Deferoxamine in intracerebral hemorrhage: Systematic review and meta-analysis
Clinical neurology and neurosurgery. 2023;227:107634
BACKGROUND Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a stroke with a high morbidity and mortality rate. Deferoxamine (DFX) is thought to be effective in treating Intracerebral Hemorrhage. In our study, we performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the treatment effects of DFX. METHODS We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database in Jan 2022 for studies on DFX for ICH patients. Outcome measures included relative hematoma volume, relative edema volume, good neurological functional outcome and adverse events. Odds risk (OR) and weighted mean difference (WMD) were used to evaluate clinical outcomes. RESULTS After searching 636 articles, 4 RCTs, 2 NRCTs, and 1cohort study were included. We found that DFX was effective in hematoma absorption on day 7 after onset, but the difference was not significant on day 14. DFX could suppress edema expansion on days 3, 7, and 14 after onset. DFX did not contribute to better outcomes after 3 and 6 months when used the modified Rankin Scale and the Glasgow Outcome Scale to evaluate neurological prognosis. The pooled results showed no statistically significant difference in Serious adverse events between the experimental and control groups. CONCLUSIONS DFX could limit edema expansion on days 3, 7, and 14 after commencement and facilitate hematoma absorption at week 1 without significantly increasing the risk of adverse events, but it did not improve neurological prognosis.
Patients with intracerebral haemorrhage (n= 7 studies).
Outcome measures included relative haematoma volume, relative oedema volume, good neurological functional outcome and adverse events. DFX was effective in haematoma absorption on day 7 after onset, but the difference was not significant on day 14. DFX could suppress oedema expansion on days 3, 7, and 14 after onset. DFX did not contribute to better outcomes after 3 and 6 months when used the modified Rankin Scale and the Glasgow Outcome Scale to evaluate neurological prognosis. The pooled results showed no statistically significant difference in serious adverse events between the experimental and control groups.
Efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid in intracranial haemorrhage: A meta-analysis
PloS one. 2023;18(3):e0282726
BACKGROUND Although some studies have shown that tranexamic acid is beneficial to patients with intracranial haemorrhage, the efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid for intracranial haemorrhage remain controversial. METHOD The PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were systematically searched. The review followed PRISMA guidelines. Data were analyzed using the random-effects model. RESULTS Twenty-five randomized controlled trials were included. Tranexamic acid significantly inhibited hematoma growth in intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) and traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients. (ICH: mean difference -1.76, 95%CI -2.78 to -0.79, I2 = 0%, P < .001; TBI: MD -4.82, 95%CI -8.06 to -1.58, I2 = 0%, P = .004). For subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients, it significantly decreased the risk of hydrocephalus (OR 1.23, 95%CI 1.01 to 1.50, I2 = 0%, P = .04) and rebleeding (OR, 0.52, 95%CI 0.35 to 0.79, I2 = 56% P = .002). There was no significance in modified Rankin Scale, Glasgow Outcome Scale 3-5, mortality, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, or ischemic stroke/transient ischemic. CONCLUSION Tranexamic acid can significantly reduce the risk of intracranial haemorrhage growth in patients with ICH and TBI. Tranexamic acid can reduce the incidence of complications (hydrocephalus, rebleeding) in patients with SAH, which can indirectly improve the quality of life of patients with intracranial haemorrhage.
Neuroendoscopic evacuation improves outcomes compared to external ventricular drainage in patients with spontaneous intraventricular hemorrhage: a systematic review with meta-analyses
World neurosurgery. 2023
BACKGROUND Spontaneous intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality. Treatment for the resulting obstructive hydrocephalus has traditionally been via an external ventricular drain (EVD). We aimed to compare patient outcomes after neuroendoscopic surgery (NES) evacuation of IVH versus EVD management. METHODS MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were searched on October 8, 2022, with adherence to PRISMA guidelines. Of the 252 records remaining after removal of duplicates, 12 met the study's inclusion criteria. After extraction of outcomes data, fixed-effects and random-effects models were used to establish odds-ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for intensive care-unit (ICU) length-of-stay (LOS), rate of permanent cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion, Glasgow Outcomes Scale (GOS) score, and mortality rate. RESULTS The results of the pooled analysis showed that ICU LOS was shorter (OR -2.61 [95% CI -5.02, -0.19]; I(2)=97.76%; p=0.034), permanent CSF diversion was less likely (OR -0.79 [95% CI -1.17, -0.41]; I(2)=46.96%; p<0.001), higher GOS was more likely (OR 0.48 [95% CI 0.04, 0.93]; I(2)=60.12%; p=0.032), and all-cause mortality was less likely (OR -1.11 [95% CI -1.79, -0.44]; I(2)=0%; p=0.001) in the NES evacuation group compared to the EVD group. CONCLUSIONS NES for evacuation of spontaneous IVH results in reduced ICU LOS, reduced permanent CSF diversion rates, improved GOS, and reduced mortality when compared with EVD. More robust prospective, randomized studies are necessary to help inform the safety and utility of NES for IVH.
