Use of tranexamic acid (TXA) to reduce preterm birth and other adverse obstetrical outcomes among pregnant individuals with placenta previa: a systematic review protocol
BMJ open. 2023;13(3):e068892
INTRODUCTION Placenta previa is a placental implantation pathology where the placenta overlies the internal endocervical os. Placenta previa affects approximately 4 per 1000 pregnancies and increases the risk of antepartum bleeding, emergent preterm labour and emergency caesarean sections. Currently, placenta previa is managed through expectant management. Guidelines primarily revolve around the mode and timing of delivery, in-hospital admissions and surveillance. However, the methods to prolong pregnancy have not proven to be clinically effective. Tranexamic acid (TXA), an antifibrinolytic agent, is effectively used to prevent and treat postpartum haemorrhage as well as menorrhagia, with limited adverse effect, and may prove to be an effective treatment for placenta previa. The objective of this systematic review protocol is to review and synthesise the evidence of TXA use for antepartum haemorrhage in placenta previa. METHODS AND ANALYSIS Preliminary searches were conducted on 12 July 2022. We will search MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Scopus and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Grey literature resources such as clinical trials registries (ClinicalTrials.gov and the WHO's International Clinical Trials Registry) and preprint servers (Europe PMC and Open Science Framework) will also be searched. The search terms will comprise of index headings and keyword searches related to TXA and the placenta or antepartum bleeding. Cohort and randomised and non-randomised trials will be considered. The target population is pregnant people, of any age, with placenta previa. The intervention is TXA given in the antepartum period. The main outcome of interest is preterm birth before 37 weeks, however, all perinatal outcomes will be collected. Title and abstract will be screened by two reviewers and any conflict will be discussed and evaluated by a third reviewer. The literature will be summarised in narrative form. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION No ethics approval is required for this protocol. Findings will be disseminated through peer-review publication, lay summaries and conference presentations. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER CRD42022363009).
Identification and treatment of iron-deficiency anemia in pregnancy and postpartum: A systematic review and quality appraisal of guidelines using AGREE II
International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. 2023
BACKGROUND Several international guidelines provide recommendations for the optimal management of iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) in the pregnant and postpartum populations. OBJECTIVES To review the quality of guidelines containing recommendations for the identification and treatment of IDA in pregnancy and postpartum using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II (AGREE II) instrument and to summarize their recommendations. SEARCH STRATEGY PubMed, Medline, and Embase databases were searched from inception to August 2, 2021. A web engine search was also performed. SELECTION CRITERIA Clinical practice guidelines that focused on the management of IDA in pregnancy and/or postpartum populations were included. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Included guidelines were appraised using AGREE II independently by two reviewers. Domain scores greater than 70% were considered high-quality. Overall scores of six or seven (out of a possible seven) were considered high-quality guidelines. Recommendations on IDA management were extracted and summarized. MAIN RESULTS Of 2887 citations, 16 guidelines were included. Only six (37.5%) guidelines were deemed high-quality and were recommended by the reviewers. All 16 (100%) guidelines discussed the management of IDA in pregnancy, and 10 (62.5%) also included information on the management of IDA in the postpartum period. CONCLUSIONS The complex interplay of racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic disparities was rarely addressed, which limits the generalizability of the recommendations. In addition, many guidelines failed to identify barriers to implementation, strategies to improve uptake or iron treatment, and resource and cost implications of clinical recommendations. These findings highlight important areas to target future work.
Skin-to-Skin Contact in the Third Stage of Labor and Postpartum Hemorrhage Prevention: A Scoping Review
Maternal and child health journal. 2023
INTRODUCTION Literature supports numerous benefits of skin-to-skin contact for neonatal adaptation to extrauterine life and bonding/attachment, but few studies explore the effects of skin-to-skin contact on maternal outcomes. This review aims to map the evidence on skin-to-skin contact in the third stage of labor for postpartum hemorrhage prevention. METHODS Scoping review, which covered stages recommended by the Institute Joanna Briggs, including studies from the PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, LILACS, Web of Science, and Scopus databases, using the descriptors "Postpartum hemorrhage", "Labor stages, third", "Prevention" and "Kangaroo care/Skin-to-skin". RESULTS 100 publications on the subject found, 13 articles met the inclusion criteria, with 10,169 dyads were assessed in all studies. Publications from 2008 to 2021 were mostly written in English and designed as a randomized controlled trial. Skin-to-skin contact was effective and significant in: reducing the duration of the third stage of labor; placenta delivery; uterine contractility and physiological involution; absence of atony, decreasing blood loss with lower rates of erythrocyte and hemoglobin drop; reducing the need for synthetic oxytocin and/or ergometrine to control bleeding; and reducing changing pads per period and length of stay. DISCUSSION Skin-to-skin contact was considered an effective, low-cost, and safe strategy, with positive effects already established in the literature for infants and extremely favorable results in postpartum hemorrhage prevention cases, being highly recommended in assistance for the dyad. Open Science Framework Registry ( https://osf.io/n3685 ).
