Saline Compared to Balanced Crystalloid in Patients With Diabetic Ketoacidosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Critical care explorations. 2022;4(1):e0613
OBJECTIVES This systematic review and meta-analysis compared the use of saline to balanced crystalloid for fluid resuscitation in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). DATA SOURCES We searched databases including Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane registry. STUDY SELECTION We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared saline to balanced crystalloid in patients with DKA. DATA EXTRACTION We pooled estimates of effect using relative risk for dichotomous outcomes and mean differences (MDs) for continuous outcomes, both with 95% CIs. We assessed risk of bias for included RCTs using the modified Cochrane tool and certainty of evidence using Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation methodology. DATA SYNTHESIS We included eight RCTs (n = 482 patients). Both time to DKA resolution (MD, 3.51 hr longer; 95% CI, 0.90 longer to 6.12 longer; moderate certainty) and length of hospital stay (MD, 0.89 d longer in saline group; 95% CI, 0.34 longer to 1.43 d longer; moderate certainty) are probably longer in the saline group compared with the balanced crystalloid group, although for the latter, the absolute difference (under 1 d) is small. Post-resuscitation serum chloride level may be higher (MD, 1.62 mmol/L higher; 95% CI, 0.40 lower to 3.64 higher; low certainty), and post-resuscitation serum bicarbonate is probably lower (MD, 1.50 mmol/L; 95% CI, 2.33 lower to 0.67 lower; moderate certainty) in those receiving saline. CONCLUSIONS In patients with DKA, the use of saline may be associated with longer time to DKA resolution, higher post-resuscitation serum chloride levels, lower post-resuscitation serum bicarbonate levels, and longer hospital stay compared with balanced crystalloids. Pending further data, low to moderate certainty data support using balanced crystalloid over saline for fluid resuscitation in patients with DKA.
A randomized-controlled trial comparing 20% albumin to plasmalyte in patients with cirrhosis and sepsis-induced hypotension [ALPS trial]
Journal of hepatology. 2022
BACKGROUND AND AIM The choice of resuscitation fluid in cirrhosis patients with sepsis-induced hypotension (SIH) is unclear. 5% albumin has been superior to normal saline in the FRISC study. We compared the efficacy and safety of 20% albumin, which has greater oncotic properties with plasmalyte in reversing SIH. METHODS Critically-ill cirrhosis(CIC) patients underwent open-label randomization to receive either 20% albumin [0.5-1.0gm/kg over 3 hours; n=50] or plasmalyte (30ml/kg over 3 hours, n=50). The primary end-point of the study was the attainment of mean arterial pressure (MAP) above 65 mmHg at three hours. RESULTS Baseline characteristics were comparable in albumin and plasmalyte groups; arterial lactate(mmol/L) [6.16±3.18 vs. 6.38±4.77; p=0.78), MAP (mmHg) [51.4±6.52 vs. 49.9±4.45; p=0.17] and SOFA score [10.8±2.96 vs. 11.1±4.2; p=0.68] respectively. Most patients were alcoholics (39%) and had pneumonia (40%). In the intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis, albumin was superior to plasmalyte in achieving the primary end-point (62% vs. 22%; p<0.001). A rapid decline in arterial lactate (P=0.03), a lesser proportion of dialysis [48% vs. 62%; p=0.16], and a higher time to initiation of dialysis (in hours) [68.13±47.79 vs. 99.7± 63.4; p=0.06] was seen with albumin. However, the 28-day mortality was not different (58% vs. 62%, p=0.57). Patients in the albumin group required discontinuation of therapy in 11 (22%) patients due to adverse effects compared to none in plasmalyte group. CONCLUSION In patients with cirrhosis and SIH, 20% albumin transiently improves the hemodynamics with early lactate clearance than plasmalyte but needs monitoring as it is more often attended with pulmonary complications. Both fluids provide comparable 28 days survival. NCT02721238 LAY SUMMARY The current randomized controlled trial performed in critically ill patients with cirrhosis and sepsis-induced hypotension highlights that 20% albumin restores hemodynamics but causes more pulmonary complications than plasmalyte. The impact on renal functions was also modest. These effects did not result in improvement in deaths at 28-days. Plasmalyte is safer and well-tolerated and can be considered for volume resuscitation in patients with cirrhosis and sepsis-induced hypotension.