The efficacy of antifibrinolytic therapy in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Future science OA. 2023;9(6):Fso866
AIM: The efficacy of antifibrinolytics in subarachnoid hemorrhage remains unclear due to conflicting evidence from studies. MATERIALS & METHODS Online databases were queried to include randomized controlled trials and propensity matched observational studies. We used Review Manager for the statistical analysis, presenting results as odds ratios with 95% CI. RESULTS The 12 shortlisted studies included 3359 patients, of which 1550 (46%) were in the intervention (tranexamic acid) group and 1809 (54%) in the control group. Antifibrinolytic therapy significantly reduced the risk of rebleeding (OR: 0.55; 95% CI: 0.40-0.75; p = 0.0002) with no significant decrease in poor clinical outcome (OR: 1.02; 95% CI: 0.86-1.20; p = 0.85) and all-cause mortality (OR: 0.92; CI: 0.72-1.17; p = 0.50). CONCLUSION In patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage, antifibrinolytics reduce the risk of rebleeding without significantly affecting mortality or clinical outcomes.
Treatment of intraventricular hemorrhage with external ventricular drainage and fibrinolysis. A comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis of complications and outcome
World neurosurgery. 2023
Endoscopic surgery for spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral haemorrhage: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Frontiers in neurology. 2022;13:1054106
INTRODUCTION Treatment for spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral haemorrhage (SSICH) is limited and consist of either best medical treatment (BMT) or surgical hematoma evacuation. Treatment methods and choice of surgical technique are debated, and so far, no clear advantage of endoscopic surgery (ES) over conventional craniotomy (CC) or BMT was shown. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate the differences in outcome, morbidity, and mortality between ES and CC or BMT. METHODS We systematically searched Embase and PubMed databases for randomised controlled trials comparing ES to CC or BMT. The primary outcome was favourable functional outcome after 6 months. Secondary outcomes were morbidity and mortality rates and duration of surgery. RESULTS Seven articles were eligible for the outcome analysis with 312 subjects in the control (216 CC, 96 BMT) and 279 in the treatment group (ES). Compared to BMT, ES showed significantly improved favourable functional outcome (RR 1.93 [1.12; 3.33], p = 0.02) and mortality rates (RR 0.63 [0.44; 0.90], p = 0.01). No significant difference in favourable functional outcome and mortality was seen in ES compared to CC (RR 2.13 [0.01; 737], p = 0.35; RR 0.42 [0.17; 1.05], p = 0.06). ES showed significantly lower morbidity (RR 0.41 [0.29; 0.58], p < 0.01), and overall infection rates (RR 0.33 [0.20; 0.54], p < 0.01) compared to CC. Duration of surgery was significantly shorter for ES compared to CC (SMD -3.17 [-4.35; -2.00], p < 0.01). CONCLUSION ES showed significantly improved favourable functional outcome and mortality rates compared to BMT while showing reduced length of surgery and lower complication rates compared to CC. Therefore, ES appears a promising approach for treatment of SSICH justifying further prospective trials. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION PROSPERO, identifier: CRD42020181018.
Efficacy and safety of traditional Chinese medicine for intracranial hemorrhage by promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Frontiers in pharmacology. 2022;13:942657
Background: Although blood-activating Chinese medicine (BACM) has been reported as adjuvant therapy for intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) in China, high-quality evidence is still lacking. Our study aimed to collect the latest high-quality randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and to evaluate the efficacy and safety of BACM for ICH. Methods: RCTs published between January 2015 and March 2022 were searched in databases, including China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), China Science and Technology Journal Database (VIP), Sino-Med, Wanfang, PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Embase without language restrictions. Eligible RCTs were included and both primary (clinical efficacy evidenced by decreased neurological deficit scores) and secondary outcomes (increased Barthel index, decreased NIHSS, hematoma volume, the volume of cerebral edema, the incidence of side effects, and mortality) were analyzed. The quality of included RCTs was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. In the meta-analysis, the pooled results were analyzed using Review Manager 5.3 and STATA14.0. Finally, The GRADEpro GDT software (Guideline Development Tool) was used to summarize the results. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses were conducted based on the follow-up time. Results: Fifteen RCTs, involving 1,579 participants, were included for analysis in our study. The pooled outcomes indicated that BACM combined with western medicine treatment (WMT) was superior to WMT alone for patients with ICH, demonstrated by the improvements in efficacy (RR = 1.22 (95% CI, [1.13 to 1.32], p < 0.001), neurological functions (MD(NIHSS) = -2.75, 95% CI [-3.74 to -1.76], p < 0.001), and activities of daily living (MD(Barthel index) = 5.95, 95% CI [3.92 to 7.98], p < 0.001), as well as decreased cerebral hematoma, cerebral edema (MD cerebral hematoma = -2.94, 95% CI [-3.50 to -2.37, p < 0.001 and MD(cerebral edema) = -2.66, 95% CI [-2.95 to -2.37], p < 0.001), side effects and mortality (RR = 0.84 (95% CI [0.60 to 1.19], p = 0.330 and RR = 0.51 (95% CI, [0.16 to 1.65], p = 0.260). In addition, Conioselinum anthriscoides "Chuanxiong" [Apiaceae], Camellia reticulata Lindl. [Theaceae], and Bupleurum sibiricum var. jeholense (Nakai) C.D.Chu [Apiaceae]) were the most frequently used herbs in the treatment of ICH. Recently, there was a trend toward the extensive use of another two herbs, including Rheum palmatum L. [Polygonaceae], Astragalus mongholicus Bunge [Fabaceae]) for ICH. Conclusion: BACM combined with WMT seems to be superior to WMT alone for patients with ICH. Further high-quality RCTs are warranted to confirm the efficacy and safety of BACM.
