Early Deterioration, Hematoma Expansion, and Outcomes in Deep Versus Lobar Intracerebral Hemorrhage: The FAST Trial
BACKGROUND In patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), it is unclear whether early neurological deterioration, hematoma expansion (HE), and outcome vary by supratentorial ICH location (deep versus lobar). Herein, we assessed these relationships in a clinical trial cohort that underwent brain imaging early after symptom onset. We hypothesized that HE would occur more frequently, and outcome would be worse in patients with deep ICH. METHODS We performed a post hoc analysis of the FAST (Factor-VII-for-Acute-Hemorrhagic-Stroke-Treatment) trial including all patients with supratentorial hemorrhage. Enrolled patients underwent brain imaging within 3 hours of symptom onset and 24 hours after randomization. Multivariable regression was used to test the association between ICH location and 3 outcomes: HE (increase of ≥33% or 6mL), early neurological deterioration (decrease in Glasgow Coma Scale score ≥2 points or increase in National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale ≥4 points within 24 hours of admission), and 90-day outcome (modified Rankin Scale). RESULTS Of 841 FAST trial patients, we included 728 (mean age 64 years, 38% women) with supratentorial hemorrhages (deep n=623, lobar n=105). HE (44 versus 27%, P=0.001) and early neurological deterioration (31 versus 17%, P=0.001) were more common in lobar hemorrhages. Deep hemorrhages were smaller than lobar hemorrhages at baseline (12 versus 35mL, P<0.001) and 24 hours (14 versus 38mL, P<0.001). Unadjusted 90-day outcome was worse in lobar compared with deep ICH (median modified Rankin Scale score 5 versus 4, P=0.03). However, when adjusting for variables included in the ICH score including ICH volume, deep location was associated with worse and lobar location with better outcome (odds ratio lobar location, 0.58 [95% CI, 0.38-0.89]; P=0.01). CONCLUSIONS In this secondary analysis of randomized trial patients, lobar ICH location was associated with larger ICH volume, more HE and early neurological deterioration, and worse outcome than deep ICH. After adjustment for prognostic variables, however, deep ICH was associated with worse outcome, likely due to their proximity to eloquent brain structures.
Final Results of the RHAPSODY trial: A multi-center, Phase 2 trial using a continual reassessment method to determine the safety and tolerability of 3K3A-APC, a Recombinant Variant of Human Activated Protein C, in combination with tissue plasminogen activator, mechanical thrombectomy or both in moderate to severe acute ischemic stroke
Annals of Neurology. 2018
OBJECTIVE Agonism of the protease activated receptor (PAR) 1 by activated protein C (APC) provides neuroprotection and vasculoprotection in experimental neuro-injury models. The pleiotropic PAR1 agonist, 3K3A-APC, reduces neurologic injury and promotes vascular integrity; 3K3A-APC proved safe in human volunteers. We performed a randomized, controlled, blinded, trial to determine the maximally tolerated dose (MTD) of 3K3A-APC in ischemic stroke patients. METHODS The NeuroNEXT trial RHAPSODY used a novel continual reassessment method to determine the MTD using tiers of 120, 240, 360 and 540mug/kg 3K3A-APC. After intravenous tissue plasminogen activator, intraarterial mechanical thrombectomy, or both, patients were randomized to one of the four doses or placebo. Vasculoprotection was assessed as microbleed and intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) rates. RESULTS Between January 2015 and July 2017 we treated 110 patients. Demographics resembled a typical stroke population. The MTD was the highest dose 3K3A-APC tested, 540mug/kg, with an estimated toxicity rate of 7%. There was no difference in prespecified ICH rates. In exploratory analyses, 3K3A-APC reduced ICH rates compared to placebo from 86.5% to 67.4% in the combined treatment arms (p=0.046), and total hemorrhage volume from an average of 2.1+/-5.8 mL in placebo to 0.8+/-2.1 mL in the combined treatment arms (p=0.066). INTERPRETATION RHAPSODY is the first trial of a neuroprotectant for acute ischemic stroke in a trial design allowing thrombectomy, thrombolysis, or both. The MTD was 540mug/kg for the PAR1 active cytoprotectant 3K3A-APC. A trend toward lower hemorrhage rate in an exploratory analysis requires confirmation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
The incidence of thromboembolism formation following the use of recombinant factor VIIa in patients suffering from blunt force trauma compared with penetrating trauma: a systematic review
Jbi Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports. 2016;14((3)):116-38.
