Effect of recombinant Factor VIIa on outcome of acute variceal bleeding: an individual patient based meta-analysis of two controlled trials
Journal of Hepatology. 2014;61((2)):252-9.
BACKGROUND & AIMS Two randomized controlled studies have evaluated the effect of recombinant Factor VIIa (rFVIIa) on variceal bleeding in cirrhosis without showing significant benefit. The aim of the present study was to perform a meta-analysis of the two trials on individual patient data with special focus on high risk patients. METHODS The primary outcome measure was the effect of rFVIIa on a composite five day endpoint: failure to control bleeding, 5-day rebleeding or death. Analysis was based on intention to treat. High risk was defined as active bleeding on endoscopy while under vasoactive drug infusion and Child-Pugh score >8. RESULTS 497 patients were eligible for the meta-analysis; 308 (62%) had active variceal bleeding at endoscopy (oozing or spurting) and 283 of these had a Child-Pugh score >8. Analysis on the composite endpoint in all patients with bleeding from oesophageal varices did not show any beneficial treatment effect. However, failure rate for the primary composite end-point was significantly lower in treated patients with active bleeding at endoscopy (17%) compared to placebo (26%, p=0.049). This difference was highly significant in patients with Child-Pugh score >8 and active bleeding at endoscopy (rFVIIa 16%, placebo 27%; p=0.023). No significant treatment effect was found at 42 days. Five thromboembolic events occurred in rFVIIa treated patients compared to none in placebo treated patients. CONCLUSIONS The current meta-analysis shows a beneficial effect of rFVIIa on the primary composite endpoint of control of acute bleeding, prevention of rebleeding day 1-5 and 5-day mortality in patients with advanced cirrhosis and active bleeding from oesophageal varices at endoscopy. A major drawback of the treatment is a potential increased risk of arterial thrombo-embolic events. This treatment might be considered in patients with lack of control of bleeding after standard treatment.Copyright © 2014 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. RN 0 (Recombinant Proteins). 0 (recombinant FVIIa). EC 3-4-21-21 (Factor VIIa).
A double-blind, randomized, controlled study to explore the efficacy of rFVIIa on intraoperative blood loss and mortality in patients with severe acute pancreatitis
Thrombosis Research. 2014;133((4):):574-8.
BACKGROUND Severe acute pancreatitis is a life-threatening disease. Patients with peripancreatic necrotic infection often require surgical removal of necrotic infected tissue and a wide debridement will cause blood loss and worsen the condition. AIM: To assess whether treatment with NovoSeven, a recombinant activated FVII (rFVIIa), could improve coagulation function and therefore reduce blood loss, blood transfusion and all-cause mortality during necrosectomy in patients with infected necrosis secondary to severe acute pancreatitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS Severe acute pancreatitis patients admitted to Nanjing Jinling Hospital for necrosectomy were enrolled and randomized to receive either standard treatment or standard treatment plus an intravenous infusion of rFVIIa (40mug per kilogram of body weight per hour) before operation. The prospectively defined primary end points were perioperative coagulation parameters (prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time), blood transfusion unit and blood loss. The secondary end points were operation time, ICU stay and all-cause mortality at 28days after the operation. RESULTS A total of 64 patients were enrolled (31 in the rFVIIa group and 33 in the control group). Treatment with rFVIIa was associated with a reduction in operation time, red blood cell and fresh froze plasma transfusion, blood loss and prothrombin time compared to the control group (p<0.05 for all). Activated partial thromboplastin time and mortality were similar between the two groups (P>0.05). CONCLUSION Treatment with rFVIIa significantly improved the extrinsic coagulation function in patients with severe acute pancreatitis and was associated with decreased risk of bleeding. However, rFVIIa did not improve intrinsic coagulation or reduce over-cause mortality. Clinical Trial Registration Number: ChiCTR-TRC-1300389. Copyright 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Human recombinant activated factor VII for upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with liver diseases
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2012;((3):):CD004887.
