High-dose regimens of hypomethylating agents promote transfusion independence in IPSS lower-risk myelodysplastic syndromes: a meta-analysis of prospective studies
The hypomethylating agents (HMAs) azacytidine (AZA) and decitabine (DAC) are usually administered after the failure of erythropoietin-stimulating agents for lower-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (LR-MDS). However, it is unclear whether one of these HMAs has superior efficacy and safety. This was investigated in the present study by means of a meta-analysis of prospective studies published between January 1990 and July 2020 in PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and ClinicalTrials.gov databases; 19 studies with 1076 patients were included in the final analysis. The transfusion independence (TI) rate (66.7% [95% confidence interval: 41.7%-87.4%]) was higher with AZA 75 mg/m(2)/day for 7 days than with other regimens (all p<0.025). The proportion of patients with intermediate-1 risk influenced overall survival (p<0.05). There were no differences in treatment response, survival, and adverse event rates between patients treated with AZA (75 mg/m(2)/day for 5 days) and DAC (20 mg/m(2)/day for 3 days), although the latter group had a higher rate of grade 3/4 anemia (15.8% vs 0.0%; p<0.0001) and lower rate of diarrhea/constipation (6.9% vs 25.0%; p=0.002). Thus, both HMAs at high doses achieved reasonable response and TI rates with acceptable side effects, but did not prolong the overall survival in LR-MDS patients.
rhTPO combined with chemotherapy and G-CSF for autologous peripheral blood stem cells in patients with refractory/relapsed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
Cancer management and research. 2019;11:8371-8377
Objective: The mobilization and collection of sufficient autologous peripheral blood stem cells (APBSCs) are important for the fast and sustained reconstruction of hematopoietic function after autologous transplantation. This study aims to evaluate the mobilization effect and safety of thrombopoietin (TPO) combined with chemotherapy + G-CSF for APBSCs in patients with refractory/relapsed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Methods: A total of 78 patients were included in the present study. After receiving mobilization chemotherapy, all patients were randomly divided into two groups: TPO group (n=40), patients were given subcutaneous injection of rhTPO + G-CSF, and control group (n=38), patients were given subcutaneous injection of G-CSF. The primary endpoint was the total number of obtained CD34+ cells. The secondary endpoints were the mononuclear cell count, the proportion of target and minimum mobilization, the engraftment time of neutrophils and platelets after APBSCT, the number of platelet and red blood cell infusions, the incidence of infectious fever and fever duration, and TPO-related side effects in patients. Results: TPO participation significantly increased the total CD34+ cell count. A higher proportion of patients in the TPO group achieved the minimum and target CD34+ cells, when compared to the control group. TPO-related adverse events were not observed in either of these groups. In addition, there were no significant differences in engraftment time, the number of platelet and red blood cell transfusions, the incidence of infectious fever, and fever duration between these two groups. Conclusion: TPO combined with chemotherapy + G-CSF can safely and effectively enhance the mobilization effect for APBSCs in patients with refractory/relapsed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
Eltrombopag versus placebo for low-risk myelodysplastic syndromes with thrombocytopenia (EQoL-MDS): phase 1 results of a single-blind, randomised, controlled, phase 2 superiority trial
The Lancet. Haematology. 2017;4((3):):e127-e136. e127
BACKGROUND In myelodysplastic syndromes, thrombocytopenia is associated with mortality, but treatments in this setting are scarce. We tested whether eltrombopag, a thrombopoietin receptor agonist, might be effective in improving thrombocytopenia in lower-risk myelodysplastic syndromes and severe thrombocytopenia. METHODS EQoL-MDS was a single-blind, randomised, controlled, phase 2 superiority trial of adult patients with low-risk or International Prognostic Scoring System intermediate-1-risk myelodysplastic syndromes and severe thrombocytopenia. Patients with a stable platelet count of lower than 30 x 109 platelets per L, aged at least 18 years, with refractoriness, ineligibility to receive treatment with alternative medications, or relapse while receiving treatment with alternative medications were included in this trial. Patients were randomly assigned (2:1) to receive eltrombopag (50 mg to 300 mg) or placebo for at least 24 weeks and until disease progression and were masked to treatment allocation. Here, we report the results in the intention-to-treat population of the first phase of the trial, for which the primary endpoints were the proportion of patients achieving a platelet response within 24 weeks and safety. The interim analysis presented here was protocol-specified and used a two-sided significance level of 0.001 and a p value at or below this limit for both primary endpoints to indicate the need for early trial termination. Duration of platelet transfusion independence, duration of response, overall survival, leukaemia-free survival, and pharmacokinetics will be reported at the end of the phase 2 portion of the trial. This trial is registered with EudraCT, number 2010-022890-33. FINDINGS Between June 13, 2011, and June 17, 2016, we enrolled 90 participants for the first phase of the trial. The median follow-up time to assess platelet responses was 11 weeks (IQR 4-24). Platelet responses occurred in 28 (47%) of 59 patients in the eltrombopag group versus one (3%) of 31 patients in the placebo group (odds ratio 27.1 [95% CI 3.5-211.9], p=0.0017). During the follow-up, 21 patients had at least one severe bleeding event (WHO bleeding score ≥2). There were a higher number of bleeders in the placebo (13 [42%] of 31 patients) than in the eltrombopag arm (eight [14%] of 59 patients; p=0.0025). 