Permissive hypotension compared to fluid therapy for the management of traumatic haemorrhage: a rapid review
British paramedic journal. 2022;7(3):34-43
BACKGROUND Haemorrhage and subsequent hypovolemia from traumatic injury is a potentially reversible cause of cardiac arrest, as interventions can be made to increase circulatory volume and organ perfusion. Traditionally, intravenous (IV) fluid therapy is recommended for all patients who have experienced a haemorrhagic emergency. There has been some argument, however, that this may not be the most effective treatment as isotonic fluids can dilute coagulation factors and further stimulate bleeding. Permissive hypotension, also known as hypotensive resuscitation within the context of damage control resuscitation, is a method of managing haemorrhagic trauma patients by restricting IV fluid administration to allow for a reduced blood pressure. It is important to evaluate and compare current research literature on the effects of both permissive hypotension and fluid therapy on patients suffering from traumatic haemorrhage. METHODS A rapid review was conducted by systematically searching and identifying literature to narratively compare permissive hypotension and fluid therapy. Searches were carried out across two databases to find relevant primary research containing quantitative data that provide contextual and statistical evidence to achieve the aim of this review. Papers were narratively synthesised to produce key themes for discussion. RESULTS The database searches identified 125 records, 78 from PubMed and 47 from ScienceDirect. Eleven duplicates were removed, and 114 titles screened. Ninety-four records were initially excluded and nine more after abstract review. Eleven papers were critiqued using Benton and Cormack's framework, with eight articles included in the final review. CONCLUSION Permissive hypotension may have a positive impact on 30-day mortality, when compared with fluid resuscitation methods, however there is evidence to suggest that hypotensive resuscitation may be more effective for blunt force injuries. Some studies even suggest a reduction in the treatment cost when reducing fluid volumes. Penetrating injuries are usually more likely to be a compressible source of haemorrhage within which haemorrhage control can be gained much more easily. There are recommendations for the use of permissive hypotension in both compressible and non-compressible injuries. It is difficult at this time to draw definitive conclusions for the treatment of every case related to traumatic haemorrhage given the variability and unpredictability of trauma.
Evaluation of Direct Oral Anticoagulant Reversal Agents in Intracranial Hemorrhage: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
JAMA network open. 2022;5(11):e2240145
IMPORTANCE Direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC)-associated intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) has high morbidity and mortality. The safety and outcome data of DOAC reversal agents in ICH are limited. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the safety and outcomes of DOAC reversal agents among patients with ICH. DATA SOURCES PubMed, MEDLINE, The Cochrane Library, Embase, EBSCO, Web of Science, and CINAHL databases were searched from inception through April 29, 2022. STUDY SELECTION The eligibility criteria were (1) adult patients (age ≥18 years) with ICH receiving treatment with a DOAC, (2) reversal of DOAC, and (3) reported safety and anticoagulation reversal outcomes. All nonhuman studies and case reports, studies evaluating patients with ischemic stroke requiring anticoagulation reversal or different dosing regimens of DOAC reversal agents, and mixed study groups with DOAC and warfarin were excluded. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines were used for abstracting data and assessing data quality and validity. Two reviewers independently selected the studies and abstracted data. Data were pooled using the random-effects model. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome was proportion with anticoagulation reversed. The primary safety end points were all-cause mortality and thromboembolic events after the reversal agent. RESULTS A total of 36 studies met criteria for inclusion, with a total of 1832 patients (967 receiving 4-factor prothrombin complex concentrate [4F-PCC]; 525, andexanet alfa [AA]; 340, idarucizumab). The mean age was 76 (range, 68-83) years, and 57% were men. For 4F-PCC, anticoagulation reversal was 77% (95% CI, 72%-82%; I2 = 55%); all-cause mortality, 26% (95% CI, 20%-32%; I2 = 68%), and thromboembolic events, 8% (95% CI, 5%-12%; I2 = 41%). For AA, anticoagulation reversal was 75% (95% CI, 67%-81%; I2 = 48%); all-cause mortality, 24% (95% CI, 16%-34%; I2 = 73%), and thromboembolic events, 14% (95% CI, 10%-19%; I2 = 16%). Idarucizumab for reversal of dabigatran had an anticoagulation reversal rate of 82% (95% CI, 55%-95%; I2 = 41%), all-cause mortality, 11% (95% CI, 8%-15%, I2 = 0%), and thromboembolic events, 5% (95% CI, 3%-8%; I2 = 0%). A direct retrospective comparison of 4F-PCC and AA showed no differences in anticoagulation reversal, proportional mortality, or thromboembolic events. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE In the absence of randomized clinical comparison trials, the overall anticoagulation reversal, mortality, and thromboembolic event rates in this systematic review and meta-analysis appeared similar among available DOAC reversal agents for managing ICH. Cost, institutional formulary status, and availability may restrict reversal agent choice, particularly in small community hospitals.
