Pharmacological pain and sedation interventions for the prevention of intraventricular hemorrhage in preterm infants on assisted ventilation - an overview of systematic reviews
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2023;8:Cd012706
BACKGROUND Germinal matrix hemorrhage and intraventricular hemorrhage (GMH-IVH) may contribute to neonatal morbidity and mortality and result in long-term neurodevelopmental sequelae. Appropriate pain and sedation management in ventilated preterm infants may decrease the risk of GMH-IVH; however, it might be associated with harms. OBJECTIVES To summarize the evidence from systematic reviews regarding the effects and safety of pharmacological interventions related to pain and sedation management in order to prevent GMH-IVH in ventilated preterm infants. METHODS We searched the Cochrane Library August 2022 for reviews on pharmacological interventions for pain and sedation management to prevent GMH-IVH in ventilated preterm infants (< 37 weeks' gestation). We included Cochrane Reviews assessing the following interventions administered within the first week of life: benzodiazepines, paracetamol, opioids, ibuprofen, anesthetics, barbiturates, and antiadrenergics. Primary outcomes were any GMH-IVH (aGMH-IVH), severe IVH (sIVH), all-cause neonatal death (ACND), and major neurodevelopmental disability (MND). We assessed the methodological quality of included reviews using the AMSTAR-2 tool. We used GRADE to assess the certainty of evidence. MAIN RESULTS We included seven Cochrane Reviews and one Cochrane Review protocol. The reviews on clonidine and paracetamol did not include randomized controlled trials (RCTs) matching our inclusion criteria. We included 40 RCTs (3791 infants) from reviews on paracetamol for patent ductus arteriosus (3), midazolam (3), phenobarbital (9), opioids (20), and ibuprofen (5). The quality of the included reviews was high. The certainty of the evidence was moderate to very low, because of serious imprecision and study limitations. Germinal matrix hemorrhage-intraventricular hemorrhage (any grade) Compared to placebo or no intervention, the evidence is very uncertain about the effects of paracetamol on aGMH-IVH (risk ratio (RR) 0.89, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.38 to 2.07; 2 RCTs, 82 infants; very low-certainty evidence); midazolam may result in little to no difference in the incidence of aGMH-IVH (RR 1.68, 95% CI 0.87 to 3.24; 3 RCTs, 122 infants; low-certainty evidence); the evidence is very uncertain about the effect of phenobarbital on aGMH-IVH (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.19; 9 RCTs, 732 infants; very low-certainty evidence); opioids may result in little to no difference in aGMH-IVH (RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.65 to 1.12; 7 RCTs, 469 infants; low-certainty evidence); ibuprofen likely results in little to no difference in aGMH-IVH (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.81 to 1.21; 4 RCTs, 759 infants; moderate-certainty evidence). Compared to ibuprofen, the evidence is very uncertain about the effects of paracetamol on aGMH-IVH (RR 1.17, 95% CI 0.31 to 4.34; 1 RCT, 30 infants; very low-certainty evidence). Compared to midazolam, morphine may result in a reduction in aGMH-IVH (RR 0.28, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.87; 1 RCT, 46 infants; low-certainty evidence). Compared to diamorphine, the evidence is very uncertain about the effect of morphine on aGMH-IVH (RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.40 to 1.07; 1 RCT, 88 infants; very low-certainty evidence). Severe intraventricular hemorrhage (grade 3 to 4) Compared to placebo or no intervention, the evidence is very uncertain about the effect of paracetamol on sIVH (RR 1.80, 95% CI 0.43 to 7.49; 2 RCTs, 82 infants; very low-certainty evidence) and of phenobarbital (grade 3 to 4) (RR 0.91, 95% CI 0.66 to 1.25; 9 RCTs, 732 infants; very low-certainty evidence); opioids may result in little to no difference in sIVH (grade 3 to 4) (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.71 to 1.34; 6 RCTs, 1299 infants; low-certainty evidence); ibuprofen may result in little to no difference in sIVH (grade 3 to 4) (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.54 to 1.26; 4 RCTs, 747 infants; low-certainty evidence). No studies on midazolam reported this outcome. Compared to ibuprofen, the evidence is very uncertain about the effects of paracetamol on sIVH (RR 2.65, 