Identification of the crucial parameters regarding the efficacy of ribavirin therapy in Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis
The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy. 2019
OBJECTIVES Recently, ribavirin has been suggested as a therapeutic approach in Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) patients; however, there are controversial findings about its efficacy. In the current study, a meta-analysis was systematically performed to assess the effectiveness of ribavirin administration regarding CCHF patient survival and to explore the most important influential parameters for its efficacy. METHODS All of the outcomes of the clinically studied CCHF patients who were treated with ribavirin were included in the meta-analysis. RESULTS Overall, 24 studies met our criteria. Although the studies did not have high quality there was no heterogeneity and publication bias across studies. The results indicated that the administration of ribavirin to CCHF patients significantly decreased the mortality rate (by 1.7-fold) compared with those who did not receive this medication. Furthermore, it was found that the prescription of ribavirin in the initial phase of disease was more effective, and a delay in the start of treatment resulted in a 1.6-fold increase in mortality rate. In addition, interventional therapy resulted in an approximately 2.3-fold reduction in the mortality rate of those who received ribavirin along with corticosteroids compared with those who were treated with ribavirin monotherapy. CONCLUSIONS This meta-analysis reveals that ribavirin should be considered as a crucial antiviral drug in the therapeutic approach used for CCHF patients, especially in early phases of the disease. Additionally, it seems that the administration of corticosteroids alongside ribavirin can play an effective role in alleviation of the disease status, particularly in haemorrhagic phases.
Scoping Review of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) Literature and Implications of Future Research
Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons--Pakistan : JCPSP. 2019;29(6):563-573
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is one of the severe forms of high-fatality hemorrhagic fever transmitted by bite of infected ticks or body fluids of infected individuals. Lack of sufficient research and endemic potential of the disease is posing serious threats to public health. The aim of this review was to explore the current status of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) related research and to identify knowledge gaps and the areas that are yet to be explored. An interpretative scoping review methodology was followed to systematically characterize the most recent literature. Literature survey was conducted using electronic databases: PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect and Google Scholar. This comprehensive research yielded more than 300 records, but we excluded 100 articles based on our inclusion criteria and duplicates removal. All articles (n=85) that have been published currently were discussed in this scoping review. From a total of 303 documents retrieved, 85 met the criteria. All the documents (case studies, review articles, systematic reviews, meta-analysis, case control studies, cohort studies, randomised control trials, and longitudinal studies) were included in the study. The articles mainly cover different areas such as epidemiology, prevalence, diagnosis, pathogenesis, clinical outcomes, molecular basis, phylogenetics, transmission and treatment of CCHF. Treatment and prevention related knowledge is limited; therefore, future research should focus the development of therapeutics to mitigate the increasing risk of CCHF. Priority future goal should be studies on the molecular basis and treatment of CCHFV infection because several knowledge gaps have been identified in these areas.
Antifibrinolytic therapy to reduce haemoptysis from any cause
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2016;((11)):CD008711.
BACKGROUND Haemoptysis is a common pathology around the world, occurring with more frequency in low-income countries. It has different etiologies, many of which have infectious characteristics. Antifibrinolytic agents are commonly used to manage bleeding from different sources, but their usefulness in pulmonology is unclear. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of antifibrinolytic agents in reducing the volume and duration of haemoptysis in adult and paediatric patients. SEARCH METHODS We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE) in The Cochrane Library, EMBASE and LILACS for publications that describe randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of antifibrinolytic therapy in patients presenting with haemoptysis. We also performed an independent search in MEDLINE for relevant trials not yet included in CENTRAL or DARE. Searches are up to date to the 19th September 2016. We conducted electronic and manual searches of relevant national and international journals. We reviewed the reference lists of included studies to locate relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs). An additional search was carried out to find unpublished RCTs. SELECTION CRITERIA We included RCTs designed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of antifibrinolytic agents in reducing haemoptysis in adult and paediatric patients of both genders presenting with haemoptysis of any etiology and severity. The intervention of interest was the administration of antifibrinolytic agents compared with placebo or no treatment. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS All reviewers independently assessed methodological quality and extracted data tables pre-designed for this review. MAIN RESULTS The electronic literature search identified 1 original study that met the eligibility criteria. One unpublished study was also identified through manual searches. Therefore two randomized controlled trials met the inclusion criteria: Tscheikuna 2002 (via electronic searches) and Ruiz 1994 (via manual searches). Tscheikuna 2002, a double-blind RCT performed in Thailand, evaluated the effectiveness of tranexamic acid (TXA, an antifibrinolytic agent) administered orally in 46 hospital in- and outpatients with haemoptysis of various etiologies. Ruiz 1994, a double-blind RCT performed in Peru, evaluated the effectiveness of intravenous TXA in 24 hospitalised patients presenting with haemoptysis secondary to tuberculosis.Pooled together, results demonstrated a significant reduction in bleeding time between patients receiving TXA and patients receiving placebo with a weighted mean difference (WMD) of -19.47 (95% CI -26.90 to -12.03 hours), but with high heterogeneity (I(2) = 52%). TXA did not affect remission of haemoptysis evaluated at seven days after the start of treatment. Adverse effects caused by the drug's mechanism of action were not reported. There was no significant difference in the incidence of mild side effects between active and placebo groups (OR 3.13, 95% CI 0.80 to 12.24). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS There is insufficient evidence to judge whether antifibrinolytics should be used to treat haemoptysis from any cause, though limited evidence suggests they may reduce the duration of bleeding.