BACKGROUND Rapid replacement of blood loss is critical in patients suffering from traumatic hemorrhage. When the availability of blood products is limited, certain interventions have shown promise in conserving blood supplies. Recombinant factor (rF) VIIa has been administered, as an off-label use, to assist in controlling hemorrhage in trauma patients. Although rFVIIa has a tendency to remain localized to areas of vascular insult, there may be an increase in thromboembolism formation when patients suffer multiple sites of injury as seen in blunt force trauma. OBJECTIVES This review aimed to synthesize the best available evidence regarding the incidence of thromboembolism formation after receiving rFVIIa as an adjunct to hemorrhage control measures (standard resuscitation efforts consisting of varying amounts of packed red blood cells [PRBCs], fresh frozen plasma [FFP], platelets and crystalloid solutions) in patients suffering from traumatic injuries (blunt force and penetrating trauma). INCLUSION CRITERIA TYPES OF PARTICIPANTS Civilian and combat trauma patients who were 15 years and older suffering from blunt force and penetrating traumatic injuries. TYPES OF INTERVENTION(S)/PHENOMENA OF INTEREST Use of rFVIIa as an adjunct to hemorrhage control measures (standard resuscitation efforts consisting of varying amounts of PRBCs, FFP, platelets and crystalloid solutions). TYPES OF STUDIES This review considered both experimental and epidemiological study designs. TYPES OF OUTCOMES Confirmed formation of thromboembolism (confirmation based on specific diagnostic tests such as ultrasound, ventilation-perfusion scan or angiography). SEARCH STRATEGY The databases searched included CINAHL, Ovid MEDLINE, Web of Science, EMBASE and the Cochrane Control Register of Clinical Trials. Studies published after June 1986 were considered for inclusion in this review. Search for unpublished studies was performed. METHODOLOGICAL QUALITY Studies selected for inclusion were critically appraised by two independent reviewers using standardized critical appraisal instruments from the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI). DATA EXTRACTION Data was extracted from articles using standardized data extraction instruments from the JBI. DATA SYNTHESIS Quantitative results were pooled in statistical meta-analysis using the Joanna Briggs software for meta-analysis. RESULTS Two studies with a total of 831 participants were included. Both the studies were randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trials. No studies of combat trauma patients met the inclusion criteria for this review. A meta-analysis was performed. In blunt force trauma patients, the incidence of thromboembolism formation on administering rFVIIa revealed an overall relative risk of 1.17 with a 95% confidence interval (CI) from 0.77 to 1.79; results not statistically significant (P = 0.4594); large CI and imprecise estimate. In penetrating trauma patients, the incidence of thromboembolism formation on administering rFVIIa revealed an overall relative risk of 0.77 with a 95% CI from 0.27 to 2.20; results not statistically significant (P = 0.6242); very large CI and imprecise estimate. CONCLUSIONS The estimates of the effects are imprecise, results are compatible with effects in opposite directions, increase or decrease of thromboembolism formation, and an increase of thromboembolism formation cannot be excluded. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE When rFVIIa is administered to trauma patients, there does not appear to be an increased risk of thromboembolism formation favoring one type of injury over the other (blunt force versus penetrating trauma). Owing to large CIs and imprecise estimates, the overall risk of thromboembolism cannot be excluded. The use of rFVIIa does appear to decrease the overall need for blood products in trauma patients with no statistically significant improvement in survival rates. With the high cost of rFVIIa, its use is limited to those facilities that can afford it. In situations wherein blood supply is limited, rFVIIa could conserve limited supplies of
Intraoperative intravenous administration of rFVIIa and hematoma volume after early surgery for spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage: a randomized prospective phase II study
Minerva Anestesiologica. 2012;78((2):):168-75.