Active management of the third stage of labour in Ethiopia: A systematic review and meta-analysis
PloS one. 2023;18(4):e0281343
BACKGROUND Post-partum haemorrhage occurs in over 10% of all births and is the leading cause of maternal mortality, accounting for 25% of all maternal deaths worldwide. Active management of the third stage of labor is the most important intervention for reducing maternal morbidity and mortality by preventing postpartum hemorrhage. Previously, documented primary studies had been great discrepancy, inconsistent results, and there is a lack of comprehensive study. Hence, this systematic review and meta-analysis were intended to assess the prevalence and associated factors of the practice of active management of the third stage of labour among obstetric care providers in Ethiopia. METHOD Cross-sectional studies were systematically searched from January 01, 2010, to December 24, 2020, using PubMed, Google Scholar, HINARI, Cochrane Library, and grey literature. The pooled prevalence of active management of the third stage of labour practice and associated factors was estimated using DerSemonial-Laird Random Effect Model. Stata (version 16.0) was used to analyze the data. The I-squared statistic was used to assess the studies' heterogeneity. A funnel plot and Egger's test were used to check for publication bias. A subgroup analysis was performed to minimize the underline heterogeneity depending on the study years and the sample sizes. RESULTS Seven hundred fifty articles were extracted. The final ten studies were included in this systematic review, including 2438 participants. The pooled prevalence of practices of active management of the third stage of labour among obstetric care providers in Ethiopia was 39.65% (30.86, 48.45%). Educational status (OR = 6.11, 95%CI, 1.51-10.72), obstetric care training (OR = 3.56, 95% CI: 2.66, 4.45), work experience (OR = 2.17, 95%CI, 0.47, 3.87) and knowledge of active management of the third stage of labour (OR = 4.5, 95% CI: 2.71, 6.28) were significantly associated with active management of the third stage of labour practices. CONCLUSION The practice of active management of the third stage of labour in Ethiopia was low. This study showed that educational status, taking obstetric care training, knowledge of AMTSL, and work experience of obstetric care providers were associated with of practices of active management of the third stage of labour. Therefore, obstetric care professionals should improve their academic level, knowledge, and skills in order to provide useful service to AMTSL and save mothers' lives. All obstetric care providers should get obstetric care training. Furthermore, the government should increase obstetric care professionals' educational level.
Safety and efficacy of intrauterine balloon tamponade vs uterine gauze packing in managing postpartum hemorrhage: A systematic review and meta-analysis
AJOG global reports. 2023;3(1):100135
BACKGROUND There is debate on whether uterine gauze packing or intrauterine balloon tamponade is safer and more effective as a surgical management option for treating postpartum hemorrhage. OBJECTIVE This study aimed to compare intra- and postoperative outcomes of intrauterine balloon tamponade and uterine gauze packing in patients with postpartum hemorrhage. STUDY DESIGN A range of databases such as Cochrane and PubMed were searched using terms including "post-partum haemorrhage," "uterine balloon tamponade," and "uterine gauze packing." All observational studies comparing intrauterine balloon tamponade with uterine gauze packing were included. Five studies were identified enrolling 821 adult patients diagnosed with postpartum hemorrhage. Primary outcomes included blood loss volume, success rates, and maternal mortality. Secondary outcomes comprised requiring additional interventions, postoperative hemoglobin levels, and requiring blood transfusions. Fixed and random models were used for analysis. RESULTS Intrauterine balloon tamponade seemed to be a superior option to uterine gauze packing. Intrauterine balloon tamponade was better in reducing intraoperative blood loss, with a statistically significant improvement (P<.0001). Cases managed with intrauterine balloon tamponade seemed to have statistically significant shorter operative time (P=.023) and hospital length of stay (P=.020) in one study. CONCLUSION Intrauterine balloon tamponade remains more effective and safer as a first-line surgical management option for postpartum hemorrhage compared with uterine gauze packing.
