A Meta-Analysis of Using Protamine for Reducing the Risk of Hemorrhage During Carotid Recanalization: Direct Comparisons of Post-operative Complications
Frontiers in pharmacology. 2022;13:796329
Background: Protamine can decrease the risk of hemorrhage during carotid recanalization. However, it may cause severe side effects. There is no consensus on the safety and efficacy of protamine during surgery. Thus, we conduct a comprehensive review and meta-analysis to compare the differences between the protamine and the no-protamine group. Method: We systematically obtained literature from Medline, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library, and PubMed electronic databases. All four databases were scanned from 1937 when protamine was first adopted as a heparin antagonist until February 2021. The reference lists of identified studies were manually checked to determine other eligible studies that qualify. The articles were included in this meta-analysis as long as they met the criteria of PICOS; conference or commentary articles, letters, case report or series, and animal observation were excluded from this study. The Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale and Cochrane Collaboration's tool are used to assess the risk of bias of each included observational study and RCT, respectively. Stata version 12.0 statistical software (StataCorp LP, College Station, Texas) was adopted as statistical software. When I (2) < 50%, we consider that the data have no obvious heterogeneity, and we conduct a meta-analysis using the fixed-effect model. Otherwise, the random-effect model was performed. Result: A total of 11 studies, consisting of 94,618 participants, are included in this study. Our analysis found that the rate of wound hematoma had a significant difference among protamine and no-protamine patients (OR = 0.268, 95% CI = 0.093 to 0.774, p = 0.015). Furthermore, the incidence of hematoma requiring re-operation (0.7%) was significantly lower than that of patients without protamine (1.8%). However, there was no significant difference in the incidence of stroke, wound hematoma with hypertension, transient ischemic attacks (TIA), myocardial infarction (MI), and death. Conclusion: Among included participants undergoing recanalization, the use of protamine is effective in reducing hematoma without increasing the risk of having other complications. Besides, more evidence-based performance is needed to supplement this opinion due to inherent limitations.
Effects of perioperative erythropoietin administration on acute kidney injury and red blood cell transfusion in patients undergoing cardiac surgery: A systematic review and meta-analysis
BACKGROUND The renoprotective effects of erythropoietin (EPO) are well-known; however, the optimal timing of EPO administration remains controversial. Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is an independent risk factor for cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI). We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of EPO on CSA-AKI and RBC transfusion according to the timing of administration. METHODS We searched the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and MEDLINE databases for randomized controlled trials. The primary outcome was the incidence of CSA-AKI following perioperative EPO administration, and the secondary outcomes were changes in serum creatinine, S-cystatin C, S-neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, length of hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) stay, volume of RBC transfusion, and mortality. The subgroup analysis was stratified according to the timing of EPO administration in relation to surgery. RESULTS Eight randomized controlled trials with 610 patients were included in the study. EPO administration significantly decreased the incidence of CSA-AKI (odds ratio: 0.60, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.43-0.85, P = .004; I2 = 52%; P for heterogeneity = .04), intra-operative RBC transfusion (standardized mean difference: -0.30, 95% CI: -0.55 to -0.05, P = .02; I2 = 15%, P for heterogeneity = .31), and hospital length of stay (mean difference: -1.54 days, 95% CI: -2.70 to -0.39, P = .009; I2 = 75%, P for heterogeneity = .001) compared with control groups. Subgroup analyses revealed that pre-operative EPO treatment significantly reduced the incidence of CSA-AKI, intra-operative RBC transfusion, serum creatinine, and length of hospital and ICU stay. CONCLUSION Pre-operative administration of EPO may reduce the incidence of CSA-AKI and RBC transfusion, but not in patients administered EPO during the intra-operative or postoperative period. Therefore, pre-operative EPO treatment can be considered to improve postoperative outcomes by decreasing the length of hospital and ICU stay in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.
Patients undergoing cardiac surgery (8 studies, n= 610).
Perioperative erythropoietin (EPO).
EPO administration significantly decreased the incidence of cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI), intra-operative red blood cell transfusion (standardized mean difference: -0.30), and hospital length of stay (mean difference: -1.54 days) compared with control groups. Subgroup analyses revealed that pre-operative EPO treatment significantly reduced the incidence of CSA-AKI, intra-operative red blood cell transfusion, serum creatinine, and length of hospital and intensive care unit stay.