BACKGROUND Surgery of spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), especially if performed early, can be complicated by rebleeding, a condition that can worsen the outcome. We evaluated the effect of recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) on postoperative rebleeding. METHODS In this randomized, open-label, single-blinded study, 21 patients with spontaneous supratentorial ICH diagnosed by computed tomography (CT) scan were treated with intravenous rFVIIa (100 mcg/Kg b.w., N=13) or placebo (N=8). Hematoma volume was assessed using CT scan immediately, 18-30 hours, and 5-7 days after hematoma evacuation. The primary endpoint was a hematoma volume at 18-30 hours after surgery. All CT scans were evaluated at one center by the same investigator who was unaware of the treatment. Hematoma volume was measured using dedicated software. RESULTS At baseline, the hematoma volume was 59.2+/-27.4 and 71.5+/-32.1 mL in the rFVIIa and placebo group, respectively. Hematoma evacuation resulted in significantly smaller ICH volumes that were similar in the rFVIIa and placebo group at 18-30 hours after surgery (15.9+/-14.2 mL and 18+/-15.1 mL, respectively; mean difference 2.1 mL, 95% confidence interval -12.1 to 16.2, P=0.76 (0.03 mL after adjustment for baseline value)). The frequencies of deep venous thrombosis, myocardial infarction, troponin I elevation and cerebral ischemia were similar in both groups. CONCLUSION In this pilot study, intraoperative, intravenous rFVIIa administration did not modify hematoma volume after early ICH surgery. However, the 95% CI was wide, which indicates considerable uncertainty. Therefore, our results do not disprove the potential benefit of rFVIIa administration, which could be shown in a larger study.
Deviations from evidence-based clinical management guidelines increase mortality in critically injured trauma patients*
Critical Care Medicine. 2012;40((3):):778-86.
OBJECTIVES The effect of treatment guidelines on clinical outcomes in general and specifically for trauma patients has not been well-studied. We hypothesized that better compliance with guidelines would be associated with improved clinical outcomes. DESIGN Prospective, randomized, double-blinded, multicentered, placebo-controlled study of recombinant factor VII in severe trauma that utilized guidelines for damage control, transfusions, and mechanical ventilation. Vanderbilt Coordinating Center reviewed compliance in near real-time and reported deviations classified as minor, moderate, or major to investigators. Multivariate regression analysis measured the association between outcomes (30-day and 90-day mortality, development of multiple organ failure, ventilator-free days, renal failure-free days, and blood products transfused) and compliance with each guideline, as well as a composite assessment of overall compliance. SETTING One hundred hospitals in 26 countries. PATIENTS Blunt and/or penetrating trauma patients aged 18-70 yrs who had received 4-8 units of red blood cells for active torso and/or proximal lower extremity bleeding despite standard interventions. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS When assessed as composite end point, major deviations from guidelines were associated with significantly higher mortality at 30 and 90 days after injury and fewer renal failure-free days. Moderate deviations were associated with a significantly higher risk of multiple organ failure and fewer ventilator-free days. Moderate and major deviations from damage control and ventilation guidelines were also significantly associated with higher risk of death at days 30 and 90. Within the ventilation protocol, noncompliance with tidal volume and plateau pressure targets was associated with significantly higher mortality at days 30 and 90 and fewer ventilator-free days, whereas noncompliance with weaning guideline was only associated with significantly fewer ventilator-free days. CONCLUSIONS In a clinical trial of trauma patients, higher compliance with guidelines for damage control, transfusion, and ventilation management is associated with lower mortality and improved outcomes.
Recombinant activated factor VII safety in trauma patients: results from the CONTROL trial
The Journal of Trauma. 2011;71((1):):12-9.