Endoscopic Evacuation of Massive Intraventricular Hemorrhages Reduces Shunt Dependency: A Meta-Analysis
Asian journal of neurosurgery. 2022;17(4):541-546
Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is characterized by severe prognosis. The amount of intraventricular blood is the most important, disease-specific, prognostic factor, as acute complications are strictly dependent on clot formation. Although external ventricular drain (EVD) placement is the standard treatment, in the past 15 years neuroendoscopic (NE) evacuation of IVH has been advocated, but available comparative data are limited. A systematic review of the literature was performed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Included articles compare the treatment of primary and secondary IVH with NE and EVD. The meta-analysis was performed in terms of shunt dependency. Cochran's Q-test and I2 statistics were used to assess heterogeneity in the studies. No heterogeneity was considered for p greater than 0.05 and I2 less than 20%. A random-effect model was used, with restricted maximum likelihood to estimate the heterogeneity variance. After screening 744 articles, 5 were included in the meta-analysis. A total of 303 patients presenting with primary or pure (50 patients) and secondary (253 patients) IVH, undergoing either NE (151) or EVD (152), were included in the metanalysis. The risk of ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt was higher in the EVD group (relative risk: 1.93, 95% confidence interval: 1.28-2.92, p = 0.0094). The risk of VP shunt was higher in the EVD group, but the overall outcome remains poor for patients with IVH, with a moderate-to-high disability. Large randomized controlled trials are needed to evaluate more deeper both advantages and effects on the outcome of NE over EVD.
A Comparison Between Enteral and Intravenous Nimodipine in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis
Neurocritical care. 2022
Our objective was to compare the effectiveness of intravenous and enteral nimodipine in preventing poor outcome from delayed cerebral ischemia in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. We performed a systematic search and a network meta-analysis using the following databases: PubMed, Scopus, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Google Scholar. Risk of Bias 2 tool was used to assess risk of bias of included studies. A ranking among methods was performed on the basis of the frequentist analog of the surface under the cumulative ranking curve. Published studies that met the following population, intervention, comparison, outcomes and study (PICOS) criteria were included: patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage aged 15 years or older (P); nimodipine, intravenous and oral formulation (I); placebo or no intervention (C); poor outcome measured at 3 months (defined as death, vegetative state, or severe disability), case fatality at 3 months, delayed cerebral ischemia, delayed ischaemic neurologic deficit, and vasospasm measured with transcranial Doppler or digital subtraction angiography (O); and randomized controlled trials (S). No language or publication date restrictions were applied. Ten studies were finally included, with a total of 1527 randomly assigned patients. Oral and intravenous nimodipine were both effective in preventing poor outcome, delayed cerebral ischemia, and delayed ischaemic neurological deficit. Neither treatment was effective in improving case fatality. Evolving clinical protocols over a 30-year period and the risk of bias of the included studies may limit the strength of our results. Enteral and intravenous nimodipine may have a similar effectiveness in terms of preventing poor outcome, delayed cerebral ischemia, and delayed ischaemic neurological deficit. More research may be needed to fully establish the role of intravenous nimodipine in current clinical practice.
Recombinant human erythropoietin plus methylprednisolone versus methylprednisolone in treatment of acute spinal cord injury：protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis
BMJ open. 2022;12(12):e056689
INTRODUCTION Recent studies in animal models indicate that recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) is very effective in enhancing neurological recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI). We described a protocol aimed at evaluating the efficacy of rHuEPO plus methylprednisolone (MP) compared with MP alone in improving neurological function of patients with SCI in randomised controlled trials (RCTs). METHODS AND ANALYSIS This study aims to explore the effect of rHuEPO combined with MP on neurological function in patients with SCI through a meta-analysis. To this end, the authors will search eight research databases for data retrieval: MEDLINE, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wan Fang, China Biology Medicine dis, Web of Science, PubMed, Cochrane and Embase for RCTs on SCI in any language. The primary outcome will be the American Spinal Injury Association score at the time of follow-up. The secondary outcomes will be the WHOQOL-100 instrument score, neurophysiological state and related factors. Two authors will independently search literature records, scan titles, abstracts and full texts, collect data, and assess materials for risk of bias. Stata V.14.0 will be used for statistical analysis. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION This research is exempt from ethics approval because the work is carried out on published documents. We will disseminate this protocol in scientific conferences and a peer-reviewed journal. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER CRD42021260688.