Tranexamic acid reduces postoperative blood loss in Chinese pediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery: A PRISMA-compliant systematic review and meta-analysis
BACKGROUND Tranexamic acid has been increasingly used for blood conservation in cardiac surgery. However, the evidence supporting the routine use of tranexamic acid in Chinese pediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery remains weak. This meta-analysis aimed to systematically review the efficacy of tranexamic acid when applying to Chinese pediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery. PARTICIPANTS Chinese pediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery. INTERVENTIONS Tranexamic acid or control drugs (saline/blank). METHODS PUBMED, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang Data, and VIP Data till May 4, 2021, database search was updated on August 1. Primary outcomes of interest included postoperative bleeding, allogeneic transfusion, and reoperation for bleeding. Secondary outcomes of interest included postoperative recovery. For continuous/dichotomous variables, treatment effects were calculated as weighted mean difference (WMD)/odds ratio and 95% confidence interval. RESULTS A database search yielded 15 randomized controlled trials including 1641 patients, where 8 studies were allocated into non-cyanotic congenital group, 5 were allocated into cyanotic congenital group, and the other 2 were allocated into combined cyanotic/non-cyanotic group. This meta-analysis demonstrate that tranexamic acid administration can reduce the postoperative 24 hours blood loss in non-cyanotic, cyanotic, and combined cyanotic/non-cyanotic patients, the red blood cell transfusion in non-cyanotic and cyanotic patients, and the fresh frozen plasma transfusion in non-cyanotic and combined cyanotic/non-cyanotic patients. CONCLUSION This meta-analysis demonstrates that tranexamic acid is highly effective in reducing the blood loss in Chinese pediatric cardiac surgery, but it behaves poorly when it comes to the transfusion requirement. To further confirm this, more well-designed and adequately-powered randomized trials are needed.
Systematic review on transcaval embolization for type II endoleak after endovascular aortic aneurysm repair
Journal of vascular surgery. 2022
INTRODUCTION Persistent endoleak type II (ET II) after endovascular repair for aortic aneurysms is not always a begin condition and has been associated to sac expansion, rupture and re-intervention. A variety of different endovascular approaches are available for ET II treatment. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the currently available literature on transcaval embolization in ET II treatment after standard or complex endovascular aortic aneurysm repair. METHODS This systematic review protocol was registered to the PROSPERO (CRD42021289686). The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis statement (PRISMA) guidelines and P.I.C.O. model was followed. A data search of the literature was conducted, using PubMed, EMBASE via Ovid and CENTRAL databases, until September 30, 2021. Only studies reporting on ET II embolization using the transcaval approach after endovascular aneurysm repair were included. Studies reporting on different type of endoleak treatment or other embolization approach were excluded. The quality of studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). Primary outcomes were technical success and freedom from ET II persistence during follow-up while secondary were any post-operative complication associated to transcaval embolization and need for re-intervention. RESULTS The search yielded 2,861 manuscripts in total. Eight manuscripts were included, reporting on 117 patients and 128 transcaval embolizations. The indication for treatment was ET II presence with sac expansion >5mm while in two studies the presence of persistent endoleak has set the indication to intervene. The technical success was 91.4% (117/128) while a variety of embolic materials were used including coils, thrombin, and glue. Three cases of deep vein thrombosis were recorded while the remaining morbidity and mortality were null. Follow-up was ranging between 0-25 months. Out of eight studies, persistent ET II rate was 12.8% and 18 re-interventions were performed (14.1%,); including ten transcaval coil embolizations (56%). Sac expansion was reported in 11 cases out of 3 studies (17%). Only one case of death, not associated to transcaval embolization, was recorded. CONCLUSIONS Transcaval embolization for ET II treatment presents a high technical success and low mortality in the early and mid-term period. The ET II persistence rate is low during the available 12-month follow-up.