BACKGROUND Safety data on recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa, NovoSeven; Novo Nordisk A/S, BagsvÃ¦rd, Denmark) in actively hemorrhaging trauma patients are limited. We present detailed safety data from a large multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled phase III study (the CONTROL trial). METHODS Data from 560 patients were analyzed. Subjects were monitored for adverse events (AEs) after rFVIIa or placebo administration. Incidences, timing, and presence of risk factors were reported by site investigators, supported by external study monitors and overseen by an independent Data Monitoring Committee. RESULTS There were no differences in overall mortality, organ system failure, or AEs, serious AEs, or medical events of special interest. Arterial and venous thromboembolic (TE) events and their risk factors were similar in both groups. The greatest risk factor for TE events was a chest injury requiring mechanical ventilation >3 days (86%). There were four site investigator-reported myocardial infarctions in the rFVIIa group of which only one met diagnostic criteria preestablished by the Data Monitoring Committee. There were no reported myocardial infarctions in the placebo group. Troponins were increased in 30% of all patients. The rate of acute respiratory distress syndrome was lower in the rFVIIa (3.0%) than in the placebo (7.2%) group (p = 0.022). CONCLUSIONS This represents the largest placebo-controlled dataset of rFVIIa use in trauma patients to date. In this prospective study of critically bleeding trauma patients, rFVIIa use was associated with an imbalance of investigator-reported Acute myocardial infarction/non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (AMI/NSTEMI), but was not associated with an increased risk for other AEs, including TE complications.
Thromboembolic events with recombinant activated factor VII in spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage: results from the Factor Seven for Acute Hemorrhagic Stroke (FAST) trial
Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation. 2010;41((1):):48-53.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Patients with intracerebral hemorrhage have a high risk of thromboembolic events (TEs) due to advanced age, hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetes, and immobility. Use of recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) could increase TEs in high-risk patients. Factor Seven for Acute Hemorrhagic Stroke (FAST) trial data were reviewed to define the frequency of and risk factors for TE with rFVIIa. METHODS Eight hundred forty-one patients presenting <3 hours after spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage were randomized to 20 or 80 microg/kg of rFVIIa or placebo. Those with Glasgow Coma Scale score <5, planned early surgery, coagulopathy, or recent TE were excluded. Myocardial, cerebral, or venous TEs were subject to detailed reporting and expedited local review. Additionally, a blinded Data Monitoring Committee reviewed all electrocardiograms, centrally analyzed troponin I values, and CT scans. RESULTS There were 178 arterial and 47 venous TEs. Venous events were similar across groups. There were 49 (27%) arterial events in the placebo group, 47 (26%) in the 20-microg/kg group, and 82 (46%) in the 80 microg/kg group (P=0. 04). Of the myocardial events, 38 were investigator-reported and 103 identified by the Data Monitoring Committee. They occurred in 17 (6. 3%) placebo and 57 (9. 9%) rFVIIa patients (P=0. 09). Arterial TEs were associated with: receiving 80 microg/kg rFVIIa (OR=2. 14; P=0. 031), signs of cardiac or cerebral ischemia at presentation (OR=4. 19; P=0. 010), age (OR=1. 14/5 years; P=0. 0123), and prior use of antiplatelet agents (OR=1. 83; P=0. 035). Ischemic strokes possibly related to study drug occurred in 7, 5, and 8 patients in the placebo, 20 microg/kg, and 80-microg/kg groups, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Higher doses of rFVIIa in a high-risk population are associated with a small increased risk of what are usually minor cardiac events. Demonstration of the ability of rFVIIa to improve outcome in future studies should be driven by its effectiveness in slowing bleeding outweighting the risk of a small increase in arterial TEs.
Results of the CONTROL trial: efficacy and safety of recombinant activated Factor VII in the management of refractory traumatic hemorrhage
The Journal of Trauma. 2010;69((3):):489-500.
