Safety and efficacy of intrauterine balloon tamponade vs uterine gauze packing in managing postpartum hemorrhage: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Abul A, Al-Naseem A, Althuwaini A, Al-Muhanna A, Clement NS
AJOG global reports. 2023;3(1):100135
BACKGROUND There is debate on whether uterine gauze packing or intrauterine balloon tamponade is safer and more effective as a surgical management option for treating postpartum hemorrhage. OBJECTIVE This study aimed to compare intra- and postoperative outcomes of intrauterine balloon tamponade and uterine gauze packing in patients with postpartum hemorrhage. STUDY DESIGN A range of databases such as Cochrane and PubMed were searched using terms including "post-partum haemorrhage," "uterine balloon tamponade," and "uterine gauze packing." All observational studies comparing intrauterine balloon tamponade with uterine gauze packing were included. Five studies were identified enrolling 821 adult patients diagnosed with postpartum hemorrhage. Primary outcomes included blood loss volume, success rates, and maternal mortality. Secondary outcomes comprised requiring additional interventions, postoperative hemoglobin levels, and requiring blood transfusions. Fixed and random models were used for analysis. RESULTS Intrauterine balloon tamponade seemed to be a superior option to uterine gauze packing. Intrauterine balloon tamponade was better in reducing intraoperative blood loss, with a statistically significant improvement (P<.0001). Cases managed with intrauterine balloon tamponade seemed to have statistically significant shorter operative time (P=.023) and hospital length of stay (P=.020) in one study. CONCLUSION Intrauterine balloon tamponade remains more effective and safer as a first-line surgical management option for postpartum hemorrhage compared with uterine gauze packing.
Preoperative Misoprostol to Reduce Blood Loss and Related Morbidities During Abdominal Hysterectomy: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of 10 Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trials
Abu-Zaid A, Mohammed YA, Baradwan S, Sayad R, Faraag E, Mohammed ER, Mohammed SM, Ashour AS
Reproductive sciences (Thousand Oaks, Calif.). 2022
The objective of this study is to perform a meta-analysis of all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that surveyed the efficacy and safety of preoperative misoprostol versus placebo during abdominal hysterectomy. Six databases were screened from inception until 3 August 2022. The eligible studies were assessed for risk of bias. The outcomes were summarized as mean difference (MD) and risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) in a random-effects model. Ten RCTs with 1076 patients (misoprostol = 537, placebo = 539 patients) were analyzed. Six and four RCTs had an overall low and high risk of bias (single-blinded), respectively. The mean intraoperative blood loss (n = 10 RCTs, MD = - 78.97 ml, 95% [- 130.89, - 27.06], p = 0.003), mean difference in hemoglobin drop (n = 10 RCTs, MD = - 0.42 g/dl, 95% CI [- 0.69, - 0.14], p = 0.003), and mean length of hospital stay (n = 5 RCTs, MD = - 0.2 d, 95% CI [- 0.24, - 0.16], p < 0.001) were significantly reduced in favor of the misoprostol group compared with the placebo group. However, there were no significant differences between both groups regarding the mean operative time (n = 8 RCTs, MD = - 0.63 min, 95% CI [- 5.07, 3.81], p = 0.78), rate of perioperative blood transfusion (n = 7 RCTs, RR = 0.83, 95% CI [0.53, 1.3], p = 0.42), and rate of drug-related adverse events (i.e., nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, chills, and fever). Leave-one-out sensitivity analyses revealed stability for all endpoints, except hospitalization stay. There was no publication bias for all endpoints, except perioperative blood transfusion. Among patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomy, preoperative administration of misoprostol was largely safe and linked to substantial decrease in blood loss-related morbidities.