BACKGROUND Mortality from upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with liver disease is high. Recombinant human activated factor VII (rHuFVIIa) has been suggested for patients with liver disease and upper gastrointestinal bleeding. OBJECTIVES To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of rHuFVIIa in patients with liver disease and upper gastrointestinal bleeding. SEARCH METHODS We searched the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register (December 2011), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library (Issue 4, 2011), MEDLINE (1948 to December 2011), EMBASE (1980 to December 2011), Science Citation Index Expanded (1900 to December 2011), and LILACS (December 2011). We sought additional randomised trials from the reference lists of the trials and reviews identified through the electronic searches. SELECTION CRITERIA Randomised clinical trials. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Outcome data from randomised clinical trials were extracted and were presented using random-effects model meta-analyses. Data on the risk of bias in the included trials were also extracted. MAIN RESULTS We included two trials with 493 randomised participants with various Child-Pugh scores. The trials had a low risk of bias. The rHuFVIIa administration did not reduce the risk of mortality within five days (21/288 (7. 3%) versus 15/205 (7. 3%); risk ratio (RR) 0. 88, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0. 48 to 1. 64, I(2) = 49%) and within 42 days (5/286 (1. 7%) versus 36/205 (17. 6%); RR 1. 01, 95% CI 0. 55 to 1. 87, I(2) = 55%) when compared with placebo. Trial sequential analysis demonstrated that there is sufficient evidence to exclude that rHuFVIIa decreases mortality by 80%, but there is insufficient evidence to exclude smaller effects. The rHuFVIIa did not increase the risk of adverse events by number of patients (218/297 (74%) and 164/210 (78%); RR 0. 94, 95% CI 0. 84 to 1. 04, I(2) = 1%), serious adverse events by adverse events reported (164/590 (28%) versus 123/443 (28%); RR 0. 91, 95% CI 0. 75 to 1. 11, I(2) = 0%), and thromboembolic adverse events (16/297 (5. 4%) versus 14/210 (6. 7%); RR 0. 80, 95% CI 0. 40 to 1. 60, I(2) = 0%) when compared with placebo. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS We found no evidence to support or reject the administration of rHuFVIIa for patients with liver disease and upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Further adequately powered randomised clinical trials are needed in order to evaluate the proper role of rHuFVIIa for treating upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with liver disease. Although the results are based on trials with low risk of bias, the heterogeneity and the small sample size result in rather large confidence intervals that cannot exclude the possibility that the intervention has some beneficial or harmful effect. Further trials with alow risk of bias are required to make more confident conclusions about the effects of the intervention.
The role of recombinant activated factor VII in neuro- surgical and neurocritical patients
Neurocirugia (Asturias, Spain). 2011;22((3):):209-23.
Central nervous system haemorrhage is a severe pathology, as a small amount of bleeding inside the brain can result in devastating consequences. Haemostatic agents might decrease the consequences of intra-cranial bleeding, whichever spontaneous, traumatic, or anticoagulation treatment etiology. Proacogulant recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) has been given after central nervous system bleeding, with an off-label indication. In this update, we go over the drug mechanism of action, its role in the treatment of central nervous system haemorrhage and the published evidences regarding this subject. We carried out a literature review concerning the treatment with rFVIIa in central nervous system haemorrhage, neurocritical pathologies and neurosurgical procedures, searching in MEDLINE and in clinical trials registry: http://clinicaltrials. gov (last review September 2010), as well as performing a manual analysis of collected articles, looking for aditional references. The results of randomized clinical trials do not support the systematic administration of rFVIIa for spontaneous intracranial cerebral haemorrhage. In other central nervous system related haemorrhages, the current available data consist on retrospective studies, expert opinion or isolated case reports.
Risk of thromboembolic events in controlled trials of rFVIIa in spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) reduces hematoma expansion and improves outcome after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), with an apparent increase in nonfatal thromboembolic events (TEs) with higher doses. Despite low incidences of such events in rFVIIa-treated hemophiliacs, the frequency in older patients with more atherosclerosis and immobility has yet to be defined. METHODS Data were pooled from 3 randomized placebo-controlled studies in patients diagnosed within 3 hours of spontaneous ICH who received a single dose of rFVIIa (5 to 160 microg/kg; n=371) or placebo (n=115). Clinical/laboratory evaluations, lower extremity Doppler studies, and 72-hour CT scans were used to monitor for TEs. Adverse events occurring while hospitalized and serious events occurring through day 90 were carefully reviewed. RESULTS There was no overall increase in risk of total TEs in rFVIIa-treated patents; however, there were more arterial, but not venous, TEs in the high dose group (120 to 160 microg/kg) compared with placebo (5. 4% versus 1. 7%; P=0. 13). Arterial events occurring within 7 days of drug administration classified as possibly or probably associated with study drug included myocardial ischemia (n=9, 8 were non-ST-segment elevation and non-Q-wave events; 2 of the 9 had sequelae) and ischemic stroke (n=9, 4 of which had likely causes other than rFVIIa). Regression analysis identified high doses (120 to 160 microg/kg) of rFVIIa as the only factor associated with arterial TEs (odds ratio=6. 75; P=0. 02). CONCLUSIONS There appears to be a increased risk of arterial TEs associated with higher doses of rFVIIa in ICH patients as compared with placebo. Further studies are underway to identify specific factors associated with these events and to define the dose that maximizes benefit and minimizes risk.