Tranexamic acid versus misoprostol for management of postpartum hemorrhage: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology. 2023;291:61-69
AIM: To conduct the first-ever systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the antihemorrhagic utility and safety of tranexamic acid (TXA) versus misoprostol for management (prevention and/or treatment) of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH). METHODS Six databases were screened from inception until May 2023 and updated in September 2023. The RCTs were assessed for quality according to the Cochrane's risk of bias tool. The endpoints were summarized as mean difference (MD) or risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) in a random-effects model. RESULTS Ten RCTs with 2121 patients (TXA = 1061 and misoprostol = 1060) were analyzed. There was no significant difference between TXA and misoprostol groups regarding the mean intraoperative blood loss (n = 9 RCTs, MD = 17.32 ml, 95% CI [-40.43, 75.07], p = 0.56), mean change in hemoglobin (n = 6 RCTs, MD = 0.11 mg/dl, 95% CI [-0.1, 0.31], p = 0.30), mean hospital stay (n = 2 RCTs, MD = -0.3 day, 95% CI [-0.61, 0.01], p = 0.06), blood transfusion rate (n = 4 RCTs, RR = 0.49, 95% CI [0.16, 1.47], p = 0.2), and rate of additional uterotonic agents (n = 4 RCTs, RR = 1.05, 95% CI [0.72, 1.53], p = 0.81). Leave-one-out sensitivity analysis showed robustness of the results, and there was no evidence of publication bias. Regarding safety endpoints, there was no significant difference between both groups regarding the rates of minor side effects, such as diarrhea, fever, nausea, and vomiting. No patient developed thromboembolic events in the TXA group. CONCLUSION There was no significant antihemorrhagic efficacy between adjunct TXA and misoprostol for the management of PPH. The safety profile was comparable between both agents.
Desmopressin to prevent and treat bleeding in pregnant women with an inherited bleeding disorder: A systematic literature review
Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH. 2023
BACKGROUND Although desmopressin (DDAVP) is an accessible and inexpensive hemostatic drug, its use in pregnancy is still debated due to safety uncertainties. OBJECTIVE We aim to review safety and effectiveness of DDAVP in women with an inherited bleeding disorder during pregnancy and delivery. METHODS Databases were searched for articles up to July 25(th) 2022, reporting maternal and/or neonatal outcomes. PRISMA methodology was followed (PROSPERO CRD42022316490). RESULTS Fifty-three studies were included, comprising 273 pregnancies. Regarding maternal outcomes, DDAVP was administered in 73 pregnancies during pregnancy and in 232 pregnancies during delivery. Safety outcome was reported in 245 pregnancies, with severe adverse event reported in two (1%; hyponatremia with neurological symptoms).Overall, DDAVP was used as monotherapy in 234 pregnancies with effectiveness reported in 153 pregnancies (82% effective; 18% ineffective). Regarding neonatal outcomes, out of 60 pregnancies with reported neonatal outcomes after DDAVP use during pregnancy, two children (3%) had a severe adverse event (preterm delivery n=1; fetal growth restriction n=1). Of the 232 deliveries, 169 neonates were exposed to DDAVP during delivery and in 114 neonates, safety outcome was reported. Two children (2%) experienced a moderate adverse event (low Apgar score n=1; transient hyperbilirubinemia not associated with DDAVP n=1). CONCLUSION DDAVP use during pregnancy and delivery seems safe for the mother with special attention to the occurrence of hyponatremia and for the child, especially during delivery. However, due to poor study designs and limited documentation of outcomes, a well-designed prospective study is warranted.
Endometrial ablation and resection versus hysterectomy for heavy menstrual bleeding: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis of effectiveness and complications
Obstetrics & gynecology science. 2023
To evaluate the clinical efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of endometrial ablation or resection (E:A/R) compared to hysterectomy for the treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB). Literature-search was performed for all the randomized control trials (RCTs) comparing (E:A/R) versus hysterectomy for the treatment of HMB. The literature-search was last updated in November 2022. The primary outcomes were objective and subjective reduction in HMB and patient-satisfaction rates in improving the bleeding symptoms at 1-14 years. The data were analyzed using Review Manager software. Twelve RCTs with 2,028 women (hysterectomy: n=977 vs. E:A/R: n=1,051) were included. Hysterectomy was compared with endometrial ablation in 5 studies, endometrial resection in 5 studies, and both ablation and resection in 2 studies. The meta-analysis revealed that the hysterectomy group showed improved patient-reported and objective bleeding-symptoms more than those of the EA/R group with risk ratios (RR) of (MD, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.71 to 0.79) and (MD, 44.00; 95% CI, 36.09 to 51.91), respectively. The patient-satisfaction was higher post-hysterectomy up to a follow-up period of 2 years (RR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.86 to 0.94) but this effect was absent with long term follow-up. This meta-analysis shows that E:A/R offers alternatives to hysterectomy. Although both procedures are highly effective, safe, and improve the quality of life, hysterectomy is significantly superior at improving the bleeding symptoms and patient satisfaction up to two-years. However, hysterectomy is associated with longer operating times and recovery periods and has a higher rate of postoperative complications. The initial cost of E:A/R is less than that of hysterectomy but further surgical requirements are common, therefore there is no difference in the cost for the long term follow-up.
