to nine additional patients with acute or chronic renal failure and prolonged bleeding times, before major surgery or renal biopsy. In these patients, shortening of the bleeding time was associated with normal hemostasis. Our findings indicate that 1-deamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin can be used for temporary correction of bleeding time and may prevent surgical bleeding in patients with uremia.