Effect of oseltamivir phosphate versus placebo on platelet recovery and plasma leakage in adults with dengue and thrombocytopenia; a phase 2, multicenter, double-blind, randomized trial
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 2022;16(1):e0010051
BACKGROUND Thrombocytopenia, bleeding and plasma leakage are major complications of dengue. Activation of endogenous sialidases with desialylation of platelets and endothelial cells may underlie these complications. We aimed to assess the effects of the neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir on platelet recovery and plasma leakage in dengue. METHODS We performed a phase 2, double-blind, multicenter, randomized trial in adult dengue patients with thrombocytopenia (<70,000/μl) and a duration of illness ≤ 6 days. Oseltamivir phosphate 75mg BID or placebo were given for a maximum of five days. Primary outcomes were the time to platelet recovery (≥ 100,000/μl) or discharge from hospital and the course of measures of plasma leakage. RESULTS A total of 70 patients were enrolled; the primary outcome could be assessed in 64 patients (31 oseltamivir; 33 placebo). Time to platelet count ≥100,000/μl (n = 55) or discharge (n = 9) were similar in the oseltamivir and placebo group (3.0 days [95% confidence interval, 2.7 to 3.3] vs. 2.9 days [2.5 to 3.3], P = 0.055). The kinetics of platelet count and parameters of plasma leakage (gall bladder thickness, hematocrit, plasma albumin, syndecan-1) were also similar between the groups. DISCUSSION In this trial, adjunctive therapy with oseltamivir phosphate had no effect on platelet recovery or plasma leakage parameters. TRIAL REGISTRATION ISRCTN35227717.
Efficacy of rupatadine in reducing the incidence of dengue haemorrhagic fever in patients with acute dengue: A randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled trial
PLoS neglected tropical diseases. 2022;16(6):e0010123
BACKGROUND Rupatadine was previously shown to reduce endothelial dysfunction in vitro, reduced vascular leak in dengue mouse models and to reduce the extent of pleural effusions and thrombocytopenia in patients with acute dengue. Therefore, we sought to determine the efficacy of rupatadine in reducing the incidence of dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) in patients with acute dengue. METHODS AND FINDINGS A phase 2, randomised, double blind, placebo controlled clinical trial was carried out in patients with acute dengue in Sri Lanka in an outpatient setting. Patients with ≤3 days since the onset of illness were either recruited to the treatment arm of oral rupatadine 40mg for 5 days (n = 123) or the placebo arm (n = 126). Clinical and laboratory features were measured daily to assess development of DHF and other complications. 12 (9.7%) patients developed DHF in the treatment arm compared to 22 (17.5%) who were on the placebo although this was not significant (p = 0.09, relative risk 0.68, 95% CI 0.41 to 1.08). Rupatadine also significantly reduced (p = 0.01) the proportion of patients with platelet counts <50,000 cells/mm3 and significantly reduced (p = 0.04) persisting vomiting, headache and hepatic tenderness (p<0.0001) in patients. However, there was no difference in the duration of illness and in the proportion of individuals who required hospital admission in both treatment arms. Only 2 patients on rupatadine and 3 patients on the placebo developed shock, while bleeding manifestations were seen in 6 patients on rupatadine and 7 patients on the placebo. CONCLUSIONS Rupatadine appeared to be safe and well tolerated and showed a trend towards a reducing proportion of patients with acute dengue who developed DHF. It usefulness when used in combination with other treatment modalities should be explored. TRIAL REGISTRATION International Clinical Trials Registration Platform: SLCTR/2017/024.