Adult patients with intracranial hemorrhage receiving treatment with a direct oral anticoagulant (36 studies, n= 1,832).
4-factor prothrombin complex concentrate (4F-PCC), (n= 967).
Andexanet alfa (AA), (n= 525). Idarucizumab(n= 340).
For 4F-PCC, anticoagulation reversal was 77% (95% CI 72% to 82%; I2 = 55%); all-cause mortality, 26% (95% CI 20% to 32%; I2 = 68%), and thromboembolic events, 8% (95% CI 5% to 12%; I2 = 41%). For AA, anticoagulation reversal was 75% (95% CI 67% to 81%; I2 = 48%); all-cause mortality, 24% (95% CI 16% to 34%; I2 = 73%), and thromboembolic events, 14% (95% CI 10% to 19%; I2 = 16%). Idarucizumab for reversal of dabigatran had an anticoagulation reversal rate of 82% (95% CI 55% to 95%; I2 = 41%), all-cause mortality, 11% (95% CI 8% to 15%, I2 = 0%), and thromboembolic events, 5% (95% CI 3% to 8%; I2 = 0%). A direct retrospective comparison of 4F-PCC and AA showed no differences in anticoagulation reversal, proportional mortality, or thromboembolic events.
Measuring the Effect of Audio Instructions on the Time and Effectiveness of Tourniquet Application by Laypeople
Prehospital emergency care. 2022;:1-7
Objective: The "Stop the Bleed" campaign was created to educate laypeople about bleeding control and make bleeding control kits available in public locations. Unfortunately, previous research has indicated that up to half of all laypeople cannot effectively apply a tourniquet. The purpose of this study was to determine if laypeople could apply tourniquets more effectively with just-in-time training using combined audio-written instructions versus written-only instructions.Methods: We conducted a prospective randomized study comparing the application of a tourniquet using a simulated bleeding arm. Participants were laypeople 18 years and older and excluded those with any previous tourniquet experience or training. Participants were randomized to just-in-time training using either audio-written or written-only instructions. Time in seconds to tourniquet application and the effectiveness of the tourniquet application was recorded. Effective application was defined as stopping the flow or significantly slowing the flow to a slow drip. Ineffective tourniquet placement was defined as not significantly changing the flow. Statistical analysis was performed using Fisher's exact, t-test, and linear regression.Results: Eighty-two participants were included; 40 were in the audio-written instructions group, and 58.5% were male. The audio-written group's effective application rate was 92.5% and that of the written-only group was 76.2%. A significantly higher rate of ineffective tourniquet application was noted for the written-only group, (23.8%), versus the audio-written group (7.5%), p=.04. Regardless of the type of instructions used, time to effective application of the tourniquet decreased as participant age increased (p = 0.02, 95%CI (-1.24, -0.13). There was no relationship between age and effective tourniquet application (p = 0.06). Time for tourniquet placement was not different between the audio-written (mean 100.4 seconds) and written-only (mean 106.1 seconds) groups (p = 0.58).Conclusion: This study suggests that combined audio-written instructions decrease the rate of ineffective tourniquet application by laypeople compared with written-only instructions. Further studies are needed to assess if audio instructions and just-in-time training can further maximize effective tourniquet application.
