Does difference between label and actual potency of factor VIII concentrate affect pharmacokinetic-guided dosing of replacement therapy in haemophilia A?
Haemophilia : the official journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia. 2022
BACKGROUND To account for interindividual variability in the pharmacokinetics (PK) of factor concentrates, PK-guided dosing is increasingly implemented in haemophilia patients. Calculations are based on provided label potency, but legislation allows a potency difference of ±20% between label and actual potency. It is unknown if these differences affect PK guidance. AIM: Explore the effects of potency differences on individual factor VIII (FVIII) PK parameters and the prediction of FVIII trough levels of dosing regimens. METHODS We analyzed individual preoperative PK profiling data from severe and moderate haemophilia A patients included in the OPTI-CLOT randomized controlled trial. Label and actual potency were compared, with data on potency provided by pharmaceutical companies. For both potencies, individual PK parameters were estimated and concentration-time curves were constructed by nonlinear mixed-effects modelling. Finally, we explored the effect of both the identified and the maximum legislated potency difference on predicted FVIII trough levels infused in a low and high dose regimen. RESULTS In 45/50 included patients, actual potency was higher than its label potency. The median potency difference was 6.0% (range -9.2% to 18.4%) and resulted in varying individual PK parameter estimates but practically identical FVIII concentration-time curves. As expected, predicted FVIII trough levels were linearly correlated to the actual dose. CONCLUSION It is not necessary to take potency differences into account when applying PK guidance of FVIII concentrates in haemophilia A patients. However, when the patient is switched to another FVIII batch after PK-guided dosing, trough levels may deviate ±20% from calculations based on label dose.
The Impact of Recombinant Versus Plasma-Derived Factor VIII Concentrates on Inhibitor Development in Previously Untreated Patients With Hemophilia A: A 2021 Update of a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Hemophilia A, the most common hereditary disorder, is caused by clotting factor deficiency. Challenges encountered in the current treatment of hemophilia A [factor VIII (FVIII) replacement therapy] due to inhibitor development have caused ineffective treatment as well as morbidity and mortality among patients. However, there are no studies comparing the two types of FVIII treatments in terms of inhibitor development rate. Therefore, we conducted this systematic review to devise a better treatment option with a lower risk of inhibitor development. The systematic review was conducted using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and by searching several databases. Data extraction on study characteristics and outcomes was conducted. Reviewers also conducted a risk of bias assessment on all studies. All eligible studies for quantitative analysis were then processed using RevMan 5.4.1 and the data was extrapolated into cumulative outcomes and expressed in forest and funnel plots. Nine studies were included in the meta-analysis, involving a total of 2,531 hemophilia A patients who were followed up from birth until death. A higher incidence of inhibitor development was found to be associated with recombinant FVIII (rFVIII) [odds ratio (OR)=1.57, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.95-2.59; hazard ratio (HR)=1.89, 95% CI: 1.15-3.12]. The same trend was also found for high-responding inhibitors (OR=1.38, 95% CI: 0.70-2.70; HR=1.42, 95% CI: 0.84-2.39). rFVIII is associated with a higher risk of overall and high-responding inhibitor development compared to plasma-derived FVIII (pdFVIII).
[The Treatment of Newly Diagnosed Primary Immune Thrombocytopenia by Recombinant Human Thrombopoietin Combined with Glucocorticoid]
Zhongguo shi yan xue ye xue za zhi. 2022;30(3):832-835
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy and safety of recombinant human thrombopoietin (rhTPO) combined with glucocorticoid in treatment of newly diagnosed adult primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). METHODS Eleven male and 23 female patients with the diagnosis of primary ITP in our hospital from November 2018 to October 2019 were enrolled and randomly divided into test group (17 cases) and control group (17 cases), the median age was 52 years old (range: 20-76 years old). The patients in test group were treated with rhTPO 300 IU/(kg·d) combined with glucocorticoid , while the patients in control group were treated with rhTPO (15 000 IU/d) combined with glucocorticoid. Platelet count, platelet increase, as well as the overall response rate were compared. At the same time, the drug tolerance and any adverse drug reactions were observed. RESULTS The platelet counts and platelet increase of the patients in the test group were significantly higher than those in control group (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in platelet counts and platelet increase between the patients in the test group and control group at day 3, 7 after treatment. There was no significant difference in overall response rates and complete response rates at day 7, 14 between the two groups either. In test group, there were 13 cases received platelet transfusion, while 12 cases in control group. The muscle aches occurred in one patient, and mild aminotransferase increased in another patient in test group which was self-recovery without treatment. CONCLUSION RhTPO 300 U/(kg·d) combined with glucocorticoid could rapidly increase the platelet count with a low incidence of tolerable adverse events compared with conventional dose rhTPO with glucocorticoid.