Erythropoietin in children with hemolytic uremic syndrome: a pilot randomized controlled trial
Pediatric nephrology (Berlin, Germany). 2022
BACKGROUND The efficacy of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) in sparing red blood cell (RBC) transfusions in children with hemolytic uremic syndrome related to Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC-HUS) is uncertain. METHODS We conducted a pilot randomized controlled open trial between December 2018 and January 2021. Children were randomized to the intervention (subcutaneous rHuEPO 50 U/kg three times weekly until discharge + RBC transfusion if hemoglobin ≤ 7 g/dL and/or hemodynamic instability) or to the control arm (RBC transfusion if hemoglobin ≤ 7 g/dL and/or hemodynamic instability). Primary outcome was the number of RBC transfusions received during hospitalization. Secondary outcomes were to explore whether baseline EPO levels were adequate to the degree of anemia, to correlate selected acute phase parameters with the number of RBC transfusions, and to assess possible adverse events. RESULTS Twelve patients per arm were included; they were comparable at recruitment and throughout the disease course. Median number of RBC transfusions was similar between groups (1.5, p = 0.76). Most patients had baseline EPO levels adequate to the degree of anemia, which did not correlate with the number of transfusions (r = 0.19, p = 0.44). Conversely, baseline (r = 0.73, p = 0.032) and maximum lactic dehydrogenase levels (r = 0.78, p = 0.003), creatinine peak (r = 0.71, p = 0.03) and dialysis duration (r = 0.7, p = 0.04) correlated significantly with RBC requirements. No side effects were recorded. CONCLUSION In children with STEC-HUS, the administration of rHuEPO did not reduce the number of RBC transfusions. Larger studies addressing higher doses and similar severity of kidney failure at rHuEPO initiation (e.g. at start of dialysis) are warranted. TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03776851. A higher resolution version of the Graphical abstract is available as Supplementary information.
Adherence to community versus facility-based delivery of monthly malaria chemoprevention with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine for the post-discharge management of severe anemia in Malawian children: A cluster randomized trial
PloS one. 2021;16(9):e0255769
BACKGROUND The provision of post-discharge malaria chemoprevention (PMC) in children recently admitted with severe anemia reduces the risk of death and re-admissions in malaria endemic countries. The main objective of this trial was to identify the most effective method of delivering dihydroartemesinin-piperaquine to children recovering from severe anemia. METHODS This was a 5-arm, cluster-randomized trial among under-5 children hospitalized with severe anemia at Zomba Central Hospital in Southern Malawi. Children were randomized to receive three day treatment doses of dihydroartemesinin-piperaquine monthly either; 1) in the community without a short text reminder; 2) in the community with a short message reminder; 3) in the community with a community health worker reminder; 4) at the facility without a short text reminder; or 5) at the facility with a short message reminder. The primary outcome measure was adherence to all treatment doses of dihydroartemesinin-piperaquine and this was assessed by pill-counts done by field workers during home visits. Poisson regression was utilized for analysis. RESULTS Between March 2016 and October 2018, 1460 clusters were randomized. A total of 667 children were screened and 375 from 329 clusters were eligible and enrolled from the hospital. Adherence was higher in all three community-based compared to the two facility-based delivery (156/221 [70·6%] vs. 78/150 [52·0%], IRR = 1·24,95%CI 1·06-1·44, p = 0·006). This was observed in both the SMS group (IRR = 1·41,1·21-1·64, p<0·001) and in the non-SMS group (IRR = 1·37,1·18-1·61, p<0·001). Although adherence was higher among SMS recipients (98/148 66·2%] vs. non-SMS 82/144 (56·9%), there was no statistical evidence that SMS reminders resulted in greater adherence ([IRR = 1·03,0·88-1·21, p = 0·68). When compared to the facility-based non-SMS arm (control arm), community-based delivery utilizing CHWs resulted in higher adherence [39/76 (51·3%) vs. 54/79 (68·4%), IRR = 1·32, 1·14-1·54, p<0·001]. INTERPRETATION Community-based delivery of dihydroartemesinin-piperaquine for post-discharge malaria chemoprevention in children recovering from severe anemia resulted in higher adherence compared to facility-based methods. TRIAL REGISTRATION NCT02721420; ClinicalTrials.gov.
