The Impact of Recombinant Versus Plasma-Derived Factor VIII Concentrates on Inhibitor Development in Previously Untreated Patients With Hemophilia A: A 2021 Update of a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Hemophilia A, the most common hereditary disorder, is caused by clotting factor deficiency. Challenges encountered in the current treatment of hemophilia A [factor VIII (FVIII) replacement therapy] due to inhibitor development have caused ineffective treatment as well as morbidity and mortality among patients. However, there are no studies comparing the two types of FVIII treatments in terms of inhibitor development rate. Therefore, we conducted this systematic review to devise a better treatment option with a lower risk of inhibitor development. The systematic review was conducted using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and by searching several databases. Data extraction on study characteristics and outcomes was conducted. Reviewers also conducted a risk of bias assessment on all studies. All eligible studies for quantitative analysis were then processed using RevMan 5.4.1 and the data was extrapolated into cumulative outcomes and expressed in forest and funnel plots. Nine studies were included in the meta-analysis, involving a total of 2,531 hemophilia A patients who were followed up from birth until death. A higher incidence of inhibitor development was found to be associated with recombinant FVIII (rFVIII) [odds ratio (OR)=1.57, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.95-2.59; hazard ratio (HR)=1.89, 95% CI: 1.15-3.12]. The same trend was also found for high-responding inhibitors (OR=1.38, 95% CI: 0.70-2.70; HR=1.42, 95% CI: 0.84-2.39). rFVIII is associated with a higher risk of overall and high-responding inhibitor development compared to plasma-derived FVIII (pdFVIII).
Effects of replacement therapies with clotting factors in patients with hemophilia: A systematic review and meta-analysis
PloS one. 2022;17(1):e0262273
BACKGROUND Different prophylactic and episodic clotting factor treatments are used in the management of hemophilia. A summarize of the evidence is needed inform decision-making. OBJECTIVE To compare the effects of factor replacement therapies in patients with hemophilia. METHODS We performed a systematic search in PubMed, Central Cochrane Library, and Scopus. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published up to December 2020, which compared different factor replacement therapies in patients with hemophilia. Random-effects meta-analyses were performed whenever possible. The certainty of the evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology. The study protocol was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42021225857). RESULTS Nine RCTs were included in this review, of which six compared episodic with prophylactic treatment, all of them performed in patients with hemophilia A. Pooled results showed that, compared to the episodic treatment group, the annualized bleeding rate was lower in the low-dose prophylactic group (ratio of means [RM]: 0.27, 95% CI: 0.17 to 0.43), intermediate-dose prophylactic group (RM: 0.15, 95% CI: 0.07 to 0.36), and high-dose prophylactic group (RM: 0.07, 95% CI: 0.04 to 0.13). With significant difference between these subgroups (p = 0.003, I2 = 82.9%). In addition, compared to the episodic treatment group, the annualized joint bleeding rate was lower in the low-dose prophylactic group (RM: 0.17, 95% CI: 0.06 to 0.43), intermediate-dose prophylactic group (RM of 0.14, 95% CI: 0.07 to 0.27), and high-dose prophylactic group (RM of 0.08, 95% CI: 0.04 to 0.16). Without significant subgroup differences. The certainty of the evidence was very low for all outcomes according to GRADE methodology. The other studies compared different types of clotting factor concentrates (CFCs), assessed pharmacokinetic prophylaxis, or compared different frequencies of medication administration. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that prophylactic treatment (at either low, intermediate, or high doses) is superior to episodic treatment for bleeding prevention. In patients with hemophilia A, the bleeding rate seems to have a dose-response effect. However, no study compared different doses of prophylactic treatment, and all results had a very low certainty of the evidence. Thus, future studies are needed to confirm these results and inform decision making.
Efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity of rurioctocog alfa pegol for prophylactic treatment in previously treated patients with severe hemophilia A: a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials
Background: Patients with severe hemophilia often present with painful joint and soft tissue bleeding which may restrict them from their daily activities. The current standard of care still relies on a regular prophylactic factor VIII (FVIII), which has a high daily treatment burden. Recently, rurioctocog alfa pegol, a third-generation recombinant FVIII with a modification in its polyethylene glycol (PEG) component, has been developed. Several trials have studied this synthetic drug as bleeding prophylaxis in severe hemophilia A. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity of rurioctocog alfa pegol for previously treated patients with severe hemophilia A. Methods: This study was conducted in conformity with the PRISMA guidelines. Data were retrieved from PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, Wiley Online Library, and CINAHL (via EBSCOhost). Study qualities were assessed using the Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies (MINORS) and Modified Jadad scales. Results: Four studies involving 517 previously treated severe hemophilia A patients were included in this study. The pooled mean of total annualized bleeding rate (ABR) and hemostatic efficacy was 2.59 (95% CI = 2.04-3.14) and 92% (95% CI = 85%-97%), respectively. Only 30 (2.3%) non-serious and one (1.4%) serious adverse events were considered related to rurioctocog alfa pegol treatment. At the end of the studies, no development of FVIII inhibitory antibodies was observed. None of the developed binding antibodies to FVIII, PEG-FVIII, or PEG was correlated to the treatment efficacy and safety. Conclusions: Despite the limited availability of direct comparison studies, our analyses indicate that rurioctocog alfa pegol could serve as a safe and effective alternative for bleeding prophylaxis in previously treated hemophilia A patients. Moreover, it appears to have low immunogenicity, which further increases the safety profile of the drug in such clinical conditions.