Treatment for anemia in people with AIDS
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2011;((10):):CD004776.
BACKGROUND Anemia is common in persons with HIV infection and is associated with poor prognosis. There is a need to assess the effects of anemia treatments, and to determine whether these interventions are beneficial. OBJECTIVES To determine the efficacy and safety of treatments for anemia in people with HIV infection and AIDS. SEARCH STRATEGY The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library Issue 10, 2010), MEDLINE (1980-November 25, 2010), EMBASE (1980-November 25, 2010), LlLACS (1982 to November 25, 2010), Africa Index Medicus (up to November 9, 2010), ISI Web of Knowledge (2005 to October 9, 2010), Scirus (October 9, 2010) reference lists of relevant articles. We asked the Cochrane HIV/AIDS and Pregnancy and Childbirth Groups to check their Specialised Registers. We also checked the reference lists of all trials identified by the above methods. SELECTION CRITERIA Randomized trials assessing the effects of treatments for anemia in people diagnosed with HIV infection. There were no age restrictions. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Two authors independently assessed relevant studies for inclusion. Data extraction and quality assessment of relevant studies was performed by two authors and checked by the other two authors. MAIN RESULTS Six trials with a high risk of bias, including 537 patients, met the inclusion criteria. These trials only covered recombinant Human erythropoietin alfa (rHuEPO). Two of them including adult and paediatric participants (84 participants and 4 events) comparing rHuEPO to placebo did not reduce the risk of mortality with a follow up to 12 weeks (pooled RR 0.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.08 to 4.05, I(2) = 0%). Any trials that compared rHuEPO to placebo did not show any benefit on hematological values response, number of patients transfused, or number of packed red cell transfused. Two trial compared the effects of two rHuEPO dosing regimens on hemoglobin value and quality of life, but the effects are unclear. Three RCT reported high risk of attrition bias; therefore, were not included in a meta-analysis. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS This updated Cochrane review provides evidence that rHuEPO compared with placebo does not reduce mortality, does not reduce transfusion requirements, did not increase hemoglobin levels, and did not improve quality of life in HIV-infected patients with anemia. The results are based on six RCTs with high risk of bias. Therefore prescription of this intervention for treating anemia in patients with AIDS is not justified, unless new evidence from a large high quality trial alters this conclusion.
Effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication on platelet count in idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura: a systematic review and meta- analysis
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 2007;60((2):):237-246.
Background: There is a debate in the recent literature about the effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication on platelet count in patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). In order to clarify this controversial issue, we performed a systematic review with meta-analysis of the available literature. Methods: The meta-analytic comparison was focused on the difference in the platelet count increase between the experimental arm (H. pylori- infected patients who responded to eradication therapy) and each control arm (H. pylori -infected patients who failed to respond to eradication therapy; H. pylori -infected patients who did not receive eradication therapy and H. pylori-negative patients) and was expressed as weighted mean difference (WMD). Moreover, in order to explain the heterogeneity, a meta-regression model was fitted with arm-level covariates. Results: Data involving 788 ITP patients were collected from 17 articles (16 studies with a prospective cohort design and 1 randomized trial). There was a statistically significant difference in the increase in platelet count in patients in whom eradication was successful compared with control groups (WMD, 40.77 × 10(9)/L (95% CI, 20.92-60.63) compared with untreated patients; 52.16 (95% CI, 34.26-70.05) compared with patients who failed eradication and 46.35 (95% CI, 27.79-64.91) compared with H. pylori -negative patients). Moreover, in the meta-regression model, the success of H. pylori eradication was highly significant as an explanatory variable for platelet count increase. Conclusions: Our analysis shows a strict correlation between H. pylori eradication and increase in platelet count. However, due to intrinsic limits in the design of the studies analysed, further evidence from randomized clinical trials is required to confirm the effect of eradication treatment on platelet count.