Techniques for managing an impacted fetal head at caesarean section: A systematic review
Gq Peak A, Barwise E, Walker KF
European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology. 2022;281:12-22
A complication arising at caesarean birth when the baby's head is deeply engaged in the pelvis and may be difficult to deliver, is known as an 'impacted fetal head'. This obstetric emergency occurs in 16% of second stage caesarean sections. Multiple techniques are described in the literature to manage the complication but there is no consensus regarding which technique results in the best maternal and neonatal outcomes. The objective of this review is to determine which technique for managing impacted fetal head at caesarean section has the best maternal and neonatal outcomes. A literature search of three electronic databases was conducted in November 2021. Studies directly comparing two methods for the management of impacted fetal head at caesarean section in the second stage were included. Systematic reviews, meta-analyses, case-control studies, and studies not fitting the search criteria were excluded. Data was extracted in Covidence and meta-analysis of the six most commonly reported outcomes was conducted using RevMan 5.4. In total, 16 studies (3344women) were included. 13 studies (2506women) compared the push method with reverse breech extraction. meta-analysis showed that risk of extension of the uterine incision, blood transfusion, bladder injury, postpartum haemorrhage, NICU admission and Apgar score <7 at 5 min were significantly higher with the push method compared with reverse breech extraction. Three studies (838women) compared the push method with Patwardhan's technique. meta-analysis of studies comparing the push method with Patwardhan's technique found no significant differences between the two groups in any of the six maternal or neonatal outcomes. Evidence derived from small, inadequately powered studies suggests reverse breech extraction is associated with better outcomes than the push method. The method which produces the best outcomes is still unknown as not all methods have been tested. Further high quality, adequately powered RCTs are warranted for definitive conclusions to be drawn and to ameliorate the paucity of evidence on how best to manage this complication.
Therapeutic effect of Internal iliac artery ligation and uterine artery ligation techniques for bleeding control in placenta accreta spectrum patients: A meta-analysis of 795 patients
Nabhan AE, AbdelQadir YH, Abdelghafar YA, Kashbour MO, Salem N, Abdelkhalek AN, Nourelden AZ, Eshag MME, Shah J
Frontiers in surgery. 2022;9:983297
Placenta accreta spectrum (PAS) can cause complications like hysterectomy or death due to massive pelvic bleeding. We aim to evaluate the efficacy of two different arterial ligation techniques in controlling postpartum haemorrhage and minimizing bleeding complications. We searched six databases. 11 studies were finally included into our review and analysis. We graded their quality using the Cochrane tool for randomized trials and the NIH tool for retrospective studies. Our analysis showed that internal iliac artery ligation has no significant effect on bleeding control (MD = -248.60 [-1045.55, 548.35] P = 0.54), while uterine artery ligation significantly reduced the amount of blood loss and preserved the uterus (MD = -260.75, 95% CI [-333.64, -187.86], P < 0.00001). Uterine artery ligation also minimized the need for blood transfusion. Bleeding was best controlled by combining both uterine artery ligation with uterine tamponade (MD = 1694.06 [1675.34, 1712.78], P < 0.00001). This combination also showed a significant decrease in hysterectomy compared to the uterine artery ligation technique alone. Bilateral uterine artery ligation in women with placenta accreta spectrum can effectively reduce the amount of bleeding and the risk of complications. The best bleeding control tested is a combination of both, uterine artery ligation and cervical tamponade. These techniques may offer an easy and applicable way to preserve fertility in PAS patients. Larger randomized trials are needed to define the best technique.
