A systematic review of population pharmacokinetic analyses of polyclonal immunoglobulin G therapy
International immunopharmacology. 2021;97:107721
BACKGROUND Population pharmacokinetics (popPK) using the nonlinear mixed-effect (NLME) modeling approach is an essential tool for guiding dose individualization. Several popPK analyses using the NLME have been conducted to characterize the pharmacokinetics of immunoglobulin G (IgG). OBJECTIVE To summarize the current information on popPK of polyclonal IgG therapy. METHOD A systematic search was conducted in the PubMed and Web of Science databases from inception to December 2020. Additional relevant studies were also included by reviewing the reference list of the reviewed articles. All popPK studies that employed the NLME modeling approach were included and data were synthesized descriptively. RESULTS This review included seven studies. Most of the popPK models were developed in patients with primary immunodeficiency (PID). IgG pharmacokinetics was described as a two-compartment model in five studies, while it was described as a one-compartment model in two other studies. Among all tested covariates, weight was consistently identified as a significant predictor for clearance (CL) of IgG. Whereas, weight and disease type were found to be significant predictors for the volume of distribution in central compartment (Vc). In a typical 70 kg adult, the median estimated values of Vc and CL were 4.04 L and 0.144 L/day, respectively. The between subject variability of Vc was considered large. Only two studies evaluated their models using external data. CONCLUSIONS Seven popPK studies of IgG were found and discussed, with only weight being a significant covariate across all studies. Future studies linking pharmacokinetics with pharmacodynamics in PID and other patient populations are required.
Biologic Treatment Outcomes in Mucous Membrane Pemphigoid: A Systematic Review
Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 2021
BACKGROUND Mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP) is an autoimmune disease, which can lead to fibrosis of mucous membranes and functional impairment. Biologic agents should be explored as alternative treatment options to improve outcomes. OBJECTIVE To conduct a systematic review of biologic treatment outcomes in patients with MMP. METHODS MEDLINE and EMBASE search was conducted on July 23(rd), 2020 to include 63 studies using PRISMA guidelines. RESULTS Use of IVIG (n=154), rituximab (n=112), TNFα inhibitors (n=7), and combination treatments (n=58) were reported in 331 patients with MMP. IVIG led to complete resolution in 61.7% (n=95/154) of patients within 26.0 months, with a recurrence rate of 22.7% (n=35/154) and headache as the most common side effect (8.4%, n=13/154). Rituximab led to complete resolution in 70.5% (n=79/112) of patients within 8.7 months, with a recurrence rate of 35.7% (n=40/112). Most commonly reported side effects were urinary tract infections (4.5%, n=5/112), leukocytopenia (2.7%, n=3/112), death due to severe infections (1.8%, n=2/112). TNFα inhibitors led to complete resolution in 71.4% (n=5/7) of patients within 3.9 months of treatment, without reported adverse events. CONCLUSIONS Randomized clinical trials with long term follow up are required to conclude the promising safety and efficacy of biologic agents in MMP patients.
Efficacy and safety of intravenous and subcutaneous immunoglobulin therapy in idiopathic inflammatory myopathy: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Autoimmunity reviews. 2021;:102997
OBJECTIVE To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis on the efficacy and safety of intravenous (IVIg) and subcutaneous (SCIg) immunoglobulin (Ig) therapy in the treatment of idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM) and juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM). METHODS PubMed, Embase and SCOPUS were searched to identify studies on Ig therapy in patients with IIM and/or JDM (2010-2020). Outcome measures were complete response (CR) or partial response (PR) in terms of muscle power and extramuscular disease activity measures on the International Myositis Assessment and Clinical Studies Group (IMACS) core set domains. RESULTS Twenty-nine studies were included (n = 576, 544 IIM, 32 JDM). Muscle power PR with pooled Ig therapy was 88.5% (95% confidence interval (CI): 80.6-93.5, n = 499) and PR with SCIg treatment was 96.61% (95% CI: 87.43-99.15, n = 59). Pooled PR with first-line use of IVIg was 77.07% (95% CI: 61.25-92.89, n = 80). Overall, mean time to response was 2.9 months (95% CI: 1.9-4.1). Relapse was seen in 22.76% (95% CI: 14.9-33). Studies on cutaneous disease activity and dysphagia showed significant treatment responses. Glucocorticoid and immunosuppressant sparing effect was seen in 40.9% (95% CI: 20-61.7) and 42.2% (95% CI: 20.4-64.1) respectively. Ig therapy was generally safe with low risk of infection (1.37%, 95% CI: 0.1-2.6). CONCLUSIONS Add-on Ig therapy improves muscle strength in patients with refractory IIM, but evidence on Ig therapy in new-onset disease and extramuscular disease activity is uncertain.