Indirect Treatment Comparison of Damoctocog Alfa Pegol versus Turoctocog Alfa Pegol as Prophylactic Treatment in Patients with Hemophilia A
Journal of blood medicine. 2021;12:935-943
PURPOSE To assess the efficacy and FVIII consumption of BAY 94-9027 versus N8-GP in prophylaxis in adolescent and adult patients with severe hemophilia A (HA). PATIENTS AND METHODS A systematic literature review was conducted to identify studies on the efficacy of BAY-94-9027 and N8-GP for prophylaxis in patients with HA aged ≥12 years without a history of inhibitors. Eight studies met systematic literature review inclusion criteria, but only data from PROTECT VIII on BAY 94-9027 and PATHFINDER 2 on N8-GP could be used for an indirect comparison. Matching-adjusted indirect comparison (MAIC) and simulated treatment comparison were performed. RESULTS No significant differences (unadjusted and adjusted) were observed in the mean annualized bleeding rate (ABR) for any bleed and proportion of patients with zero bleeds when comparing BAY 94-9027 to N8-GP. The adjusted treatment difference [incidence rate ratio (IRR)] in terms of ABR was 1.11 (95% CI, 0.85-1.44). The odds ratio (OR) of any bleed, measuring the relative effect of BAY 94-9027 versus N8-GP on the proportion of patients with zero bleeds, was 1.03 (95% CI, 0.60-1.77). FVIII consumption was significantly lower in BAY 94-9027 [mean adjusted difference=-1292.57 IU/kg/year (95% CI, ‒2152.44 to ‒432.70)]; a 26.7% reduction in consumption of BAY-94-9027. The results of the sensitivity analyses were similar to the main analysis for mean ABRs, percentages of patients with zero bleeds, and significant reduction in rFVIII consumption. For patients on BAY 94-9027 every-5-days and every-7-days, no differences versus every-4-days N8-GP were observed for the mean ABR for any bleed [IRR=0.90 (95% CI, 0.68‒1.20)] and proportion of patients with zero bleeds [OR=1.06 (95% CI, 0.56‒2.02)]. CONCLUSION BAY 94-9027 prophylaxis demonstrated 26.7% lower annual consumption when compared to N8-GP with similar efficacy in terms of ABR and percentage of patients with zero bleeds.
Inhibitor in Congenital Factor VII Deficiency; a Rare but Serious Therapeutic Challenge-A Systematic Literature Review
Journal of clinical medicine. 2021;10(2)
BACKGROUND Congenital factor (F) VII deficiency is a rare coagulation factor deficiency with an estimated incidence of 1 per 500,000 individuals. Patients with severe FVII deficiency present a broad range of clinical presentations. Alloimmunization against exogenous FVII, as the main challenge of replacement therapy, is an extremely rare phenomenon that is accompanied by a high rate of life-threatening bleeding, that renders replacement therapy less effective. Due to the importance of the issue, we performed a systematic literature review in order to assess incidence, molecular basis, clinical presentations, and therapeutic challenge and management of inhibitor in congenital FVII deficiency. Strategy of search: This systematic review was performed in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. We performed an English-language literature review in the PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases, using the following keywords: "factor VII inhibitor", "factor VII inhibitors", "FVII inhibitors", "congenital FVII deficiency", "recombinant factor VII", "anti rFVIIa", "replacement therapy", and "alloantibody". RESULTS Out of 380 patients in the 13 studies, 27 had inhibitor against FVII; 18 were male, 7 were female, while the sex of 2 was not stated. The majority (92%) developed a high-titer inhibitor (Bethesda Unit > 5). All patients had severe FVII deficiency (FVII:C < 10%), and the majority received recombinant FVII prior to inhibitor development (N: 24, 89%). Among ten patients with a detected mutation, three subjects had a common non-sense (30%), and two had a deletion (20%). CONCLUSIONS Inhibitor development is a relatively rare phenomenon seen only in severe FVII deficiency, where it is associated with severe and life-threatening presentations, treatment challenge, and economic burden on the patients and their families.
Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a recombinant fusion protein linking activated coagulation factor VII with human albumin (rVIIa-FP) in patients with congenital FVII deficiency
Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands). 2020;25(1):17-25
Objectives: Recombinant fusion protein linking activated factor VIIa to human albumin (rVIIa-FP) is a therapeutic option designed to prevent and treat bleeding events in patients with congenital FVII deficiency with reduced infusion frequency compared to current FVII treatments. This study characterized the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of rVIIa-FP.Methods: A phase I multicenter, randomized, open-label, parallel-arm, single-dose study (NCT02470871) was conducted in nine patients with severe congenital FVII deficiency. Patients received their routine FVII product (30 IU/kg plasma-derived FVII [pdFVII] or 25 mug/kg recombinant activated FVII (rFVIIa) [eptacog alfa]), and were then randomly assigned to receive 100 or 300 mug/kg of rVIIa-FP. Blood samples for PK and PD assessments were drawn up to 48 hr after administration. FVIIa activity was determined using a one-stage clotting assay. PD parameters were derived from thrombin generation testing, using the Nijmegen hemostasis assay.Results: rVIIa-FP showed improved PK compared to rFVIIa, with 2- to 3-fold longer t1/2 and 4- to 8-fold lower clearance. Analysis of PD data showed a sustained suppression of lag time below 4.5 min (upper limit of healthy people) for rVIIa-FP compared to rFVIIa. AUEC and ECmax were similar across the two dose groups of rVIIa-FP and rFVIIa.Discussion: rVIIa-FP was well tolerated in patients with congenital FVII deficiency, showed a longer half-life and lower clearance compared to rFVIIa, and lag time remaining within healthy ranges for ≥8 hr.Conclusion: These results warrant further investigation into the efficacy of rVIIa-FP to control and prevent bleeding in patients with FVII deficiency.
Direct comparison of two extended half-life PEGylated recombinant FVIII products: a randomized, crossover pharmacokinetic study in patients with severe hemophilia A
Annals of hematology. 2020
An open-label, crossover randomized study was performed to compare the pharmacokinetics (PK) of damoctocog alfa pegol and rurioctocog alfa pegol, two recombinant factor VIII (FVIII) products indicated in patients with hemophilia A, both conjugated to polyethylene glycol to reduce clearance and extend time in circulation. Adult patients (N = 18) with severe hemophilia A (FVIII < 1 IU/dL), previously treated with any FVIII product for ≥ 150 exposure days, were randomized to receive a single 50 IU/kg infusion of damoctocog alfa pegol followed by rurioctocog alfa pegol, or vice versa, with ≥ 7-day washout between doses. FVIII activity was measured using the one-stage clotting assay. PK parameters, including area under the curve from time 0 to the last data point (AUC(0-tlast), primary parameter), dose-normalized AUC (AUC(norm)), and time to threshold, were calculated based on 11 time points between 0.25 and 120 h post-dose and evaluated using a noncompartmental model. Due to differences in batch-specific vial content used for the study, actual administered median doses were 54.3 IU/kg for damoctocog alfa pegol and 61.4 IU/kg for rurioctocog alfa pegol. Based on actual dosing, a significantly higher geometric mean (coefficient of variation [%CV]) AUC(norm) was observed for damoctocog alfa pegol (43.8 h kg/dL [44.0]) versus rurioctocog alfa pegol (36.0 h kg/dL [40.1, P < 0.001]). Based on population PK modeling, median time to reach 1 IU/dL was 16 h longer for damoctocog alfa pegol compared with rurioctocog alfa pegol. No adverse events or any immunogenicity signals were observed. Overall, damoctocog alfa pegol had a superior PK profile versus rurioctocog alfa pegol. Trial registration number: NCT04015492 ( ClinicalTrials.gov identifier). Date of registration: July 9, 2019.