BACKGROUND Traumatic coagulopathy contributes to early death by exsanguination and late death in multiple organ failure. Recombinant Factor VIIa (rFVIIa, NovoSeven) is a procoagulant that might limit bleeding and improve trauma outcomes. METHODS We performed a phase 3 randomized clinical trial evaluating efficacy and safety of rFVIIa as an adjunct to direct hemostasis in major trauma. We studied 573 patients (481 blunt and 92 penetrating) who bled 4 to 8 red blood cell (RBC) units within 12 hours of injury and were still bleeding despite strict damage control resuscitation and operative management. Patients were assigned to rFVIIa (200 μg/kg initially; 100 μg/kg at 1 hour and 3 hours) or placebo. Intensive care unit management was standardized using evidence-based trauma bundleswith formal oversight of compliance. Primary outcome was 30-day mortality. Predefined secondary outcomes included blood products used. Safety was assessed through 90 days. Study powering was based on prior randomized controlled trials and large trauma center databases. RESULTS Enrollment was terminated at 573 of 1502 planned patients because of unexpected low mortality prompted by futility analysis (10. 8% vs. 27. 5% planned/predicted) and difficulties consenting and enrolling sicker patients. Mortality was 11. 0% (rFVIIa) versus 10. 7% (placebo) (p = 0. 93, blunt) and 18. 2% (rFVIIa) versus 13. 2% (placebo) (p = 0. 40, penetrating). Blunt trauma rFVIIa patients received (mean +/- SD) 7. 8 +/- 10. 6 RBC units and 19. 0 +/- 27. 1 total allogeneic units through 48 hours, and placebo patients received 9. 1 +/- 11. 3 RBC units (p = 0. 04) and 23. 5 +/- 28. 0 total allogeneic units (p = 0. 04). Thrombotic adverse events were similar across study cohorts. CONCLUSIONS rFVIIa reduced blood product use but did not affect mortality compared with placebo. Modern evidence-based trauma lowers mortality, paradoxically making outcomes studies increasingly difficult.
A meta-analysis of the efficacy and safety of recombinant activated factor VII for patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage without hemophilia
Journal of Clinical Neuroscience. 2010;17((6):):685-93.
Hematoma growth is common in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and is associated with a poor outcome for patients. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) used as a hemostatic agent in patients with ICH without hemophilia, we searched Medline, Scopus, the Cochrane Library, Clinicaltrials.gov and the Stroke Trials Directory. Five randomized controlled trials were selected for analysis. Although rFVIIa can reduce the change in ICH volume, there was no significant difference in mortality, modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score or extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS-E) score in patients treated with rFVIIa or placebo. There was a significant increase in arterial thromboembolic adverse events (TAE) in patients treated with rFVIIa. There was an increase in deep vein thrombosis in patients with spontaneous ICH and traumatic ICH. In conclusion, the use of rFVIIa reduces the growth of the hematoma but does not improve patient survival or functional outcome after ICH; in addition, rFVIIa increases the incidence of arterial TAE.
Prolonged prothrombin time after recombinant activated factor VII therapy in critically bleeding trauma patients is associated with adverse outcomes
The Journal of Trauma. 2010;69((1):):60-9.
BACKGROUND In trauma patients with significant hemorrhage, it is hypothesized that failure to normalize prothrombin time (PT) after recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) treatment predicts poor clinical outcomes and potentially indicates a need for additional therapeutic interventions. METHODS To assess the value of PT to predict outcomes after rFVIIa or placebo therapy, we performed a post hoc analysis of data from 169 severely injured, critically bleeding trauma patients who had 1-hour postdose PT measurements from two randomized clinical trials. Baseline characteristics and outcome parameters were compared between subjects with 1-hour postdose PT >or=18 seconds and PT <18 seconds. RESULTS In rFVIIa-treated subjects, prolonged postdose PT values >or=18 seconds were associated with significantly higher 24-hour mortality (60% vs. 3%; p < 0. 001) and 30-day mortality, increased incidence of massive transfusion, and fewer intensive care unit-free days compared with postdose PT values <18 seconds. Recombinant rFVIIa-treated subjects with postdose PT >or=18 seconds had significantly lower baseline hemoglobin levels, fibrinogen levels, and platelet counts than subjects with postdose PT values <18 seconds even though they received similar amounts of blood products before rFVIIa dosing. Placebo-treated subjects with postdose PT >or=18 seconds had significantly increased incidence of massive transfusion, significantly decreased intensive care unit-free days, and significantly lower levels of fibrinogen and platelets at baseline compared with subjects with postdose PT values <18 seconds. CONCLUSIONS The presence of prolonged PT after rFVIIa or placebo therapy was associated with poor clinical outcomes. Because subjects with postdosing PT >or=18 seconds had low levels of hemoglobin, fibrinogen, and platelets, this group may benefit from additional blood component therapy.