Interventions for reducing late-onset sepsis in neonates: an umbrella review
Journal of perinatal medicine. 2022
OBJECTIVES Neonatal sepsis is one of the leading causes of neonatal deaths in neonatal intensive care units. Hence, it is essential to review the evidence from systematic reviews on interventions for reducing late-onset sepsis (LOS) in neonates. METHODS PubMed and the Cochrane Central were searched from inception through August 2020 without any language restriction. Cochrane reviews of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) assessing any intervention in the neonatal period and including one or more RCTs reporting LOS. Two authors independently performed screening, data extraction, assessed the quality of evidence using Cochrane Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation, and assessed the quality of reviews using a measurement tool to assess of multiple systematic reviews 2 tool. RESULTS A total of 101 high-quality Cochrane reviews involving 612 RCTs and 193,713 neonates, evaluating 141 interventions were included. High-quality evidence showed a reduction in any or culture-proven LOS using antibiotic lock therapy for neonates with central venous catheters (CVC). Moderate-quality evidence showed a decrease in any LOS with antibiotic prophylaxis or vancomycin prophylaxis for neonates with CVC, chlorhexidine for skin or cord care, and kangaroo care for low birth weight babies. Similarly, moderate-quality evidence showed reduced culture-proven LOS with intravenous immunoglobulin prophylaxis for preterm infants and probiotic supplementation for very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Lastly, moderate-quality evidence showed a reduction in fungal LOS with the use of systemic antifungal prophylaxis in VLBW infants. CONCLUSIONS The overview summarizes the evidence from the Cochrane reviews assessing interventions for reducing LOS in neonates, and can be utilized by clinicians, researchers, policymakers, and consumers for decision-making and translating evidence into clinical practice.
Balanced crystalloid vs saline in adults with traumatic brain injury: secondary analysis of a clinical trial
Journal of neurotrauma. 2022
Balanced crystalloids may improve outcomes compared to saline for some critically ill adults. Lower tonicity of balanced crystalloids could worsen cerebral edema in patients with intracranial pathology. The effect of balanced crystalloids versus saline on clinical outcomes in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) requires further study. We planned an a priori subgroup analysis of TBI patients enrolled in the pragmatic, cluster-randomized, multiple-crossover Isotonic Solutions and Major Adverse Renal Events Trial (SMART) (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02444988, NCT02547779). Primary outcome was 30-day in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes included hospital discharge disposition (home, facility, death). Regression models adjusted for pre-specified baseline covariates compared outcomes. TBI patients assigned to balanced crystalloids (n=588) and saline (n=569) had similar baseline characteristics including Injury Severity Score 19 (10); mean maximum head/neck Abbreviated Injury Score, 3.4 (1.0). Isotonic crystalloid volume administered between ICU admission and first of hospital discharge or 30 days was 2037 (3470) mL and 1723 (2923) mL in the balanced crystalloids and saline groups, respectively (P=0.18). During the study period, 94 (16%) and 82 (14%) patients (16%) died in the balanced crystalloid and saline groups, respectively (aOR, 1.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.60 to 1.75; P=0.913). Patients in the balanced crystalloid group were more likely to die or be discharged to another medical facility (aOR 1.38 [1.02-1.86]; P=0.04). Overall, balanced crystalloids were associated with worse discharge disposition in critically injured patients with TBI compared to saline. The confidence intervals cannot exclude a clinically relevant increase in mortality when balanced crystalloids are used for patients with TBI.
Tranexamic acid for patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 2991 patients
The International journal of neuroscience. 2022;:1-14
OBJECTIVE We aimed to synthesize evidence from published clinical trials on the efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid (TXA) administration in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). METHODS We followed the standard methods of the Cochrane Handbook of Systematic Reviews for interventions and the PRISMA statement guidelines 2020 when conducting and reporting this study. A computer literature search of PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials was conducted from inception until 1 January 2022. We selected observational studies and clinical trials comparing TXA versus no TXA in aSAH patients. Data of all outcomes were pooled as the risk ratio (RR) with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals in the meta-analysis models. RESULTS Thirteen studies with a total of 2991 patients were included in the analysis. TXA could significantly cut the risk of rebleeding (RR 0.56, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.72) and mortality from rebleeding (RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.92, p = 0.02). However, TXA did not significantly improve the overall mortality, neurological outcome, delayed cerebral ischemia, or hydrocephalus (all p > 0.05). In terms of safety, no significant adverse events were reported. No statistical heterogeneity or publication bias was found in all outcomes. CONCLUSION In patients with aSAH, TXA significantly reduces the incidence of rebleeding and mortality from rebleeding. However, current evidence does not support any benefits in overall mortality, neurological outcome, delayed cerebral ischemia, or hydrocephalus.