52 grade 3-4 adverse events occurred in 27 (46%) of 59 patients in the eltrombopag group versus nine events in five (16%) of 31 patients in the placebo group (chi2=7.8, p=0.0053, stopping rule not reached). The outcome acute myeloid leukaemia evolution or disease progression occurred in seven (12%) of 59 patients in the eltrombopag group versus five (16%) of 31 patients in the placebo group (chi2=0.06, p=0.81). INTERPRETATION Eltrombopag is well-tolerated in patients with lower-risk myelodysplastic syndromes and severe thrombocytopenia and is clinically effective in raising platelet counts and reducing bleeding events. The assessment of long-term safety and efficacy of eltrombopag and its effect on survival (phase 2 part of study) is still ongoing. FUNDING Associazione QOL-ONE.
Eltrombopag for advanced myelodysplastic syndromes or acute myeloid leukaemia and severe thrombocytopenia (ASPIRE): a randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial
The Lancet. Haematology. 2017;5((1):):e34-e43. e34
BACKGROUND Thrombocytopenia is a life-threatening complication in patients with advanced myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). In this study (ASPIRE), we aimed to assess eltrombopag, an oral thrombopoietin receptor agonist, for thrombocytopenia (grade 4) treatment in adult patients with advanced MDS or AML. METHODS ASPIRE consisted of an open-label, double-blind phase for 8 weeks and a randomised, double-blind phase (parts 1 and 2, reported here) for 12 weeks, and an open-label extension (part 3). Eligible patients were men and women aged 18 years or older, with intermediate-2 or high-risk MDS or AML, with bone marrow blasts of 50% or less, and had either grade 4 thrombocytopenia due to bone marrow insufficiency (platelet counts <25 x 10(9) per L) or grade 4 thrombocytopenia before platelet transfusion, with 25 x 10(9) platelets per L or greater after transfusion. Additionally, eligible patients had at least one of the following within the screening period of 4 weeks: platelet transfusion, symptomatic bleeding, or platelet count of less than 10 x 10(9) per L. During part 1, patients received eltrombopag, and dose-escalation criteria for part 2 were determined. In part 2, we randomly allocated patients 2:1 using an interactive voice-response system to eltrombopag or placebo, stratified by baseline platelet count (<10 x 10(9) platelets per L vs ≥10 x 10(9) platelets per L) and disease (MDS vs AML). In parts 1 and 2, patients received supportive standard of care and initiated eltrombopag or placebo at 100 mg per day (50 mg per day for patients of east-Asian heritage) to a maximum of 300 mg per day (150 mg per day for patients of east-Asian heritage). The part 2 primary objective was assessed by a composite primary endpoint of clinically relevant thrombocytopenic events (CRTE) during weeks 5-12, defined as one of the following events, either alone or in combination: grade 3 or worse haemorrhagic adverse events; platelet counts of less than 10 x 10(9) per L; or platelet transfusions. Efficacy analyses were based on intention to treat; clinically meaningful efficacy was defined as 30% absolute difference between groups. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01440374. FINDINGS In part 1, 17 patients received eltrombopag and 11 patients completed treatment; four experienced significantly increased platelet counts, and ten had reduced platelet transfusion requirements. In part 2 we randomly allocated 145 patients to receive supportive care plus eltrombopag (n=98) or placebo (n=47); similar proportions had MDS (50 [51%] patients to eltrombopag, 22 (47%) patients to placebo) or AML (48 [49%] patients to eltrombopag, 25 [53%] patients to placebo). Average weekly CRTE proportions from weeks 5-12 were significantly lower with eltrombopag (54% [95% CI 43-64]) than with placebo (69% [57-80], odds ratio [OR] 0.20, 95% CI 0.05-0.87; p=0.032) although the difference between treatment groups was less than 30%. The most common grade 3 and grade 4 adverse events were fatigue (six [6%] in the eltrombopag group and one [2%] in the placebo group), hypokalaemia (six [6%] and two [4%]), pneumonia (five [5%] and five [11%]), and febrile neutropenia (five [5%] and six [13%]). Serious adverse events were reported in 56 (58%) eltrombopag-treated patients and 32 (68%) placebo-treated patients. Seven eltrombopag recipients and two placebo recipients had serious adverse events that were suspected to be study drug-related (eltrombopag: acute kidney injury, arterial thrombosis, bone pain, diarrhoea, myocardial infarction, pyrexia, retinal vein occlusion, n=1 each; placebo: vomiting, white blood cell count increased, n=1 each). Two eltrombopag recipients (arterial thrombosis n=1; myocardial infarction n=1) and no placebo recipients experienced fatal serious adverse events suspected to be study drug-related. INTERPRETATION No new safety concerns were noted with eltrombopag and the trial met the primary objective of a reduction in CRTEs; eltrombopag might be a treatment option for thrombocy
Thrombopoietin mimetics for patients with myelodysplastic syndromes
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2017;((9)):CD009883.