Recombinant factor VIIa for variceal bleeding in patients with advanced cirrhosis: A randomized, controlled trial
Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.). 2008;47((5):):1604-14.
A beneficial effect of recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) in Child-Pugh class B and C patients with cirrhosis who have variceal bleeding has been suggested. This randomized controlled trial assessed the efficacy and safety of rFVIIa in patients with advanced cirrhosis and active variceal bleeding. At 31 hospitals in an emergency setting, 256 patients (Child-Pugh > 8; Child-Pugh B = 26%, C = 74%) were randomized equally to: placebo; 600 microg/kg rFVIIa (200 + 4x 100 microg/kg); or 300 microg/kg rFVIIa (200 + 100 microg/kg). Dosing was intravenous at 0, 2, 8, 14, and 20 hours after endoscopy, in addition to standard vasoactive, prophylactic antibiotic, and endoscopic treatment. The primary composite endpoint consisted of failure to control 24-hour bleeding, or failure to prevent rebleeding or death at day 5. Secondary endpoints included adverse events and 42-day mortality. Baseline characteristics were comparable between groups. Administration of rFVIIa had no significant effect on the composite endpoint compared with placebo (P = 0. 37). There was no significant difference in 5-day mortality between groups; however, 42-day mortality was significantly lower with 600 microg/kg rFVIIa compared with placebo (odds ratio 0. 31, 95% confidence interval = 0. 13-0. 74), and bleeding-related deaths were reduced from 12% (placebo) to 2% (600 microg/kg). A marked heterogeneity in the failure rate in all treatment groups was observed across participating centers. Adverse events, including overall thromboembolic events, were comparable between groups. CONCLUSION Treatment with rFVIIa had no significant effect on the primary composite endpoint compared with placebo. Therefore, decision on the use of this hemostatic agent in acute variceal bleeding should be carefully considered, because results of this study do not support the routine use of rFVIIa in this setting. Adverse events were comparable across groups.
Impact of recombinant activated factor VII on health-related quality of life after intracerebral hemorrhage
Cerebrovascular Diseases (Basel, Switzerland). 2007;24((2-3):):219-25.
BACKGROUND We recently demonstrated that recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) given to patients presenting within 3 h of acute spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) reduces mortality (18% vs. 29%) and poor outcome (modified Rankin Scale, mRS, 4-6, 53 vs. 69%). This analysis was performed to determine the impact of rFVIIa on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in those patients. METHODS In a prospective, randomized controlled trial, 399 patients (mean age, 66 years) received placebo, 40, 80 or 160 microg/kg of rFVIIa within 4 h of acute ICH. At 90 days, HRQoL was assessed with the EuroQoL (EQ-5D), a 5-dimensional measure of health which also includes the Visual Analogue Scale. Additionally, each level of the 90-day mRS was adjusted, using 4 different previously published utility values, to obtain a clearer picture of perceived HRQoL. RESULTS Among the 5 dimensions of EQ-5D, only mobility rating was significantly better for rFVIIa-treated patients (serious problems, 34 vs. 54%; p = 0. 01). Yet, the utility value (scaled 1. 0 = perfect health and 0. 0 = dead) associated with the composite EQ-5D demonstrated significantly better HRQoL (0. 48 vs. 0. 36; p = 0. 01). This was also true for the EQ-5D Visual Analogue Scale score (44 vs. 36; p = 0. 04). Finally, all 4 algorithms for applying utility scores to the mRS indicated that rFVIIa was associated with significantly better perceived HRQoL (all p < 0. 006). CONCLUSIONS Treatment with rFVIIa within 4 h of acute spontaneous ICH improves HRQoL.
Safety and hemostatic effect of recombinant activated factor VII in cirrhotic patients undergoing partial hepatectomy: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
American Journal of Surgery. 2006;191((2):):245-9.
BACKGROUND Coagulopathy caused by cirrhosis may contribute to excessive bleeding during hepatectomy. We evaluated the hemostatic effect and safety of recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa) in cirrhotic patients undergoing partial hepatectomy. METHODS Patients were randomized to rFVIIa 50 or 100 mug/kg or placebo, administered intravenously 10 minutes before surgery and every second hour during surgery. The primary efficacy end points were the proportion of patients receiving red blood cell (RBC) transfusions and the amount of RBCs transfused. The RBC transfusion trigger was blood loss of 500 mL. Safety end points included thromboembolic and adverse events. RESULTS No statistically significant effect of rFVIIa treatment on efficacy end points was observed. Serious and thromboembolic adverse events occurred at similar incidences in the study groups. CONCLUSIONS Using blood loss as a transfusion trigger, the efficacy of rFVIIa in reducing the requirement for RBC transfusion was not established in this study. No safety concerns were identified.