The Impact of Choice Architecture on Sepsis Fluid Resuscitation Decisions: An Exploratory Survey-Based Study
MDM policy & practice. 2022;7(1):23814683221099454
BACKGROUND Discordance with well-known sepsis resuscitation guidelines is often attributed to rational assessments of patients at the point of care. Conversely, we sought to explore the impact of choice architecture (i.e., the environment, manner, and behavioral psychology within which options are presented and decisions are made) on decisions to prescribe guideline-discordant fluid volumes. DESIGN We conducted an electronic, survey-based study using a septic shock clinical vignette. Physicians from multiple specialties and training levels at an academic tertiary-care hospital and academic safety-net hospital were randomized to distinct answer sets: control (6 fluid options), time constraint (6 fluid options with a 10-s limit to answer), or choice overload (25 fluid options). The primary outcome was discordance with Surviving Sepsis Campaign fluid resuscitation guidelines. We also measured response times and examined the relationship between each choice architecture intervention group, response time, and guideline discordance. RESULTS A total of 189 of 624 (30.3%) physicians completed the survey. Time spent answering the vignette was reduced in time constraint (9.5 s, interquartile range [IQR] 7.3 s to 10.0 s, P < 0.001) and increased in choice overload (56.8 s, IQR 35.9 s to 86.7 s, P < 0.001) groups compared with control (28.3 s, IQR 20.0 s to 44.6 s). In contrast, the relative risk of guideline discordance was higher in time constraint (2.07, 1.33 to 3.23, P = 0.001) and lower in choice overload (0.75, 0.60, to 0.95, P =0.02) groups. After controlling for time spent reading the vignette, the overall odds of choosing guideline-discordant fluid volumes were reduced for every additional second spent answering the vignette (OR 0.98, 0.97, to 0.99, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Choice architecture may affect fluid resuscitation decisions in sepsis regardless of patient conditions, warranting further investigation in real-world contexts. These effects should be considered when implementing practice guidelines. HIGHLIGHTS Time constrained clinical decision making was associated with increased proportion of guideline-discordant responses and relative risk of failure to prescribe guideline-recommended intravenous fluids using a sepsis clinical vignette.Choice overload increased response times and was associated with decreased proportion of guideline-discordant responses and relative risk of guideline discordance.Physician odds of choosing to prescribe guideline-discordant fluid volumes were reduced with increased deliberation as measured by response times.Clinicians, researchers, policy makers, and administrators should consider the effect of choice architecture on clinical decision making and guideline discordance when implementing guidelines for sepsis and other acute care conditions.
Outcomes after Flow Diverter Treatment in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Meta-Analysis and Development of a Clinical Prediction Model (OUTFLOW)
Brain sciences. 2022;12(3)
BACKGROUND patients with a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) might need a flow diverter (FD) placement for complex acutely ruptured intracranial aneurysms (IAs). We conducted a meta-analysis and developed a prediction model to estimate the favorable clinical outcome after the FD treatment in acutely ruptured IAs. METHODS a systematic literature search was performed from 2010 to January 2021 in PubMed and Embase databases. Studies with more than five patients treated with FDs within fifteen days were included. In total, 1157 studies were identified. The primary outcome measure was the favorable clinical outcome (mRS 0-2). Secondary outcome measures were complete occlusion rates, aneurysm rebleeding, permanent neurologic deficit caused by procedure-related complications, and all-cause mortality. A prediction model was constructed using individual patient-level data. RESULTS 26 retrospective studies with 357 patients and 368 aneurysms were included. The pooled rates of the favorable clinical outcome, mortality, and complete aneurysm occlusion were 73.7% (95% CI 64.7-81.0), 17.1% (95% CI 13.3-21.8), and 85.6% (95% CI 80.4-89.6), respectively. Rebleeding occurred in 3% of aneurysms (11/368). The c-statistic of the final model was 0.83 (95% CI 0.76-0.89). All the studies provided a very low quality of evidence. CONCLUSIONS FD treatment can be considered for complex ruptured IAs. Despite high complication rates, the pooled clinical outcomes seem favorable. The prediction model needs to be validated by larger prospective studies before clinical application.