Placental Transfusion Strategies in Preterm Infants in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis
INTRODUCTION Placental transfusion strategies in preterm newborns have not been evaluated in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The objective of this systematic review was to compare placental transfusion strategies in preterm newborns in LMICs, including delayed cord clamping (DCC) for various time intervals, DCC until cord pulsations stop, umbilical cord milking, and immediate cord clamping (ICC). METHODS Medline, Embase, CINAHL, and CENTRAL were searched from inception. Observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included. Two authors independently extracted data for Bayesian random-effects network meta-analysis (NMA) if more than 3 interventions reported an outcome or a pairwise meta-analysis was utilized. RESULTS Among newborns <34 weeks of gestation, NMA of 9 RCTs could not rule out benefit or harm for survival from DCC 30-60 s compared to ICC: relative risk (RR) (95% credible interval) 0.96 (0.78-1.12), moderate certainty, or any included strategy compared to each other (low to very low certainty). Among late preterm newborns, DCC 120 s might be associated with improved survival: RR (95% confidence interval) 1.11 (1.01-1.22), very low certainty. We could not detect differences in the risk of intraventricular hemorrhage grade > II and bronchopulmonary dysplasia for any included intervention (low to very low certainty). DCC 60 s and 120 s might improve the hematocrit level among all preterm newborns (very low certainty), and DCC 45 s may decrease the risk of receipt of inotropes among newborns <34 weeks of gestation (low certainty). CONCLUSIONS In LMICs, DCC for 60 s and 120 s might improve hematocrit level in preterm newborns, and DCC for 45 s may decrease the risk of receipt of inotropes in newborns <34 weeks, with no conclusive effect on survival.
Preterm newborns in low- and middle-income countries (9 studies).
Delayed cord clamping (DCC) for various time intervals.
DCC until cord pulsations stop. Umbilical cord milking. Immediate cord clamping (ICC).
Network meta-analysis of 9 randomised controlled trials could not rule out benefit or harm for survival from DCC 30-60s compared to ICC: relative risk (RR), (95% credible interval) 0.96 (0.78 to 1.12), moderate certainty, or any included strategy compared to each other (low to very low certainty). Among late preterm newborns, DCC 120s might be associated with improved survival: RR (95% confidence interval) 1.11 (1.01 to 1.22), very low certainty. Differences were not detected in the risk of intraventricular hemorrhage grade > II and bronchopulmonary dysplasia for any included intervention (low to very low certainty). DCC 60s and 120s might improve the haematocrit level among all preterm newborns (very low certainty), and DCC 45 s may decrease the risk of receipt of inotropes among newborns <34 weeks of gestation (low certainty).
Prophylactic tranexamic acid among women undergoing vaginal delivery to reduce postpartum blood loss and related morbidities: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 17 randomized controlled trials
Journal of gynecology obstetrics and human reproduction. 2022;:102378
OBJECTIVE To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that inspected the efficacy and safety of prophylactic TXA compared with control (placebo/no treatment) among women undergoing vaginal delivery on reducing postpartum blood loss and related morbidities. METHODS Six databases were screened from inception until 06-December-2021. The pooled data were summarized as mean difference or risk ratio, respectively, with 95% confidence interval in a fixed- or random-effects model. RESULTS Sixteen studies comprising 17 RCT treatment arms were included. There were 7075 patients; 3548 and 2537 patients were allocated to prophylactic TXA and control groups, respectively. Overall, the included RCTs had a low risk of bias. Prophylactic TXA correlated with a significant decrease in mean postpartum blood loss and mean change in hemoglobin/hematocrit. Moreover, prophylactic TXA was linked to decreased incidence rates of postpartum hemorrhage, need for blood transfusion, and need for additional uterotonic agents. Nevertheless, prophylactic TXA culminated in significantly higher incidence rates of nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, all of which were well-tolerated. There was no increased risk of thromboembolic events. Leave-one-out sensitivity analysis confirmed the robustness of efficacy endpoints. There was no publication bias for the endpoint of mean postpartum blood loss. CONCLUSION Among patients undergoing vaginal delivery, prophylactic TXA during active management of third stage of labor (AMTSL) appeared largely safe and correlated with a significant decrease in postpartum blood loss and related morbidities compared with control intervention. Prophylactic TXA should be integrated as a "formal" component of AMTSL among women undergoing vaginal delivery.