Effects of corticosteroids in patients with sickle cell disease and acute complications: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Whether corticosteroids improve outcome in patients with acute complications of sickle cell disease (SCD) is still debated. We performed a systematic review of the literature with the aim of estimating effects of corticosteroids on the clinical course of vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC) or acute chest syndrome (ACS) in patients with SCD. The primary outcome was transfusion requirement during hospitalization. Studies were identified by search of MEDLINE and CENTRAL database. Three randomized clinical trials (RCT) and three retrospective cohort studies (RCS) were included, involving 3,304 participants and 5,562 VOC or ACS episodes. There was no difference between corticosteroids and standard treatment regarding transfusion overall [OR=0.98 (95% CI 0.38 to 2.53)], but with a significant interaction of study type (P.
A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial of oral hydroxyurea for transfusion-dependent β-thalassaemia
Scientific reports. 2022;12(1):2752
Hydroxyurea is an antimetabolite drug that induces fetal haemoglobin in sickle cell disease. However, its clinical usefulness in β-thalassaemia is unproven. We conducted a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of hydroxyurea in transfusion-dependent β-thalassaemia. Sixty patients were assigned 1:1 to oral hydroxyurea 10-20 mg/kg/day or placebo for 6 months by stratified block randomisation. Hydroxyurea treatment did not alter the blood transfusion volume overall. However, a significantly higher proportion of patients on hydroxyurea showed increases in fetal haemoglobin percentage (89% vs. 59%; p < 0.05) and reductions in erythropoietic stress as measured by soluble transferrin receptor concentration (79% vs. 40%; p < 0.05). Based on fetal haemoglobin induction (> 1.5%), 44% of patients were identified as hydroxyurea-responders. Hydroxyurea-responders, required significantly lower blood volume (77 ± SD27ml/kg) compared to hydroxyurea-non-responders (108 ± SD24ml/kg; p < 0.01) and placebo-receivers (102 ± 28ml/kg; p < 0.05). Response to hydroxyurea was significantly higher in patients with HbE β-thalassaemia genotype (50% vs. 0%; p < 0.01) and Xmn1 polymorphism of the γ-globin gene (67% vs. 27%; p < 0.05). We conclude that oral hydroxyurea increased fetal haemoglobin percentage and reduced erythropoietic stress of ineffective erythropoiesis in patients with transfusion-dependent β-thalassaemia. Hydroxyurea reduced the transfusion burden in approximately 40% of patients. Response to hydroxyurea was higher in patients with HbE β-thalassaemia genotype and Xmn1 polymorphism of the γ-globin gene.
Efficacy of combined immunosuppression with or without eltrombopag in children with newly diagnosed aplastic anemia
Blood advances. 2022
We compared the efficacy and safety of eltrombopag (ELTR) combined with immunosuppressive therapy (IST) and IST alone in treatment-naïve children with severe (SAA) and very severe (vSAA) aplastic anemia. Ninety-eight pediatric patients were randomized to receive horse antithymocyte globulin and cyclosporin A with (n=49) or without (n=49) ELTR. The primary endpoint was the overall response rate (ORR) at 4 months. After 4 months, nonresponders were crossed over to the alternative group. In all patients, the ORR in ELTR+IST and IST groups was similar (65% vs. 53%, p=0.218); however, the complete response (CR) rate was significantly higher in ELTR+IST group (31% vs. 12%, p=0.027). In severity subgroups, the ORR was 89% vs. 57% (p=0.028) in favor of IST+ELTR in SAA, but it did not differ in patients with vSAA (52% vs. 50%, p=0.902). At 6 months after the crossover, 61% of initial ELTR(-) patients achieved a response compared to 17% of initial ELTR(+) patients (p=0.016). No significant difference in ELTR+IST and IST groups was observed in the 3-year OS (89% vs. 91%, p=0.673) or the 3-year EFS (53% vs. 41%, p=0.326). There was no unexpected toxicity related to ELTR. Adding ELTR to standard IST was well tolerated and increased the CR rate. The greatest benefit from ELTR combined with IST was observed in patients with SAA, but not in those with vSAA. The second course of IST resulted in a high ORR in initial ELTR(-) patients who added ELTR and had limited efficacy among patients who received ELTR upfront. Clinicaltrials.gov #NCT03413306.