95% CI 0.12 to 60.21; 1 RCT, 30 infants; very low-certainty evidence). Compared to midazolam, the evidence is very uncertain about the effect of morphine on sIVH (grade 3 to 4) (RR 0.08, 95% CI 0.00 to 1.43; 1 RCT, 46 infants; very low-certainty evidence). Compared to fentanyl, the evidence is very uncertain about the effect of morphine on sIVH (grade 3 to 4) (RR 0.59, 95% CI 0.18 to 1.95; 1 RCT, 163 infants; very low-certainty evidence). All-cause neonatal death Compared to placebo or no intervention, the evidence is very uncertain about the effect of phenobarbital on ACND (RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.51 to 1.72; 3 RCTs, 203 infants; very low-certainty evidence); opioids likely result in little to no difference in ACND (RR 1.12, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.55; 5 RCTs, 1189 infants; moderate-certainty evidence); the evidence is very uncertain about the effect of ibuprofen on ACND (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.38 to 2.64; 2 RCTs, 112 infants; very low-certainty evidence). Compared to midazolam, the evidence is very uncertain about the effect of morphine on ACND (RR 0.31, 95% CI 0.01 to 7.16; 1 RCT, 46 infants; very low-certainty evidence). Compared to diamorphine, the evidence is very uncertain about the effect of morphine on ACND (RR 1.17, 95% CI 0.43 to 3.19; 1 RCT, 88 infants; very low-certainty evidence). Major neurodevelopmental disability Compared to placebo, the evidence is very uncertain about the effect of opioids on MND at 18 to 24 months (RR 2.00, 95% CI 0.39 to 10.29; 1 RCT, 78 infants; very low-certainty evidence) and at five to six years (RR 1.6, 95% CI 0.56 to 4.56; 1 RCT, 95 infants; very low-certainty evidence). No studies on other drugs reported this outcome. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS None of the reported studies had an impact on aGMH-IVH, sIVH, ACND, or MND. The certainty of the evidence ranged from moderate to very low. Large RCTs of rigorous methodology are needed to achieve an optimal information size to assess the effects of pharmacological interventions for pain and sedation management for the prevention of GMH-IVH and mortality in preterm infants. Studies might compare interventions against either placebo or other drugs. Reporting of the outcome data should include the assessment of GMH-IVH and long-term neurodevelopment.
Postnatal phenobarbital for the prevention of intraventricular haemorrhage in preterm infants
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2023;3(3):Cd001691
BACKGROUND Intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) is a major complication of preterm birth. Large haemorrhages are associated with a high risk of disability and hydrocephalus. Instability of blood pressure and cerebral blood in the newborn flow are postulated as causative factors. Another mechanism may involve reperfusion damage from oxygen free radicals. It has been suggested that phenobarbital stabilises blood pressure and may protect against free radicals. This is an update of a review first published in 2001 and updated in 2007 and 2013. OBJECTIVES To assess the benefits and harms of the postnatal administration of phenobarbital in preterm infants at risk of developing IVH compared to control (i.e. no intervention or placebo). SEARCH METHODS We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Medline, Embase, CINAHL and clinical trial registries in January 2022. A new, more sensitive search strategy was developed, and searches were conducted without date limits. SELECTION CRITERIA We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs in which phenobarbital was given within the first 24 hours of life to preterm infants identified as being at risk of IVH because of gestational age below 34 weeks, birth weight below 1500 g or respiratory failure. Phenobarbital was compared to no intervention or placebo. We excluded infants with serious congenital malformations. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS We used standard Cochrane methods. Our primary outcomes were all grades of IVH and severe IVH (i.e. grade III and IV); secondary outcomes were ventricular dilation or hydrocephalus, hypotension, pneumothorax, hypercapnia, acidosis, mechanical ventilation, neurodevelopmental impairment and death. We used GRADE to assess the certainty of the evidence for each outcome. MAIN RESULTS We included 10 RCTs (792 infants). The evidence suggests that phenobarbital results in little to no difference in the incidence of IVH of any grade compared with control (risk ratio (RR) 1.