Efficacy of topical tranexamic acid in epistaxis: A systematic review and meta-analysis
The American journal of emergency medicine. 2021;51:169-175
INTRODUCTION Epistaxis is a very common presentation in the emergency department (ED), accounting for approximately 1 in 200 ED visits in the United States. Currently, standard practice includes the initial use of topical anesthetics and vasoconstrictors, followed by more invasive treatments such as nasal packing, cauterization or surgical ligation for refractory cases. Over the years several studies have investigated the potential use of topical Tranexamic Acid (TXA) in the management of epistaxis. We have conducted a meta-analysis to assess the efficacy of topical TXA versus other standard practices or placebo in the management of epistaxis. METHODS PubMed and Scopus databases were searched from inception to April 2021. We included randomized controlled trials and observational studies investigating the efficacy of TXA in bleeding cessation in epistaxis in adults. The primary outcome measured was the prevalence of bleeding cessation after treatment at first assessment. Other outcomes were bleeding reoccurrence between 24 and 72 h and at 7-8 days. A random-effects model was used to estimate odds ratio (OR) for outcomes. RESULTS A total of eight studies were included in the analysis, including seven randomized trials and one retrospective study. We included a total of 1299 patients, 596 (46%) received TXA while 703 (54%) received control treatment (placebo, lidocaine plus vasoconstrictors or local anesthetics). Patients who were treated with TXA were 3.5 times (OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.3-9.7) more likely to achieve bleeding cessation at the first assessment. Patients treated with TXA had 63% (OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.20-0.66) less likelihood of returning due to rebleeding at 24-72 h. CONCLUSION Topical TXA is associated with better bleeding cessation rates after treatment compared to the standard practices.
Pharmacometric Analysis Linking Immunoglobulin Exposure to Clinical Efficacy Outcomes in Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy
CPT: pharmacometrics & systems pharmacology. 2021
The two main objectives of this analysis were to (i) characterise the relationship between immunoglobulin (Ig) exposure and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) disease severity using data from 171 patients with CIDP who received either subcutaneous Ig (IgPro20; Hizentra®) or placebo (PATH study), and to (ii) simulate and compare exposure coverage with various dosing approaches considering weekly dosing to be the reference dose. IgG PK parameters including those from a previous population PK model were used to predict individual IgG profile and exposure metrics. Treatment-related changes in inflammatory neuropathy cause and treatment (INCAT) scores were best described by an E(max) model as a function of ΔIgG (total serum IgG at INCAT score assessment minus baseline IgG levels before intravenous Ig restabilisation). Simulations indicate that flexible dosing from daily to biweekly (every other week) provide an exposure coverage equivalent to that of a weekly Ig dose.
A Systematic Review of Fibrin Glue as an Ideal Treatment for the Pilonidal Disease
Pilonidal sinus is an acquired condition caused by irritation to the hair follicles at the natal cleft, presenting with an abscess or chronic infection. It is prevalent in young adults affecting their productive lifestyle with morbidities. There are varieties of treatment options; however, there is no consensus yet for the ideal procedure. Less invasive procedures have evolved to replace the traditional surgical techniques, which cannot significantly reduce the risks of recurrence and wound complications despite extensive surgeries. We aimed to assess the effect of fibrin glue as a primary treatment after cleaning the sinus in pilonidal sinus disease. We searched for articles from PubMed®, Ovid MEDLINE®, Ovid EMBASE®, and Cochrane CENTRAL. Six studies that included 336 patients in total were analyzed. Fibrin glue treatment in these studies reported a quicker return to normal activities postoperatively, a low rate of infection, and an acceptable rate of recurrence. Thus, fibrin glue seems beneficial in the management of pilonidal disease. However, further high-quality studies are essential to support and confirm this evidence. Future research should also evaluate its cost and implications in the ambulatory service.