Malaria Chemoprevention in the Postdischarge Management of Severe Anemia
The New England journal of medicine. 2020;383(23):2242-2254
BACKGROUND Children who have been hospitalized with severe anemia in areas of Africa in which malaria is endemic have a high risk of readmission and death within 6 months after discharge. No prevention strategy specifically addresses this period. METHODS We conducted a multicenter, two-group, randomized, placebo-controlled trial in nine hospitals in Kenya and Uganda to determine whether 3 months of malaria chemoprevention could reduce morbidity and mortality after hospital discharge in children younger than 5 years of age who had been admitted with severe anemia. All children received standard in-hospital care for severe anemia and a 3-day course of artemether-lumefantrine at discharge. Two weeks after discharge, children were randomly assigned to receive dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (chemoprevention group) or placebo, administered as 3-day courses at 2, 6, and 10 weeks after discharge. Children were followed for 26 weeks after discharge. The primary outcome was one or more hospital readmissions for any reason or death from the time of randomization to 6 months after discharge. Conditional risk-set modeling for recurrent events was used to calculate hazard ratios with the use of the Prentice-Williams-Peterson total-time approach. RESULTS From May 2016 through May 2018, a total of 1049 children underwent randomization; 524 were assigned to the chemoprevention group and 525 to the placebo group. From week 3 through week 26, a total of 184 events of readmission or death occurred in the chemoprevention group and 316 occurred in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54 to 0.78; P<0.001). The lower incidence of readmission or death in the chemoprevention group than in the placebo group was restricted to the intervention period (week 3 through week 14) (hazard ratio, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.22 to 0.42) and was not sustained after that time (week 15 through week 26) (hazard ratio, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.87 to 1.47). No serious adverse events were attributed to dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine. CONCLUSIONS In areas with intense malaria transmission, 3 months of postdischarge malaria chemoprevention with monthly dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine in children who had recently received treatment for severe anemia prevented more deaths or readmissions for any reason after discharge than placebo. (Funded by the Research Council of Norway and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02671175.).
Identification of the crucial parameters regarding the efficacy of ribavirin therapy in Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis
The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy. 2019
OBJECTIVES Recently, ribavirin has been suggested as a therapeutic approach in Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) patients; however, there are controversial findings about its efficacy. In the current study, a meta-analysis was systematically performed to assess the effectiveness of ribavirin administration regarding CCHF patient survival and to explore the most important influential parameters for its efficacy. METHODS All of the outcomes of the clinically studied CCHF patients who were treated with ribavirin were included in the meta-analysis. RESULTS Overall, 24 studies met our criteria. Although the studies did not have high quality there was no heterogeneity and publication bias across studies. The results indicated that the administration of ribavirin to CCHF patients significantly decreased the mortality rate (by 1.7-fold) compared with those who did not receive this medication. Furthermore, it was found that the prescription of ribavirin in the initial phase of disease was more effective, and a delay in the start of treatment resulted in a 1.6-fold increase in mortality rate. In addition, interventional therapy resulted in an approximately 2.3-fold reduction in the mortality rate of those who received ribavirin along with corticosteroids compared with those who were treated with ribavirin monotherapy. CONCLUSIONS This meta-analysis reveals that ribavirin should be considered as a crucial antiviral drug in the therapeutic approach used for CCHF patients, especially in early phases of the disease. Additionally, it seems that the administration of corticosteroids alongside ribavirin can play an effective role in alleviation of the disease status, particularly in haemorrhagic phases.