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84 to 1.19; risk difference (RD) 0.00, 95% CI -0.06 to 0.07; I² for RD = 65%; 10 RCTs, 792 participants; low certainty evidence) and in severe IVH (RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.64 to 1.21; 10 RCTs, 792 participants; low certainty evidence). The evidence is very uncertain about the effect of phenobarbital on posthaemorrhagic ventricular dilation or hydrocephalus (RR 0.62, 95% CI 0.31 to 1.26; 4 RCTs, 271 participants; very low certainty evidence), mild neurodevelopmental impairment (RR 0.57, 95% CI 0.15 to 2.17; 1RCT, 101 participants; very low certainty evidence), and severe neurodevelopmental impairment (RR 1.12, 95% CI 0.44 to 2.82; 2 RCTs, 153 participants; very low certainty evidence). Phenobarbital may result in little to no difference in death before discharge (RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.64 to 1.21; 9 RCTs, 740 participants; low certainty evidence) and mortality during study period (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.72 to 1.33; 10 RCTs, 792 participants; low certainty evidence) compared with control. We identified no ongoing trials. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS The evidence suggests that phenobarbital results in little to no difference in the incidence of IVH (any grade or severe) compared with control (i.e. no intervention or placebo). The evidence is very uncertain about the effects of phenobarbital on ventricular dilation or hydrocephalus and on neurodevelopmental impairment. The evidence suggests that phenobarbital results in little to no difference in death before discharge and all deaths during the study period compared with control. Since 1993, no randomised studies have been published on phenobarbital for the prevention of IVH in preterm infants, and no trials are ongoing. The effects of postnatal phenobarbital might be assessed in infants with both neonatal seizures and IVH, in both randomised and observational studies. The assessment of benefits and harms should include long-term outcomes.
Effect of Early Erythropoietin on Retinopathy of Prematurity: A Stratified Meta-Analysis
BACKGROUND Recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) lost its role in minimizing red blood cell transfusion in very preterm infants after it had been associated with severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Previous systematic reviews did not stratify ROP by gestation and birth weight (BW). OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of early prophylactic rhEPO on ROP in a stratified meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). METHODS The databases EMBASE, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched in January 2022 and complemented by citation searching. RCTs comparing early rhEPO treatment with no treatment or placebo were selected if they were published in a peer-reviewed journal and reported ROP outcomes. Previously unpublished data were requested from the study authors to allow stratified analyses by gestational age (GA) and BW. Data were extracted and analyzed using the standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. Pre-specified outcomes were "ROP stage ≥3" (primary outcome) and "any ROP." RESULTS Fourteen RCTs, comprising 2,040 infants of <29 weeks of GA, were included for meta-analysis. Data syntheses showed no effects of rhEPO on ROP stage ≥3 or on any ROP, neither in infants of <29 weeks GA, nor in infants of <1,000 g BW, nor in any GA strata. The risk ratio (95% confidence interval) for ROP stage ≥3 in infants of <29 weeks of GA was 1.13 (0.84, 1.53), p = 0.41 (quality of evidence: moderate). CONCLUSIONS The present meta-analysis detected no effects of early rhEPO on ROP in any comparison, but most stratified analyses were limited by low statistical power.
Infants of <29 weeks of gestational age (GA), (14 randomised controlled trials, n= 2,040).
Early recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO).
No treatment or placebo.
Data syntheses showed no effects of rhEPO on retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) stage ≥3 or on any ROP, neither in infants of <29 weeks GA, nor in infants of <1,000 g birth weight, nor in any GA strata. The risk ratio for ROP stage ≥3 in infants of <29 weeks of GA was 1.13; 95% confidence interval [0.84, 1.53], (quality of evidence: moderate).