BACKGROUND Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is one of the most frequent haematologic malignancies of the elderly population and characterised by progenitor cell dysplasia with ineffective haematopoiesis and a high rate of transformation to acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). Thrombocytopenia represents a common problem for patients with MDS. ranging from mild to serious bleeding events and death. To manage thrombocytopenia, the current standard treatment includes platelet transfusion, unfortunately leading to a range of side effects. Thrombopoietin (TPO) mimetics represent an alternative treatment option for MDS patients with thrombocytopenia. However, it remains unclear, whether TPO mimetics influence the increase of blast cells and therefore to premature progression to AML. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the efficacy and safety of thrombopoietin (TPO) mimetics for patients with MDS. SEARCH METHODS We searched for randomised controlled trials in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE (January 2000 to August 2017), trials registries (ISRCTN, EU clinical trials register and clinicaltrials.gov) and conference proceedings. We did not apply any language restrictions. Two review authors independently screened search results, disagreements were solved by discussion. SELECTION CRITERIA We included randomised controlled trials comparing TPO mimetics with placebo, no further treatment or another TPO mimetic in patients with MDS of all risk groups, without gender, age or ethnicity restrictions. Additional chemotherapeutic treatment had to be equal in both arms. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the quality of trials, disagreements were resolved by discussion. Risk ratio (RR) was used to analyse mortality during study, transformation to AML, incidence of bleeding events, transfusion requirement, all adverse events, adverse events >= grade 3, serious adverse events and platelet response. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) have been extracted as hazard ratios, but could not be pooled as results were reported in heterogenous ways. Health-related quality of life and duration of thrombocytopenia would have been analysed as standardised mean differences, but no trial reported these outcomes. MAIN RESULTS We did not identify any trial comparing one TPO mimetic versus another. We analysed six eligible trials involving 746 adult patients. All trials were reported as randomised and double-blind trials including male and female patients. Two trials compared TPO mimetics (romiplostim or eltrombopag) with placebo, one trial evaluated eltrombopag in addition to the hypomethylating agent azacitidine, two trials analysed romiplostim additionally to a hypomethylating agent (azacitidine or decitabine) and one trial evaluated romiplostim in addition to the immunomodulatory drug lenalidomide. There are more data on romiplostim (four included, completed, full-text trials) than on eltrombopag (two trials included: one full-text publication, one abstract publication). Due to small sample sizes and imbalances in baseline characteristics in three trials and premature termination of two studies, we judged the potential risk of bias of all included trials as high.Due to heterogenous reporting, we were not able to pool data for OS. Instead of that, we analysed mortality during study. There is little or no evidence for a difference in mortality during study for thrombopoietin mimetics compared to placebo (RR 0.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.73 to 1.27, N = 6 trials, 746 patients, low-quality evidence). It is unclear whether the use of TPO mimetics induces an acceleration of transformation to AML (RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.59 to 1.77, N = 5 trials, 372 patients, very low-quality evidence).Thrombopoietin mimetics probably improve the incidence of all bleeding events (RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.86 to 0.99, N = 5 trials, 390 patients, moderate-quality evidence). This means that in the study population, 713 out of 1000 in the placebo arm will have a bleeding event, com
Comparison of prophylactic use of intravenous immunoglobulin versus Pentaglobin in pediatric patients after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
Pediatric Transplantation. 2016;20((2)):276-83.