Malaria Incidence Does Not Differ with Immediate Compared to 28-day Delayed Iron Treatment in Children with Severe Malaria and Iron Deficiency (OR10-04-19)
Current developments in nutrition. 2019;3(Suppl 1)
Objectives: We aimed to determine if delaying iron until 28 days after antimalarial treatment in children with severe malaria and iron deficiency leads to fewer subsequent clinical malaria episodes as compared to concurrent iron therapy. Methods: The randomized controlled trial was conducted Ugandan children 18 mo-5 y with severe malaria [cerebral malaria (CM), n = 79; severe malarial anemia (SMA), n = 77] and healthy community children (CC, n = 83) at Mulago Hospital in Kampala, Uganda. All children with malaria received antimalarial treatment. Children with iron deficiency (defined by zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) >= 80 micromol/mol heme) were randomized to start a 90-day course of ferrous sulfate (2 mg/kg/day) concurrently with antimalarial treatment on Day 0 (immediate group, I) or on Day 28 (delayed group, D). Incidence of malaria episodes over the 12-month follow-up period was assessed by sick-child visits to the study clinic. Malaria was defined as measured fever (T >37.5 degrees C) plus Plasmodium falciparum on blood smear. Negative binomial regression was used to model counts of malaria episodes as a function of treatment group (I or D), controlling for age. Hazard ratios compared time to event between the I and D groups. Results: All children with CM and SMA and 35 CC had high ZPP and were randomized to I or D iron. There were no differences in malaria incidence (defined with either measured fever or history of fever) with I vs. D treatment in any study group. The incidence of inpatient malaria episodes defined with history of fever was marginally statistically significant lower with D iron in the SMA group [incidence rate ratio (IRR) D/I (95% CI) = 0.38 (0.14, 1.1), P = 0.07). In the SMA group, children who received D iron tended to have a longer time to first inpatient event than children in the I group [Hazard ratio (95% CI) D/I: 0.37 (0.13, 1.1), P = 0.07]. Conclusions: Delaying iron in children with severe malaria had no clear risk or benefit on subsequent malaria incidence or time-to-first episode as compared to immediate treatment. Given that previous analysis revealed that iron status was improved with delayed iron among children with SMA, the lack of difference in malaria incidence suggests that delaying iron therapy may be a safe way to improve iron status in this group. Funding Sources: NIH/NICHD.
Scoping Review of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) Literature and Implications of Future Research
Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons--Pakistan : JCPSP. 2019;29(6):563-573
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is one of the severe forms of high-fatality hemorrhagic fever transmitted by bite of infected ticks or body fluids of infected individuals. Lack of sufficient research and endemic potential of the disease is posing serious threats to public health. The aim of this review was to explore the current status of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) related research and to identify knowledge gaps and the areas that are yet to be explored. An interpretative scoping review methodology was followed to systematically characterize the most recent literature. Literature survey was conducted using electronic databases: PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect and Google Scholar. This comprehensive research yielded more than 300 records, but we excluded 100 articles based on our inclusion criteria and duplicates removal. All articles (n=85) that have been published currently were discussed in this scoping review. From a total of 303 documents retrieved, 85 met the criteria. All the documents (case studies, review articles, systematic reviews, meta-analysis, case control studies, cohort studies, randomised control trials, and longitudinal studies) were included in the study. The articles mainly cover different areas such as epidemiology, prevalence, diagnosis, pathogenesis, clinical outcomes, molecular basis, phylogenetics, transmission and treatment of CCHF. Treatment and prevention related knowledge is limited; therefore, future research should focus the development of therapeutics to mitigate the increasing risk of CCHF. Priority future goal should be studies on the molecular basis and treatment of CCHFV infection because several knowledge gaps have been identified in these areas.
Delaying Iron Therapy until 28 Days after Antimalarial Treatment Is Associated with Greater Iron Incorporation and Equivalent Hematologic Recovery after 56 Days in Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial
The Journal of Nutrition. 2016;146((9):):1769-74