Early erythropoietin for preventing necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm neonates - an updated meta-analysis
European Journal of Pediatrics. 2022;181(5):1821-1833
Previous systematic reviews suggest reduction in necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) among preterm infants supplemented with erythropoietin (EPO). We aimed to update our 2018 systematic review in this field considering the evidence accumulated over the last 3 years. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reporting the effect of early EPO supplementation vs placebo/no EPO supplementation on any stage NEC in preterm infants were included. Fixed effect model was used for meta-analysis. Trial sequential analysis (TSA) was conducted to verify the effects of EPO on NEC after accounting for repeated significance testing. A total of 22 RCTs (n = 5359) were included, of which six were new (n = 2541 additional preterm infants) in comparison to our previous systematic review. EPO significantly decreased the risk of any stage NEC (232/2669 (8.7%) vs 313/2690 (11.6%); RR: 0·76; TSA adjusted 95% CI (0·64, 0·90); p = 0·0008, number needed to treat (NNT) = 34). The risk of definite NEC (≥ Stage II) was also significantly reduced by EPO administration (105/2219 (4.7%) vs 141/2246 (6.3%); RR: 0.77; 95% CI (0.61, 0.98); p = 0.03, NNT: 62). However, the results for definite NEC were no longer significant on sensitivity analyses that included (a) only double-blind RCTs and (b) only prospectively registered trials. The quality of evidence was deemed moderate-to-low for the reported outcomes. CONCLUSION There is moderate to low-quality evidence that early prophylactic EPO reduces any stage and ≥ Stage II NEC in preterm neonates. Prospectively registered, adequately powered, double-blind RCTs are required to confirm these findings. WHAT IS KNOWN • Experimental studies have shown that erythropoietin (EPO) has gastrointestinal trophic effects. • Systematic reviews have shown that early treatment with EPO may decrease the risk of gut injury in preterm or low birth weight infants. WHAT IS NEW • Early EPO supplementation significantly reduced the incidence of any stage NEC and definite NEC in preterm infants < 34 weeks of gestation. • EPO had no significant effect on definite NEC in the analyses that included only double-blinded and prospectively registered RCTs. How might it impact clinical practice in the foreseeable future? • Early prophylactic EPO can be recommended for NEC prevention if its benefits are consistently demonstrated in adequately powered randomized trials with a low risk of bias.
Iron supplementation and the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in extremely low gestational age newborns
Pediatric research. 2022
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between iron exposure and the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). METHODS A secondary analysis of the PENUT Trial dataset was conducted. The primary outcome was BPD at 36 weeks gestational age and primary exposures of interest were cumulative iron exposures in the first 28 days and through 36 weeks' gestation. Descriptive statistics were calculated for study cohort characteristics with analysis adjusted for the factors used to stratify randomization. RESULTS Of the 941 patients, 821 (87.2%) survived to BPD evaluation at 36 weeks, with 332 (40.4%) diagnosed with BPD. The median cohort gestational age was 26 weeks and birth weight 810 g. In the first 28 days, 76% of infants received enteral iron and 55% parenteral iron. The median supplemental cumulative enteral and parenteral iron intakes at 28 days were 58.5 and 3.1 mg/kg, respectively, and through 36 weeks' 235.8 and 3.56 mg/kg, respectively. We found lower volume of red blood cell transfusions in the first 28 days after birth and higher enteral iron exposure in the first 28 days after birth to be associated with lower rates of BPD. CONCLUSIONS We find no support for an increased risk of BPD with iron supplementation. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER NCT01378273. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01378273 IMPACT Prior studies and biologic plausibility raise the possibility that iron administration could contribute to the pathophysiology of oxidant-induced lung injury and thus bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm infants. For 24-27-week premature infants, this study finds no association between total cumulative enteral iron supplementation at either 28-day or 36-week postmenstrual age and the risk for developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia.