The efficacy of misoprostol in reducing intraoperative blood loss in women undergoing elective cesarean section. A systematic review and meta-analysis
Maged AM, Wali AA, Metwally AA, Salah N
The journal of obstetrics and gynaecology research. 2022
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the efficacy of misoprostol to minimized blood loss during and after cesarean delivery (CD). SEARCH STRATEGY Screening of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from inception to February 2021 using the keywords related to misoprostol, CD, postpartum hemorrhage, and intraoperative blood loss and their MeSH terms. SELECTION CRITERIA Only RCTs were included. Participants included women undergoing CD whether elective or selective. Thirty studies including 6593 women, 26 in English, 2 in Thai, 1 in French, and 1 in Chinese. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Data from all selected studies were extracted independently by two authors. Data extracted included location of the trial, sample size, inclusion and exclusion criteria, participants characteristics, intervention details including timing, dose, and route of drug administration. Outcomes assessed included estimated intraoperative and postoperative blood loss, occurrence of postpartum hemorrhage, the need for additional uterotonics, and hemoglobin difference. MAIN RESULTS Four studies (968 women) compared preoperative to postoperative misoprostol and found a mean difference in intraoperative blood loss of -205.00 (-339.22, -70.77), p = 0.003 and in postoperative blood loss -216.27 (-347.08, -85.46), p < 0.001 and a significantly lower need for additional uterotonics with a risk ratio of 0.54 (0.46, 0.64), p < 0.00001. Twenty-two studies (4701 participants) compared misoprostol to oxytocin. There was a mean difference in intraoperative blood loss of -108.43 (-156.04, -60.82), p < 0.0001. Nine of these trials with 1978 participants evaluated postoperative blood loss. These found a mean difference of -64.12 (-116.19, -12.04) with a p = 0.02. Fourteen trials with 3166 participants measured the difference between preoperative and postoperative hemoglobin. These found a mean difference of -0.25 (-0.35, -0.15) with a p < 0.001. Twenty trials with 4416 participants measured the need for administration of additional uterotonics. These found a risk ratio of 0.62 (0.49, 0.78) with a p value of <0.001. CONCLUSION The combined use of misoprostol and oxytocin during CD is effective in reducing blood loss during and after CD.
Intravenous Carbetocin Versus Rectal Misoprostol for the Active Management of the Third Stage of Labor: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Albazee E, Alrashidi H, Laqwer R, Elmokid SR, Alghamdi WA, Almahmood H, AlGhareeb M, Alfertaj N, Alkandari DI, AlDabbous F, et al
Globally, postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is the top cause of maternal death. Multiple uterotonic medications are available to prevent PPH; however, it is still unclear whether one is the most effective. The current study compared the efficacy and safety of intravenous carbetocin with rectal misoprostol for the active management of the third stage of labor in order to prevent PPH. Eligible studies were found utilizing digital medical sources, including the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Web of Science (WOS), PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar, from inception until September 2022. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that matched the inclusion requirements were chosen. We used the Cochrane Risk of Bias scale (version 2) to assess the quality of the included studies. The Review Manager (version 5.4 for Windows) was used to conduct the meta-analysis. The results were summarized as mean difference (MD) or risk ratio (RR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) in fixed- or random-effects models according to the degree of between-study heterogeneity. Collectively, we screened 621 articles after omitting duplicates and eventually included three RCTs for analysis. Overall, 404 patients were included in these studies; 202 patients were allocated to the intravenous carbetocin group whereas 202 patients were allocated to the rectal misoprostol group. Two RCTs were judged as "low" risk of bias, whereas one RCT was judged as having "some concerns" regarding the quality assessment. Regarding efficacy endpoints, the intravenous carbetocin group had significantly lower blood loss (n=3 RCTs, MD=-117.74 mL, 95% CI [-185.41, -50.07], p<0.001), need for additional uterotonics (n=2 RCTs, RR=0.06, 95% CI [0.01, 0.46], p=0.007), need for uterine massage (n=2 RCTs, RR=0.40, 95% CI [0.20, 0.80], p=0.009), and need for blood transfusion (n=2 RCTs, RR=0.38, 95% CI [0.15, 0.95], p=0.04) compared with the rectal misoprostol group. Regarding safety endpoints, the rates of diarrhea (n=3 RCTs, RR=0.18, 95% CI [0.06, 0.55], p=0.003) and chills (n=2 RCTs, RR=0.31, 95% CI [0.12, 0.83], p=0.02) were significantly lower in the intravenous carbetocin group compared with the rectal misoprostol group. However, there was no significant difference between both groups regarding the rates of headache (n=3 RCTs, RR=1.23, 95% CI [0.06, 1.91], p=0.35) and facial flushing (n=2 RCTs, RR=0.88, 95% CI [0.46, 1.68], p=0.70). In conclusion, it was discovered that intravenous carbetocin was a superior substitute for rectal misoprostol for the active management of the third stage of labor. With far fewer side effects, intravenous carbetocin decreased postpartum blood loss and further uterotonic use. For women who have a high risk of PPH, intravenous carbetocin is advised.