Terlipressin plus Albumin for the Treatment of Type 1 Hepatorenal Syndrome
The New England journal of medicine. 2021;384(9):818-828
BACKGROUND The vasoconstrictor terlipressin is used for type 1 hepatorenal syndrome (HRS-1) in many parts of the world and is part of the clinical practice guidelines in Europe. METHODS We conducted a phase 3 trial to confirm the efficacy and safety of terlipressin plus albumin in adults with HRS-1. The patients were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to receive terlipressin or placebo for up to 14 days; in both groups, concomitant use of albumin was strongly recommended. The primary end point was verified reversal of HRS, defined as two consecutive serum creatinine measurements of 1.5 mg per deciliter or less at least 2 hours apart and survival without renal-replacement therapy for at least 10 days after the completion of treatment. Four prespecified secondary end points were analyzed with the Hochberg procedure to account for multiple comparisons. RESULTS A total of 300 patients underwent randomization - 199 were assigned to the terlipressin group and 101 to the placebo group. Verified reversal of HRS was reported in 63 patients (32%) in the terlipressin group and 17 patients (17%) in the placebo group (P = 0.006). With respect to the prespecified secondary end points, HRS reversal, defined as any serum creatinine level of 1.5 mg per deciliter or less during the first 14 days, was reported in 78 patients (39%) in the terlipressin group and 18 (18%) in the placebo group (P<0.001); HRS reversal without renal-replacement therapy by day 30, in 68 (34%) and 17 (17%), respectively (P = 0.001); HRS reversal among patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (84 patients in the terlipressin group and 48 patients in the placebo group), in 31 (37%) and 3 (6%), respectively (P<0.001); and verified reversal of HRS without recurrence by day 30, in 52 (26%) and 17 (17%), respectively (P = 0.08). At day 90, liver transplantations had been performed in 46 patients (23%) in the terlipressin group and 29 patients (29%) in the placebo group, and death occurred in 101 (51%) and 45 (45%), respectively. More adverse events, including abdominal pain, nausea, diarrhea, and respiratory failure, occurred with terlipressin than with placebo. Death within 90 days due to respiratory disorders occurred in 22 patients (11%) in the terlipressin group and 2 patients (2%) in the placebo group. CONCLUSIONS In this trial involving adults with cirrhosis and HRS-1, terlipressin was more effective than placebo in improving renal function but was associated with serious adverse events, including respiratory failure. (Funded by Mallinckrodt Pharmaceuticals; CONFIRM ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02770716.).
Evaluation of high-dose aspirin elimination in the treatment of Kawasaki disease in the incidence of coronary artery aneurysm
Annals of pediatric cardiology. 2021;14(2):146-151
BACKGROUND Standard first-step therapy for Kawasaki disease consists of Intravenous immunoglobulin and high dose Aspirin (80-100 mg/kg/day). The standard dose of Intravenous immunoglobulin (2gr/kg) is strongly effective in reducing the risk of coronary arteries abnormalities. So, the proper dose and efficacy of Aspirin to decrease the risk of coronary arteries abnormalities is a controversial issue. In this study, it is tried to assess the result of eliminating high-dose Aspirin in the treatment of the acute phase of Kawasaki and observe the incidence rate of coronary arteries abnormalities when only Intravenous immunoglobulin was administered. METHODS This study is a prospective randomized, open-label, blinded end-points clinical trial performed in Afzalipour hospital in Kerman University of Medical Sciences from September 2017 to September 2018 in 62 patients with typical and atypical Kawasaki disease. The study group received Intravenous immunoglobulin (2 g/kg) and the control group get the same dose of Intravenous immunoglobulin plus Aspirin with the dose of 80-100 mg/Kg/day until they were afebrile for 48 hours. Afterward, both groups received a daily single dose (3-5 mg/kg) of Aspirin for six weeks. Echocardiography was done after two weeks, six weeks, and six months. Internal diameter of the left and right main coronary arteries was measured and then the corresponding Z-score was calculated. RESULTS In the study group, coronary arteries abnormalities decreased from 38.7% in the 2nd week to 16.1% in the 6th month. In the control group, it declined from 54.8% to 22.6%. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in term of frequency of abnormal coronary arteries at the study period (P=0.151). CONCLUSIONS We concluded that high dose Aspirin does not have a significant role in preventing coronary arteries abnormalities in Kawasaki disease and giving standard 2 gr/kg/day Intravenous immunoglobulin without high-dose Aspirin in acute-phases therapy does not increase the risk of coronary arteries abnormality.