Prophylactic Erythropoietin for Neuroprotection in Very Preterm Infants: A Meta-Analysis Update
Frontiers in pediatrics. 2021;9:657228
A meta-analysis update of randomized controlled trials investigating recombinant human erythropoietin suggests improved neurodevelopmental outcome in preterm infants. There was substantial heterogeneity, which could be ascribed to a single trial. Exclusion of this trial featuring a high risk of bias abolished heterogeneity and any effects of recombinant human erythropoietin treatment.
Erythropoietin Improves Poor Outcomes in Preterm Infants with Intraventricular Hemorrhage
CNS drugs. 2021
BACKGROUND Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is a common complication in preterm infants that has poor outcomes, especially in severe cases, and there are currently no widely accepted effective treatments. Erythropoietin has been shown to be neuroprotective in neonatal brain injury. OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of repeated low-dose recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) in preterm infants with IVH. METHODS This was a single-blinded prospective randomized controlled trial. Preterm infants ≤ 32 weeks gestational age who were diagnosed with IVH within 72 h after birth were randomized to receive rhEPO 500 IU/kg or placebo (equivalent volume of saline) every other day for 2 weeks. The primary outcome was death or neurological disability assessed at 18 months of corrected age. RESULTS A total of 316 eligible infants were included in the study, with 157 in the rhEPO group and 159 in the placebo group. Although no significant differences in mortality (p = 0.176) or incidence of neurological disability (p = 0.055) separately at 18 months of corrected age were seen between the rhEPO and placebo groups, significantly fewer infants had poor outcomes (death and neurological disability) in the rhEPO group: 14.9 vs. 26.4%; odds ratio (OR) 0.398; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.199-0.796; p = 0.009. In addition, the incidence of Mental Development Index scores of < 70 was lower in the rhEPO group than in the placebo group: 7.2 vs. 15.3%; OR 0.326; 95% CI 0.122-0.875; p = 0.026. CONCLUSIONS Treatment with repeated low-dose rhEPO improved outcomes in preterm infants with IVH. TRIAL REGISTRATION The study was retrospectively registered on ClinicalTrials.gov on 16 April 2019 (NCT03914690).
Enteral Iron Supplementation in Extremely Preterm Infants and its Positive Correlation with Neurodevelopment; Post Hoc Analysis of the PENUT Randomized Controlled Trial
The Journal of pediatrics. 2021
OBJECTIVES To test whether an increased iron dose is associated with improved neurodevelopment as assessed by the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID-III) among infants enrolled in the Preterm Erythropoietin (Epo) Neuroprotection Trial (PENUT). STUDY DESIGN This is a post hoc analysis of a randomized trial which enrolled infants born at 24 to 28 completed weeks of gestation. All PENUT infants who were assessed with BSID-III at 2 years were included in this study. The associations between enteral iron dose at 60 and 90 days and BSID-III component scores were evaluated using generalized estimating equations models adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS 692 infants were analyzed (355 placebo, 337 Epo). Enteral iron supplementation ranged 0-14.7 mg/kg/day (IQR 2.1-5.8 mg/kg/day) at day 60, with a mean of 3.6 mg/kg/day in placebo-treated infants and 4.8 mg/kg/day in Epo-treated infants. A significant positive association was seen between BSID-III cognitive scores and iron dose at 60 days, with an effect size of 0.77 BSID points per 50 mg/kg increase in cumulative iron dose (P = .03). Higher iron doses were associated with higher motor and language scores, but did not reach statistical significance. Results at 90 days were not significant. The effect size in the Epo-treated infants compared with placebo was consistently higher. CONCLUSION A positive association was seen between iron dose at 60 days and cognitive outcomes. Our results suggest that increased iron supplementation in preterm infants, at the doses administered in the PENUT Trial, may have positive neurodevelopmental effects, particularly in infants treated with Epo.
Infants enrolled in the Preterm Erythropoietin Neuroprotection Trial (PENUT), (n= 692).
Erythropoietin (Epo), (n= 337).
Placebo (n= 355).