Efficacy of oxytocics on reducing intraoperative blood loss during abdominal myomectomy: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials
Albazee E, Sayad R, Elrashedy AA, Samy Z, Faraag E, Baradwan S, Samy A
Journal of gynecology obstetrics and human reproduction. 2022;:102358
OBJECTIVE To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on the efficacy of oxytocics administration (oxytocin and carbetocin) on reducing intraoperative bleeding during abdominal myomectomy. METHODS PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar databases were searched from inception until March 2021. Only randomized placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) were considered. The included RCTs were evaluated for risk of bias. The main outcome measures were mean intraoperative blood loss (ml), mean duration of hospital stay (day), mean operation time (min), mean difference of postoperative hemoglobin (g/dl), mean difference of postoperative hematocrit (%), and rate of blood transfusion (%). Pooled outcomes were summarized as risk ratio (RR) or mean difference (MD) with their 95% confidence interval (CI) in a random-effects model. RESULTS Seven RCTs met the inclusion criteria (n=758 patients; 329 patients per group). Compared with control group, oxytocin and carbetocin resulted in a significantly lower intraoperative blood loss (MD=-281.08 ml, 95% CI [-400.63, -161.53], p<0.001), hospital stay (MD=-0.21 days, 95% CI [-0.31, -0.10], p<0.001), and need for blood transfusion (RR=0.32, 95% CI [0.22, 0.46], p<0.001). Subgroup analysis revealed that oxytocin, but not carbetocin, correlated with a reduced mean difference of postoperative hemoglobin (MD=0.60 g/dl, 95% CI [0.24 to 0.96], p=0.001), postoperative hematocrit (MD=2.29%, 95% CI [1.06, 3.52], p<0.001), and operation time (MD=-14.66 min, 95% CI [-21.04, -8.25], p<0.001) compared with control group. CONCLUSION Among women undergoing abdominal myomectomy, administration of oxytocin and carbetocin correlated with several beneficial clinical outcomes, such as reduced intraoperative blood loss, hospital stay, and blood transfusion requirement.
Impact of Hemostatic Approach after Laparoscopic Endometrioma Excision on Ovarian Reserve: Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Riemma G, De Franciscis P, La Verde M, Ravo M, Fumiento P, Fasulo DD, Della Corte L, Ronsini C, Torella M, Cobellis L
International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. 2022
BACKGROUND Laparoscopic excision of endometrioma and subsequent hemostasis have detrimental effects on ovarian reserve. OBJECTIVES To evaluate which hemostatic approach after stripping cystectomy shows less damage on ovarian reserve. SEARCH STRATEGY EMBASE, MEDLINE, Scopus, Scielo.br, LILACS, Cochrane at Central, Clinicaltrials.gov, CINAHL, conference abstracts and international controlled trials registry were searched from inception until April 2022. SELECTION CRITERIA Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of women undergoing laparoscopic endometrioma excision that compared at least two hemostatic approaches. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Relevant data were extracted and tabulated. Network meta-analysis based on random effects model for mixed multiple treatment to rank hemostatic strategies using the surface under the cumulative ranking curve area (SUCRA) was performed. Quality assessment was performed using Cochrane criteria. Primary outcome was serum Antimullerian hormone (AMH) levels 3 months after surgery. MAIN RESULTS Ten studies, including 748 women, were selected. Suturing the ovary with barbed suture (SUCRA=82.80%) seem the most effective strategy to avoid AMH reduction. Similarly, for ultrasonographic antral follicular count, barbed (SUCRA=30.70%) and simple suture (SUCRA=30.70%) were ranked best choices. Ovarian suturing with simple suture demonstrated lower FSH levels (SUCRA=88.70%). CONCLUSIONS Suturing the ovary, with simple or barbed suture, seems the most effective approach to keep ovarian reserve higher.