Association of Intravenous Tranexamic Acid With Thromboembolic Events and Mortality: A Systematic Review, Meta-analysis, and Meta-regression
JAMA surgery. 2021;:e210884
IMPORTANCE Tranexamic acid (TXA) is an efficient antifibrinolytic agent; however, concerns remain about the potential adverse effects, particularly vascular occlusive events, that may be associated with its use. OBJECTIVE To examine the association between intravenous TXA and total thromboembolic events (TEs) and mortality in patients of all ages and of any medical disciplines. DATA SOURCE Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and MEDLINE were searched for eligible studies investigating intravenous TXA and postinterventional outcome published between 1976 and 2020. STUDY SELECTION Randomized clinical trials comparing intravenous TXA with placebo/no treatment. The electronic database search yielded a total of 782 studies, and 381 were considered for full-text review. Included studies were published in English, German, French, and Spanish. Studies with only oral or topical tranexamic administration were excluded. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS Meta-analysis, subgroup and sensitivity analysis, and meta-regression were performed. This study followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) reporting guideline. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Vascular occlusive events and mortality. RESULTS A total of 216 eligible trials including 125 550 patients were analyzed. Total TEs were found in 1020 (2.1%) in the group receiving TXA and 900 (2.0%) in the control group. This study found no association between TXA and risk for total TEs (risk difference = 0.001; 95% CI, -0.001 to 0.002; P = .49) for venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, venous TEs, myocardial infarction or ischemia, and cerebral infarction or ischemia. Sensitivity analysis using the risk ratio as an effect measure with (risk ratio = 1.02; 95% CI, 0.94-1.11; P = .56) and without (risk ratio = 1.03; 95% CI, 0.95-1.12; P = .52) studies with double-zero events revealed robust effect size estimates. Sensitivity analysis with studies judged at low risk for selection bias showed similar results. Administration of TXA was associated with a significant reduction in overall mortality and bleeding mortality but not with nonbleeding mortality. In addition, an increased risk for vascular occlusive events was not found in studies including patients with a history of thromboembolism. Comparison of studies with sample sizes of less than or equal to 99 (risk difference = 0.004; 95% CI, -0.006 to 0.014; P = .40), 100 to 999 (risk difference = 0.004; 95% CI, -0.003 to 0.011; P = .26), and greater than or equal to 1000 (risk difference = -0.001; 95% CI, -0.003 to 0.001; P = .44) showed no association between TXA and incidence of total TEs. Meta-regression of 143 intervention groups showed no association between TXA dosing and risk for venous TEs (risk difference, -0.005; 95% CI, -0.021 to 0.011; P = .53). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Findings from this systematic review and meta-analysis of 216 studies suggested that intravenous TXA, irrespective of dosing, is not associated with increased risk of any TE. These results help clarify the incidence of adverse events associated with administration of intravenous TXA and suggest that TXA is safe for use with undetermined utility for patients receiving neurological care.
Patients of all ages and of any medical disciplines (216 studies, n= 125,550).
Intravenous tranexamic acid (TXA).
Total thromboembolic events (TEs) were found in 1020 (2.1%) in the group receiving TXA and 900 (2.0%) in the control group. No association was found between TXA and risk for total TEs for venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, venous TEs, myocardial infarction or ischemia, and cerebral infarction or ischemia. Administration of TXA was associated with a significant reduction in overall mortality and bleeding mortality but not with non-bleeding mortality. An increased risk for vascular occlusive events was not found in studies including patients with a history of thromboembolism. Comparison of studies with sample sizes ranging between less than or equal to 99 and greater than or equal to 1000 showed no association between TXA and incidence of total TEs. Meta-regression of 143 intervention groups showed no association between TXA dosing and risk for venous TEs.
Erythropoietin monotherapy for neuroprotection after neonatal encephalopathy in low-to-middle income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Journal of perinatology : official journal of the California Perinatal Association. 2021;41(9):2134-2140
OBJECTIVE We examined whether erythropoietin monotherapy improves neurodevelopmental outcomes in near-term and term infants with neonatal encephalopathy (NE) in low-middle income countries (LMICs). METHODS We searched Pubmed, Embase, and Web of Science databases to identify studies that used erythropoietin (1500-12,500 units/kg/dose) or a derivative to treat NE. RESULTS Five studies, with a total of 348 infants in LMICs, were retrieved. However, only three of the five studies met the primary outcome of death or neuro-disability at 18 months of age or later. Erythropoietin reduced the risk of death (during the neonatal period and at follow-up) or neuro-disability at 18 months or later (p < 0.05). Death or neuro-disability occurred in 27.6% of the erythropoietin group and 49.7% of the comparison group (risk ratio 0.56 (95% CI: 0.42-0.75)). CONCLUSION The pooled data suggest that erythropoietin monotherapy may improve outcomes after NE in LMICs where therapeutic hypothermia is not available.
Near-term and term infants with neonatal encephalopathy in low-middle income countries (5 studies, n= 348).
Erythropoietin or one of its analogues.
Placebo or usual care.
Erythropoietin reduced the risk of death (during the neonatal period and at follow-up) or neuro-disability at 18 months or later. Death or neuro-disability occurred in 27.6% of the erythropoietin group and 49.7% of the comparison group (risk ratio 0.56).