There are few studies evaluating the use of IgM-enriched IVIG (Pentaglobin() ) in HSCT recipients. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of prophylactic use of IVIG versus prophylactic use of Pentaglobin() within the first 100 days after allogeneic HSCT. We performed a prospective, randomized study of the use of prophylactic IVIG versus prophylactic use of Pentaglobin() in patients after allogeneic HSCT. The first dose of IVIG or Pentaglobin() was given before conditioning regimen and after transplant was given on day +1, +8, +15, and +22. And then, it was given if IgG level was below 400 mg/dL. Twenty-seven patients in IVIG group and 32 patients in Pentaglobin() group were included in the study. There were no significant differences in the duration of neutropenia, hospitalization, fever, and in the number of pyrexial episode, septicemia, bacteremia, local infection, CMV infection, acute GVHD, VOD, and adverse events between the IVIG group and Pentaglobin() group. Randomized placebo-controlled trials are needed to conclude that utilization of IVIG or Pentaglobin() has no beneficial effect in HSCT.Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Thrombopoietin receptor agonist eltrombopag for advanced MDS or AML and severe thrombocytopenia: 12-week, randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 2 ASPIRE study
Haematologica. 2016;101((s1)):15-16.. s130.
Oral thrombopoietin receptor agonist eltrombopag treatment during induction chemotherapy for acute myelogenous leukemia (AML): results of a randomized, double-blind, phase 2 study
Haematologica. 2016;101((s1)):40-41.. p185.
Eltrombopag for post-transplant thrombocytopenia: results of phase II randomized double blind placebo controlled trial
Blood. 2015;126((23)): Abstract No. 738.
Safety and tolerability of eltrombopag versus placebo for treatment of thrombocytopenia in patients with advanced myelodysplastic syndromes or acute myeloid leukaemia: a multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, phase 1/2 trial
The Lancet Haematology. 2015;2((10)):e417-26.
BACKGROUND Patients with myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myeloid leukaemia who are thrombocytopenic and unable to receive disease-modifying therapy have few treatment options. Platelet transfusions provide transient benefit and are limited by alloimmunisation. Eltrombopag, an oral thrombopoietin receptor agonist, increases platelet counts and has preclinical antileukaemic activity. We aimed to assess the safety and tolerability of eltrombopag for the treatment of thrombocytopenia in adult patients with advanced myelodysplastic syndrome, secondary acute myeloid leukaemia after myelodysplastic syndrome, or de-novo acute myeloid leukaemia. METHODS We did this multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, phase 1/2 trial at 37 centres in ten countries in Europe, east Asia, and the Americas. Patients aged 18 years or older who had relapsed or refractory disease or were ineligible for standard treatments; had platelet counts of less than 30 x 10(9) platelets per L; had 10-50% bone-marrow blasts; or were platelet transfusion dependent were randomly assigned (2:1), via a telephone-based interactive voice-response system (GlaxoSmithKline Registration and Medication Ordering System) with a permuted-block randomisation schedule (block size of three), to receive once-daily eltrombopag or matching placebo dose adjusted from 50 mg to a maximum dose of 300 mg. Randomisation was stratified by presence of poor-prognosis (complex) karyotype (presence of at least three abnormalities, or chromosome 7 abnormalities, vs absence) and bone-marrow blast count (<20% vs >20%). Patients and study personnel were masked to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint was safety and tolerability, including adverse events, non-haematological laboratory grade 3-4 toxic effects, and changes in bone-marrow blast counts from baseline. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00903422. FINDINGS Between May 14, 2009, and May 9, 2013, we randomly assigned 98 patients to receive either eltrombopag (n=64) or placebo (n=34). 63 (98%) patients in the eltrombopag group and 32 (94%) patients in the placebo group had adverse events. The most common adverse events were pyrexia (27 [42%] vs 11 [32%]), nausea (20 [31%] vs 7 [21%]), diarrhoea (19 [30%] vs 6 [18%]), fatigue (16 [25%] vs 6 [18%]), decreased appetite (15 [23%] vs 5 [15%]), and pneumonia (14 [22%] vs 8 [24%]). Drug-related adverse events of grade 3 or higher were reported in six (9%) patients in the eltrombopag group and four (12%) patients in the placebo group. Increases in the proportion of peripheral blasts did not differ significantly between groups. Haemorrhage of grade 3 or higher was reported in ten (16%) patients given eltrombopag and nine (26%) patients given placebo. 21 (33%) patients receiving eltrombopag and 16 (47%) patients receiving placebo died while on treatment. No deaths in patients receiving eltrombopag and two deaths in patients receiving placebo were regarded as treatment related. Post-baseline bone-marrow examinations were done in 40 (63%) patients in the eltrombopag group and 17 (50%) patients in the placebo group. The most common reason for no examination was death before the scheduled 3 month assessment. There were no differences between median bone-marrow blast counts or proportions of peripheral blasts between groups. INTERPRETATION Eltrombopag doses up to 300 mg daily had an acceptable safety profile in patients with advanced myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myeloid leukaemia. The role of eltrombopag in these patients warrants further investigation. FUNDING GlaxoSmithKline.Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.