BIVV001 Fusion Protein as Factor VIII Replacement Therapy for Hemophilia A
The New England journal of medicine. 2020;383(11):1018-1027
BACKGROUND Factor VIII replacement products have improved the care of patients with hemophilia A, but the short half-life of these products affects the patients' quality of life. The half-life of recombinant factor VIII ranges from 15 to 19 hours because of the von Willebrand factor chaperone effect. BIVV001 (rFVIIIFc-VWF-XTEN) is a novel fusion protein designed to overcome this half-life ceiling and maintain high sustained factor VIII activity levels. Data are lacking on the safety and pharmacokinetics of single-dose BIVV001. METHODS In this phase 1-2a open-label trial, we consecutively assigned 16 previously treated men (18 to 65 years of age) with severe hemophilia A (factor VIII activity, <1%) to receive a single intravenous injection of recombinant factor VIII at a dose of 25 IU per kilogram of body weight (lower-dose group) or 65 IU per kilogram (higher-dose group). This injection was followed by a washout period of at least 3 days. The patients then received a single intravenous injection of BIVV001 at the same corresponding dose of either 25 IU or 65 IU per kilogram. Adverse events and pharmacokinetic measurements were assessed. RESULTS No inhibitors to factor VIII were detected and no hypersensitivity or anaphylaxis events were reported up to 28 days after the injection of single-dose BIVV001. The geometric mean half-life of BIVV001 was three to four times as long as that of recombinant factor VIII (37.6 hours vs. 9.1 hours in the lower-dose group and 42.5 vs. 13.2 hours in the higher-dose group); the area under the curve (AUC) for product exposure was six to seven times as great in the two dose groups (4470 hours vs. 638 hours × IU per deciliter in the lower-dose group and 12,800 hours vs. 1960 hours × IU per deciliter in the higher-dose group). After the injection of BIVV001 in the higher-dose group, the mean factor VIII level was in the normal range (≥51%) for 4 days and 17% at day 7, which suggested the possibility of a weekly interval between treatments. CONCLUSIONS In a small, early-phase study involving men with severe hemophilia A, a single intravenous injection of BIVV001 resulted in high sustained factor VIII activity levels, with a half-life that was up to four times the half-life associated with recombinant factor VIII, an increase that could signal a new class of factor VIII replacement therapy with a weekly treatment interval. No safety concerns were reported during the 28-day period after administration. (Funded by Sanofi and Sobi; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03205163.).
Epidemiological Challenges in Rare Bleeding Disorders: FVIII Inhibitor Incidence in Haemophilia A Patients-A Known Issue of Unknown Origin
International journal of environmental research and public health. 2020;18(1)
There is a broad range of factor products approved in Germany for haemophilia A treatment. Since the introduction of recombinant coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) products in the 1990s, there has been substantial debate whether there is a difference in inhibitor incidence between single FVIII products or product classes. Neither haemophilia registries nor clinical studies, including a randomised controlled clinical trial, provided a consistent and definite answer. The reasons were mainly related to methodological challenges in conducting controlled studies in a rare disease. In this analysis, the most relevant epidemiological challenges and main problems were examined, including study bias, potential overlap of individual studies and advanced development of therapy and methods in the course of time. Meta-analyses on two levels showed that therapies using recombinant products resulted in different event rates when compared to plasma-derived products. These results are accompanied by substantial study heterogeneity evidenced by Cochran's Q tests. Only three studies have been identified that meet the standards of current clinical guidance. To finally resolve this ongoing and disputable safety issue of replacement therapy, collaboration among registry owners, academia and regulators must be fostered.
A systematic review evaluating the efficacy and factor consumption of long-acting recombinant factor VIII products for the prophylactic treatment of hemophilia A
Journal of medical economics. 2020;:1
Aims: Long-acting (LA) recombinant FVIII (rFVIII) products with extended dosing intervals have been developed for the treatment of hemophilia A; however, no direct head-to-head trial has been conducted to compare the efficacy of these products.Materials and methods: A systematic literature search was conducted to identify published Phase III clinical trials of prophylactic LA rFVIII treatment in previously treated patients aged ≥12 years, with moderate-to-severe hemophilia A (endogenous FVIII levels ≤2%). Studies that did not meet these criteria, or did not report the included outcomes, were excluded. Bleeding rates and consumption were extracted and summarized; only data for the dosing frequencies indicated in the US product labels (which are similar to those indicated in the European Medicines Agency labels) were included.Results: Five articles met the inclusion criteria; these studies only included patients with severe hemophilia A. Treatment length, reported outcomes and dose (range: 20-65 IU/kg) varied between studies. Median annualized bleeding rate (ABR) (IQR) reported in the relevant studies was 1.14 (0.00, 4.30), rVIII-SingleChain 2 or 3 times weekly; 1.6 (0.0, 4.7), rFVIIIFc 2 times weekly followed by every 3-5 days; 1.9 (0.0, 5.8), BAX855 2 times weekly; 1.18 (0.00, 4.25), N8-GP every 4 days; 1.9 (0.0, 5.2) and 4.1 (2.0, 10.6), BAY 94-9027 2 times weekly for the cohort who experienced >1 or <1 bleed in the study run-in phase, respectively. Median spontaneous ABR was 0.0 across studies reporting relevant data. Reported consumption was comparable among all LA products.Limitations: The primary limitation of this systematic review was the variation in study design and not all studies reported all desired outcomes, which limited the quantity of data available.Conclusions: This systematic review identified pivotal trial data for LA rFVIII products. Real-world evidence are needed to understand how these products perform in clinical practice.