Eptacog beta efficacy and safety in the treatment and control of bleeding in paediatric subjects (<12 years) with haemophilia A or B with inhibitors
Haemophilia : the official journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia. 2022
INTRODUCTION Eptacog beta is a new recombinant activated human factor VII bypassing agent approved in the United States for the treatment and control of bleeding in patients with haemophilia A or B with inhibitors 12 years of age or older. AIM: To prospectively assess in a phase 3 clinical trial (PERSEPT 2) eptacog beta efficacy and safety for treatment of bleeding in children <12 years of age with haemophilia A or B with inhibitors. METHODS Using a randomised crossover design, subjects received initial doses of 75 or 225 μg/kg eptacog beta followed by 75 μg/kg dosing at predefined intervals (as determined by clinical response) to treat bleeding episodes (BEs). Treatment success criteria included a haemostasis evaluation of 'excellent' or 'good' without use of additional eptacog beta, alternative haemostatic agent or blood product, and no increase in pain following the first 'excellent' or 'good' assessment. RESULTS Treatment success proportions in 25 subjects (1-11 years) who experienced 546 mild or moderate BEs were 65% in the 75 μg/kg initial dose regimen (IDR) and 60% in the 225 μg/kg IDR 12 h following initial eptacog beta infusion. By 24 h, the treatment success proportions were 97% for the 75 μg/kg IDR and 98% for the 225 μg/kg IDR. No thrombotic events, allergic reactions, neutralising antibodies or treatment-related adverse events were reported. CONCLUSION Both 75 and 225 μg/kg eptacog beta IDRs provided safe and effective treatment and control of bleeding in children <12 years of age.
Measuring Factor XIII Inhibitors in Patients with Factor XIII Deficiency: A Case Report and Systematic Review of Current Practices in Japan
Journal of clinical medicine. 2022;11(6)
Factor XIII (FXIII) deficiency is a rare but serious coagulopathy. FXIII is critical in blood coagulation, and FXIII deficiencies can lead to uncontrolled or spontaneous bleeding. FXIII deficiencies can be congenital or acquired; acquired FXIII deficiency can be categorized as autoimmune and non-autoimmune. Immunological tests to measure FXIII inhibitors are required to diagnose acquired FXIII deficiency; however, appropriate test facilities are limited, which increases the turnaround time of these tests. In the case of critical bleeding, delayed test results may worsen prognosis due to delayed treatment. Here, we report a case of acquired FXIII deficiency, followed by a review of FXIII deficiency cases in Japan. We performed a systematic review to investigate the present conditions of the diagnosis and treatment of FXIII deficiency, including the measurement of FXIII inhibitors in Japan. FXIII inhibitor testing was only performed in 29.7 of acquired FXIII deficiency cases. Clinical departments other than internal medicine and pediatrics were often involved in medical treatment at the time of onset. Therefore, it is important for doctors in clinical departments other than internal medicine and pediatrics to consider FXIII deficiency and perform FXIII inhibitor testing when examining patients with prolonged bleeding of unknown cause or persistent bleeding after trauma.
Luspatercept for the treatment of anaemia in non-transfusion-dependent β-thalassaemia (BEYOND): a phase 2, randomised, double-blind, multicentre, placebo-controlled trial
The Lancet. Haematology. 2022
BACKGROUND In patients with non-transfusion-dependent β-thalassaemia, haemoglobin concentrations lower than 10 g/dL are associated with a higher risk of morbidity, mortality, and impaired quality of life. No drugs are specifically approved for anaemia management in patients with non-transfusion-dependent β-thalassaemia, other than transfusion therapy administered infrequently in accordance with patients' needs. We assessed the efficacy and safety of luspatercept versus placebo in patients with non-transfusion-dependent β-thalassaemia. METHODS We did a phase 2, randomised, double-blind, multicentre, placebo-controlled trial in 12 centres in six countries (Thailand [n=1], Lebanon [n=1], Greece [n=2], Italy [n=5], the UK [n=1], and the USA [n=2]). Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older, had confirmed diagnosis of β-thalassaemia or haemoglobin E/β-thalassaemia (concomitant α-globin deletion, mutation, or duplication were allowed), and a baseline haemoglobin concentration of 10·0 g/dL or lower. All patients were non-transfusion-dependent. Patients were randomly assigned (2:1) to luspatercept or placebo using an interactive response technology system and stratified by baseline haemoglobin concentration (≥8·5 g/dL vs <8·5 g/dL) and baseline Non-Transfusion-Dependent β-thalassaemia-Patient-Reported Outcome Tiredness/Weakness domain score (≥3 vs <3). All patients, study site staff, and sponsor representatives (who reviewed the data), except for designated individuals, were masked to drug assignment until the time the study was unblinded. Luspatercept or placebo was given once subcutaneously every 3 weeks for 48 weeks in the double-blind treatment period. Luspatercept was started at 1·0 mg/kg with titration up to 1·25 mg/kg, or reduction in the event of toxicity or excessive haemoglobin concentration increase. The primary endpoint was achievement of an increase from baseline of 1·0 g/dL or higher in mean haemoglobin concentration over a continuous 12-week interval during weeks 13-24, in the absence of transfusions. The primary efficacy and safety analyses were done in the intention-to-treat population. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03342404, and is ongoing. FINDINGS Between Feb 5, 2018, and Oct 14, 2019, 160 patients were screened for eligiblity, of whom 145 were randomly assigned to luspatercept (n=96) or placebo (n=49). 82 (57%) patients were female and 63 (43%) were male. 44 (30%) patients were Asian, 87 (60%) were White, and 14 (10%) identified as another race. The study met its primary endpoint: 74 (77%) of 96 patients in the luspatercept group and none in the placebo group had an increase of at least 1·0 g/dL in haemoglobin concentration (common risk difference 77·1 [95% CI 68·7-85·5]; p<0·0001). The proportion of patients with serious adverse events was lower in the luspatercept group than in the placebo group (11 [12%] vs 12 [25%]). Treatment-emergent adverse events most commonly reported with luspatercept were bone pain (35 [37%]), headache (29 [30%]), and arthralgia (28 [29%]). No thromboembolic events or deaths were reported during the study. INTERPRETATION Luspatercept represents a potential treatment for adult patients with non-transfusion-dependent β-thalassaemia, for whom effective approved treatment options are scarce. FUNDING Celgene and Acceleron Pharma.
Patients with non-transfusion-dependent β-thalassaemia enrolled in the BEYOND trial, in Thailand, Lebanon, Greece, Italy, UK, and USA (n= 145).
Luspatercept (n= 96).
Placebo (n= 49).
The primary endpoint was achievement of an increase from baseline of 1.0 g/dL or higher in mean haemoglobin concentration over a continuous 12-week interval during weeks 13-24, in the absence of transfusions. The study met its primary endpoint: 74 (77%) of 96 patients in the luspatercept group and none in the placebo group had an increase of at least 1.0 g/dL in haemoglobin concentration (common risk difference 77.1 [95% Confidence Interval: 68.7-85.5]). The proportion of patients with serious adverse events was lower in the luspatercept group than in the placebo group (11 [12%] vs. 12 [25%]). Treatment-emergent adverse events most commonly reported with luspatercept were bone pain (35 [37%]), headache (29 [30%]), and arthralgia (28 [29%]). No thromboembolic events or deaths were reported.
Sequential eradication of Helicobacter pylori as a treatment for immune thrombocytopenia in patients with moderate thrombocytopenia: a multicenter prospective randomized phase 3 study
Annals of hematology. 2022
Due to several issues, standard treatments are not recommended for asymptomatic patients with moderate immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). Since platelet responses are reported in some patients with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-positive ITP after eradication, we conducted a multicenter, phase 3 study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of recently established sequential eradication for these patients having moderate thrombocytopenia. Persistent or chronic ITP patients with platelet count (30 × 10(3) ~ 80 × 10(3)/μL) and confirmed active H. pylori infection were randomly assigned to a treatment and a control group. The former received 10-day sequential treatment. Eradication was assessed by urea breath test at 3 months after treatment. Primary endpoint was the overall platelet response rate at 3 months in successfully eradicated treatment group and control group. Secondary endpoints were platelet response time, H. pylori eradication success rate, etc. The patient enrollment terminated early because of the change of national insurance and treatment guideline for H. pylori-positive patients in Korea during the study. Of the 28 H. pylori-positive ITP patients, 17 were randomized to the treatment group, and eradication was achieved for 15 (88.2%) at 3 months, and seven in control group after withdrawal. Statistically, significant difference in platelet response rates between the two groups were observed (p = 0.017). Our study verifies that H. pylori eradication was an effective ITP treatment for patients with H. pylori-associated moderate ITP. This sequential eradication regimen showed not only a high H. pylori eradication rate, but also a remarkable platelet response for ITP patients. Trial registration number and date of registration for these prospectively registered trials is ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03177629 and June 6, 2017.