Recombinant activated factor VII for acute intracerebral hemorrhage: US phase IIA trial
Neurocritical Care. 2006;4((3):):206-14.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Ultra-early hemostatic therapy may improve outcome after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) by preventing rebleeding and hematoma expansion. We conducted this trial to evaluate the safety of activated recombinant factor VII (rFVIIa; NovoSeven) for preventing early hematoma growth in acute ICH. METHODS In this multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation trial, 40 patients diagnosed with ICH by computed tomography within 3 hours of onset were treated with placebo or 5, 20, 40, or 80 microg/kg of rFVIIa ( n = 8 per group). Patients with any history of thromboembolic or vaso-occlusive disease were excluded. The primary endpoint was the frequency of adverse events (AEs). RESULTS Mean age was 65 years (range 34 - 91) and the median admission Glasgow Coma Scale score was 14. 5 (range 6 to 15). Mean ICH volume was 17 +/- 19 mL; nearly three-quarters were located in the basal ganglia ( n = 29). The mean interval from onset to treatment was 178 +/- 41 minutes. Thirty-three patients experienced 186 AEs, which occurred with similar frequency in the five groups. There were 10 thromboembolic AEs, including one case of deep vein thrombosis (20 microg g/kg group); one case of cerebral infarction (placebo); two cases of pulmonary embolism (20 and 40 microg g/kg groups); and six instances of ischemic ECG changes or cardiac enzyme elevation (placebo [ n = 2], 20 microg g/kg [ n = 1], 40 microg g/kg [ n = 1], and 80 microg g/kg [ n = 2] groups). No consumption coagulopathy or dose-related increase in edema-to-ICH volume ratio occurred. CONCLUSIONS Ultra-early rFVIIa treatment for ICH was associated with a reasonable safety profile in this preliminary study across a wide range of dosages. Further research is warranted to investigate the safety and potential efficacy of rFVIIa for minimizing ICH growth.
Control of bleeding in children with Dengue hemorrhagic fever using recombinant activated factor VII: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study
Blood Coagulation & Fibrinolysis. 2005;16((8):):549-55.
OBJECTIVES We evaluated the efficacy and safety of recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) in children aged < 18 years old with grade II or grade III Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) who required blood component therapy for controlling bleeding episodes. STUDY DESIGN Patients were randomized to the rFVIIa group or placebo group in a ratio of 2:1. rFVIIa or placebo (100 microg/kg body weight) was given by intravenous bolus injection. When bleeding was not effectively controlled, a second dose of rFVIIa or placebo (100 microg/kg) was given 30 min after the first dose. RESULTS Nine and 16 patients received placebo and rFVIIa, respectively. The demographics, bleeding manifestations and grade of DHF were similar for the rFVIIa and placebo groups. Apart from petechiae and ecchymosis, one to four additional bleeding sites were found in each patient, including hematemesis (n = 15), epistaxis (n = 14), gum bleeding (n = 12), melena (n = 7), hypermenorrhea (n = 4), hematochezia (n = 2) and hematuria (n = 2). The mean total dose of rFVIIa (138. 4 +/- 50. 9 microg/kg) and placebo (145. 4 +/- 53. 7 microg/kg) were comparable. The efficacy of bleeding control at 2 h after the first dose was completely ceased (rFVIIa 75. 0% versus placebo 44. 4%), decreased (rFVIIa 18. 7% versus placebo 11. 2%), and unchanged or worsened (rFVIIa 6. 3% versus placebo 44. 4%). Some patients with active bleeding received platelet concentrates 3-12 h after the first dose of rFVIIa or placebo. The subsequent efficacy of bleeding control at 6, 12 and 24 h was comparable between the two groups. The cumulative use of red blood cells (rFVIIa 31. 3% versus placebo 33. 3%) and plasma (rFVIIa 25% versus placebo 22%) during the 24-h period was not significantly different between the two groups. In contrast, platelet concentrate requirement in the rFVIIa group (6. 3%) was lower than the placebo (33. 3%). No clinical evidence of thromboembolic complications or mortality as a result of bleeding was observed. CONCLUSION rFVIIa appears to be a useful adjunctive treatment to blood component transfusion for controlling active bleeding in children with DHF especially when platelet concentrate is not readily available.