BACKGROUND Iron therapy begun concurrently with antimalarial treatment may not be well absorbed because of malaria-induced inflammation. Delaying the start of iron therapy may permit better iron absorption and distribution. OBJECTIVE We compared erythrocyte iron incorporation in children who started iron supplementation concurrently with antimalarial treatment or 28 d later. We hypothesized that delayed iron supplementation would be associated with greater incorporation and better hematologic recovery. METHODS We enrolled 100 children aged 6-59 mo with malaria and hemoglobin concentrations of 50.0-99.9 g/L who presented to Mulago Hospital, Kampala, into a randomized trial of iron therapy. All children were administered antimalarial treatment. Children with zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) ≥80 mumol/mol heme were randomly assigned to start iron supplementation concurrently with the antimalarial treatment [immediate iron (I) group] or 28 d later [delayed iron (D) group]. All children were administered iron-stable isotope 57Fe on day 0 and 58Fe on day 28. We compared the percentage of iron incorporation at the start of supplementation (I group at day 0 compared with D group at day 28, aim 1) and hematologic recovery at day 56 (aim 2). RESULTS The percentage of iron incorporation (mean +/- SE) was greater at day 28 in the D group (16.5% +/- 1.7%) than at day 0 in the I group (7.9% +/- 0.5%; P < 0.001). On day 56, concentrations of hemoglobin and ZPP and plasma ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), hepcidin, and C-reactive protein did not differ between the groups. On day 28, the hemoglobin (mean +/- SD) and plasma iron markers (geometric mean; 95% CI) reflected poorer iron status in the D group than in the I group at this intervening time as follows: hemoglobin (105 +/- 15.9 compared with 112 +/- 12.4 g/L; P = 0.04), ferritin (39.3 mug/L; 23.5, 65.7 mug/L compared with 79.9 mug/L; 58.3, 110 mug/L; P = 0.02), sTfR (8.9 mg/L; 7.4, 10.7 mg/L compared with 6.7 mg/L; 6.1, 7.5 mg/L; P = 0.01), and hepcidin (13.3 ng/mL; 8.3, 21.2 ng/mL compared with 38.8 ng/mL; 28.3, 53.3 ng/mL; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Delaying the start of iron improves incorporation but leads to equivalent hematologic recovery at day 56 in Ugandan children with malaria and anemia. These results do not demonstrate a clear, short-term benefit of delaying iron. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01754701.
Antifibrinolytic therapy to reduce haemoptysis from any cause
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2016;((11)):CD008711.
BACKGROUND Haemoptysis is a common pathology around the world, occurring with more frequency in low-income countries. It has different etiologies, many of which have infectious characteristics. Antifibrinolytic agents are commonly used to manage bleeding from different sources, but their usefulness in pulmonology is unclear. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of antifibrinolytic agents in reducing the volume and duration of haemoptysis in adult and paediatric patients. SEARCH METHODS We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE) in The Cochrane Library, EMBASE and LILACS for publications that describe randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of antifibrinolytic therapy in patients presenting with haemoptysis. We also performed an independent search in MEDLINE for relevant trials not yet included in CENTRAL or DARE. Searches are up to date to the 19th September 2016. We conducted electronic and manual searches of relevant national and international journals. We reviewed the reference lists of included studies to locate relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs). An additional search was carried out to find unpublished RCTs. SELECTION CRITERIA We included RCTs designed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of antifibrinolytic agents in reducing haemoptysis in adult and paediatric patients of both genders presenting with haemoptysis of any etiology and severity. The intervention of interest was the administration of antifibrinolytic agents compared with placebo or no treatment. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS All reviewers independently assessed methodological quality and extracted data tables pre-designed for this review. MAIN RESULTS The electronic literature search identified 1 original study that met the eligibility criteria. One unpublished study was also identified through manual searches. Therefore two randomized controlled trials met the inclusion criteria: Tscheikuna 2002 (via electronic searches) and Ruiz 1994 (via manual searches). Tscheikuna 2002, a double-blind RCT performed in Thailand, evaluated the effectiveness of tranexamic acid (TXA, an antifibrinolytic agent) administered orally in 46 hospital in- and outpatients with haemoptysis of various etiologies. Ruiz 1994, a double-blind RCT performed in Peru, evaluated the effectiveness of intravenous TXA in 24 hospitalised patients presenting with haemoptysis secondary to tuberculosis.Pooled together, results demonstrated a significant reduction in bleeding time between patients receiving TXA and patients receiving placebo with a weighted mean difference (WMD) of -19.47 (95% CI -26.90 to -12.03 hours), but with high heterogeneity (I(2) = 52%). TXA did not affect remission of haemoptysis evaluated at seven days after the start of treatment. Adverse effects caused by the drug's mechanism of action were not reported. There was no significant difference in the incidence of mild side effects between active and placebo groups (OR 3.13, 95% CI 0.80 to 12.24). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS There is insufficient evidence to judge whether antifibrinolytics should be used to treat haemoptysis from any cause, though limited evidence suggests they may reduce the duration of bleeding.