Enteral iron supplementation ranged 0-14.7 mg/kg/day (IQR 2.1-5.8 mg/kg/day) at day 60, with a mean of 3.6 mg/kg/day in placebo-treated infants and 4.8 mg/kg/day in Epo-treated infants. A significant positive association was seen between BSID-III cognitive scores and iron dose at 60 days, with an effect size of 0.77 BSID points per 50 mg/kg increase in cumulative iron dose. Higher iron doses were associated with higher motor and language scores, but did not reach statistical significance. Results at 90 days were not significant. The effect size in the Epo-treated infants compared with placebo was consistently higher.
The effects of monotherapy with erythropoietin in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy on neurobehavioral development: a systematic review and meta-analysis
European review for medical and pharmacological sciences. 2021;25(5):2318-2326
OBJECTIVE Previous systematic review has shown the safety and efficiency of EPO (erythropoietin) for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). To date, the evidence is limited that EPO is beneficial to therapeutic hypothermia as an adjuvant. There has not a brief discussion about the neuroprotection effects of EPO without hypothermia. To evaluate the long-term prognosis of HIE treated with EPO alone, we carried out this study that can be a supplement to the previous meta-analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS 7 databases (including PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, CKNI, CBM, WanFang, and VIP) and the ClinicalTrials.gov were retrieved from inception to 1 March 2020. The inclusion criteria were RCTs with EPO treatment without hypothermia. The outcomes were tested by using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID), including the Bayley Mental Development Index Score (MDI) and the Bayley Psychomotor Development Index Score (PDI). This meta-analysis was done to compare the Risk Ratio (RR) for the scores of BSID less than 70 after over 6 months of follow-up. RESULTS 11 RCTs (1099 newborns) were included, excluding deaths and lost visits, and 917 patients finally were performed the statistical analysis. In neonatal HIE infants, investigation results showed a lower risk of cognitive impairment and psychomotor disability with EPO monotherapy. The pooled event rates of MDI <70 saw a reduction of 36% (95% CI 24%-54%) compared to the control group. There was a decrease of 37% (95% CI 24%-56%) of Psychomotor abnormal (PDI <70) in the EPO group. CONCLUSIONS EPO administration alone could improve the scores of mental and psychomotor in neonates with HIE. However, the level of evidence is low to moderate for the insufficient sample size, so large-scale, multicenter clinical trials are still needed.
Early Biomarkers of Hypoxia and Inflammation and Two-Year Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in the Preterm Erythropoietin Neuroprotection (PENUT) Trial
BACKGROUND In the Preterm Erythropoietin (Epo) NeUroproTection (PENUT) Trial, potential biomarkers of neurological injury were measured to determine their association with outcomes at two years of age and whether Epo treatment decreased markers of inflammation in extremely preterm (<28 weeks' gestation) infants. METHODS Plasma Epo was measured (n=391 Epo, n=384 placebo) within 24h after birth (baseline), 30min after study drug administration (day 7), 30min before study drug (day 9), and on day 14. A subset of infants (n=113 Epo, n=107 placebo) had interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), Interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10, Tau, and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels evaluated at baseline, day 7 and 14. Infants were then evaluated at 2 years using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, 3rd Edition (BSID-III). FINDINGS Elevated baseline Epo was associated with increased risk of death or severe disability (BSID-III Motor and Cognitive subscales <70 or severe cerebral palsy). No difference in other biomarkers were seen between treatment groups at any time, though Epo appeared to mitigate the association between elevated baseline IL-6 and lower BSID-III scores in survivors. Elevated baseline, day 7 and 14 Tau concentrations were associated with worse BSID-III Cognitive, Motor, and Language skills at two years. INTERPRETATION Elevated Epo at baseline and elevated Tau in the first two weeks after birth predict poor outcomes in infants born extremely preterm. However, no clear prognostic cut-off values are apparent, and further work is required before these biomarkers can be widely implemented in clinical practice. FUNDING PENUT was funded by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (U01NS077955 and U01NS077953).