The Effect of Intravenous Tranexamic Acid on Myomectomy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Kathopoulis N, Prodromidou A, Zacharakis D, Chatzipapas I, Diakosavvas M, Kypriotis K, Grigoriadis T, Protopapas A
Journal of personalized medicine. 2022;12(9)
Myomectomy is the preferred surgical treatment for symptomatic women with uterine myomas who wish to preserve their fertility. The procedure may be associated with significant intraoperative blood loss, which predisposes to increased transfusion rates and morbidity. The objective of our systematic review and meta-analysis is to investigate whether intravenous (IV) use of tranexamic acid (TXA) may reduce blood loss during myomectomy. Three electronic databases were screened until June 2022. The eligible studies were assessed for risk of bias. Four randomized controlled trials that reported outcomes from a total of 310 women were finally included in the meta-analysis-155 patients received intravenous TXA while the remaining 155 received placebo injection with normal saline or water for injection. Total estimated blood loss was significantly lower in patients who received TXA before myomectomy compared to control (230 patients MD -227.09 mL 95% CI -426.26, -27.91, p = 0.03). This difference in favor of TXA group remained when intraoperative and postoperative blood loss was separately analyzed. Postoperative hematocrit values and hemoglobin levels did not differ among the two groups (180 patients MD 0.67% 95% CI -0.26, 1.59, p = 0.16 and 250 patients MD 0.17 mg/dL 95% CI 0.07, 0.41, p = 0.17, respectively). The number of patients that received blood transfusion was also not different (310 patients OR 0.46 95% CI -0.14, 1.49, p = 0.19). Total operative time was significantly prolonged in control group compared to TXA (310 patients MD -16.39 min 95% CI -31.44, -1.34 p = 0.03). Our data show that the IV use of TXA may significantly reduce intraoperative blood loss in patients undergoing myomectomy and contribute to reduced operative time.
Intraoperative Cell Salvage for Women at High Risk of Postpartum Hemorrhage During Cesarean Section: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Obore N, Liuxiao Z, Haomin Y, Yuchen T, Wang L, Hong Y
Reproductive sciences (Thousand Oaks, Calif.). 2022
Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) can lead to substantial blood loss that compromises maternal hemodynamic stability and consequently cause severe maternal complications such as organ dysfunction or death. Intraoperative cell salvage (IOCS), an effective method of blood conservation used in other surgical specialties, can be an alternative intervention for managing PPH. Thus, our aim was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of IOCS for women at high risk of PPH undergoing cesarean sections. We conducted a systematic search of electronic databases from inception to February 25, 2021 for randomized controlled studies and observational studies published in English or Mandarin about IOCS use in cesarean sections. Primary outcomes of interest were changes in postoperative hematologic parameters and any adverse events reported among patients that had IOCS and controls that had an allogeneic blood transfusion. The certainty of the evidence of the outcomes was evaluated using the GRADE approach. A total of 24 studies with 5872 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Eleven randomized controlled trials (RCTs), and 13 observational studies were analyzed. Postoperative hemoglobin levels were higher among patients with IOCS SMD 0.39 (95% CI; 0.20, 0.60; P < 0.001, high certainty). Allogeneic blood transfusion increased adverse events RR = 1.81(95% CI; 1.24, 2.62; P = 0.002, low certainty). IOCS shortened hospital stay SMD - 0.59 (95% CI: - 0.98, - 0.19; P = 0.004, low certainty) and shortened prothrombin time SMD - 0.67 (95% CI; - 1.31, - 0.04), P = 0.037, low certainty). The lower incidence of transfusion-related adverse events and shorter hospital stay among other findings demonstrate that IOCS use in obstetrics is an effective and safe alternative for the management of PPH; however, high-quality randomized control studies are required to confirm this evidence.