Recombinant activated Factor VII increases stroke in cardiac surgery: a meta-analysis
Ponschab M, Landoni G, Biondi-Zoccai G, Bignami E, Frati E, Nicolotti D, Monaco F, Pappalardo F, Zangrillo A
Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia. 2011;25((5):):804-10.
OBJECTIVES Recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) is used in various surgical procedures to reduce the incidence of major blood loss and the need for re-exploration. Few clinical trials have investigated rFVIIa in cardiac surgery. The authors performed a meta-analysis focusing on the rate of stroke and surgical re-exploration. DESIGN Meta-analysis. SETTING Hospitals. PARTICIPANTS A total of 470 patients. INTERVENTIONS None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Four investigators independently searched PubMed and conference proceedings including backward snowballing (ie, scanning of reference of retrieved articles and pertinent reviews) and contacted international experts. A total of 470 patients (254 receiving rFVIIa and 216 controls) from 6 clinical trials (2 randomized, 3 propensity matched, and 1 case matched) were included in the analysis. The use of rFVIIa was associated with an increased rate of stroke (12/254 [4.7%] in the rFVIIa group v 2/216 [0.9%] in the control arm, odds ratio [OR] = 3.69 [1.1-12.38], p = 0.03) with a nonsignificant reduction in rate of surgical re-exploration (13% v 42% [OR = 0.27 (0.04-1.9), p = 0.19]). The authors observed a trend toward an increase of overall perioperative thromboembolic events (19/254 [7.5%] in the rFVIIa group v 10/216 [5.6%] in the control arm [OR = 1.84 (0.82-4.09), p = 0.14]). No difference in the rate of death was observed. CONCLUSIONS The administration of rFVIIa in cardiac surgery patients could result in a significant increase of stroke with a trend toward a reduction of the need for surgical re-exploration. The authors do not recommend routine use in cardiac surgery patients. rFVIIa may be considered with caution in patients with refractory life-threatening bleeding. Copyright Copyright 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Defining the role of recombinant activated factor VII in pediatric cardiac surgery: where should we go from here?
Warren OJ, Rogers PL, Watret AL, de Wit KL, Darzi AW, Gill R, Athanasiou T
Pediatric Critical Care Medicine. 2009;10((5):):572-82.
OBJECTIVES Postoperative hemorrhage is a recognized complication of pediatric cardiac surgery. Both the immature coagulation system and increased susceptibility to hemodilution increase the likelihood of pediatric patients developing coagulopathy when compared with adult counterparts. Treatment options remain limited. Recombinant factor VII (rFVIIa) is a hemostatic agent increasingly used to reduce hemorrhage in other surgical settings, the role of which is unclear in this population. This article systematically reviews the published literature on the use of rFVIIa in pediatric cardiac surgery. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SELECTION A systematic literature search identified reports of rFVIIa administration in pediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Where possible, individual patient-specific data were extracted and pooled statistical analysis was performed. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS Twenty-nine articles reporting on the administration of rFVIIa to 169 patients were identified. rFVIIa has been administered to patients with predefined congenital abnormalities of hemostasis to arrest hemorrhage refractory to other interventions and prophylactically in the hope of reducing blood loss. Treatment regimens vary widely, in terms of both first and cumulative dose. Data on chest tube blood loss and two markers of coagulation were pooled and analyzed, and significant improvements were demonstrated. Mortality was 4.4% for the entire cohort but 20% of patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation suffered significant thromboembolic complications. CONCLUSIONS rFVIIa has an increasingly accepted role in the management of patients with congenital coagulopathies undergoing major surgery. However, randomized trials are required to define the role of rFVIIa as an adjunct to control major hemorrhage in the pediatric cardiac surgical population. Any future work must focus not only on benefits but also on patient safety, particularly, risk of morbid thromboembolic complication.
Recombinant activated factor VII in cardiac surgery: a systematic review
Warren O, Mandal K, Hadjianastassiou V, Knowlton L, Panesar S, John K, Darzi A, Athanasiou T
Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 2007;83((2):):707-14.
Postoperative hemorrhage is a common complication in cardiac surgery, and it is associated with a considerable increase in morbidity, mortality, and cost. Recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) is an emerging hemostatic agent, increasingly used in cardiac surgery. This article systematically reviews the evidence regarding the efficacy, safety, and cost of rFVIIa in this setting. Although definitive evidence from randomized controlled trials is lacking, the use of r FVIIa in patients experiencing refractory postoperative hemorrhage seems promising and relatively safe. However further research is required to definitively establish its clinical utility in the postoperative cardiac patient.