Patent hemostasis of radial artery: Comparison of two methods
World journal of cardiology. 2021;13(10):574-584
BACKGROUND Radial artery obstruction is the most common complication of coronary angiography performed via transradial access. Patent hemostasis can significantly reduce the risk of radial artery occlusion. Previous studies utilized sophisticated methods to evaluate radial artery patency. Simplified and easily applicable methods for successful patent hemostasis are currently lacking. AIM: To determine which method (pulse oximeter vs the traditional radial artery palpation) is better to achieve patent hemostasis. METHODS This prospective, single center study included 299 consecutive patients who underwent coronary angiography or percutaneous coronary intervention between November 2017 and July 2019. Patients less than 18 years old, with a history of radial artery disease, or no palpable artery pulse were excluded from the study. Patients were randomly assigned to two groups. In the first group, radial artery flow was assessed by palpation of the artery during hemostasis (traditional method). In the second group, radial artery patency was estimated with the use of a pulse oximeter. Two different compression devices were used for hemostasis (air chamber and pressure valve). The primary study endpoint was the achievement of successful patent hemostasis. RESULTS The two groups (pulse oximeter vs artery palpation) had no significant differences in age, sex, body mass index, risk factors, or comorbidities except for supraventricular arrhythmias. The percentage of patients with successful patent hemostasis was significantly higher in the pulse oximeter group (82.2% vs 68.1%, P = 0.005). A lower percentage of patients with spasm was recorded in the pulse oximeter group (9.9% vs 19.0%, P = 0.024). The incidence of local complications, edema, bleeding, hematoma, vagotonia, or pain did not differ between the two groups. In the multivariate analysis, the use of a pulse oximeter (OR: 2.35, 95%CI: 1.34-4.13, P = 0.003) and advanced age (OR: 1.04, 95%CI: 1.01-1.07, P = 0.006), were independently associated with an increased probability of successful patent hemostasis. The type of hemostatic device did not affect patent hemostasis (P = 0.450). CONCLUSION Patent hemostasis with the use of pulse oximeter is a simple, efficient, and safe method that is worthy of further investigation. Larger randomized studies are required to consider its clinical implications.
Effect of 6% Hydroxyethyl Starch 130/0.4 on Inflammatory Response and Pulmonary Function in Patients Having Cardiac Surgery: A Randomized Clinical Trial
Anesthesia and analgesia. 2021
BACKGROUND Cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass induces a profound inflammatory response that, when severe, can lead to multiorgan system dysfunction. Preliminary data suggest that administration of hydroxyethyl starch (HES) solutions may mitigate an inflammatory response and improve pulmonary function. Our goal was to examine the effect of 6% HES 130/0.4 versus 5% human albumin given for intravascular plasma volume replacement on the perioperative inflammatory response and pulmonary function in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. METHODS This was a subinvestigation of a blinded, parallel-group, randomized clinical trial of patients undergoing elective aortic valve replacement surgery at the Cleveland Clinic main campus, titled "Effect of 6% Hydroxyethyl Starch 130/0.4 on Kidney and Haemostatic Function in Cardiac Surgical Patients." Of 141 patients who were randomized to receive either 6% HES 130/0.4 or 5% human albumin for intraoperative plasma volume replacement, 135 patients were included in the data analysis (HES n = 66, albumin n = 69). We assessed the cardiopulmonary bypass-induced inflammatory response end points by comparing the 2 groups' serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), measured at baseline and at 1 and 24 hours after surgery. We also compared the 2 groups' postoperative pulmonary function end points, including the ratio of partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen (Pao2:Fio2 ratio), dynamic lung compliance, oxygenation index (OI), and ventilation index (VI) at baseline, within 1 hour of arrival to the intensive care unit, and before tracheal extubation. The differences in the postoperative levels of inflammatory response and pulmonary function between the HES and albumin groups were assessed individually in linear mixed models. RESULTS Serum concentrations of the inflammatory markers (TNF-α, IL-6, MIF) were not significantly different (P ≥ .05) between patients who received 6% HES 130/0.4 or 5% albumin, and there was no significant heterogeneity of the estimated treatment effect over time (P ≥ .15). The results of pulmonary function parameters (Pao2:Fio2 ratio, dynamic compliance, OI, VI) were not significantly different (P ≥ .05) between groups, and there was no significant heterogeneity of the estimated treatment effect over time (P ≥ .15). CONCLUSIONS Our investigation found no significant difference in the concentrations of inflammatory markers and measures of pulmonary function between cardiac surgical patients who received 6% HES 130/0.4 versus 5% albumin.
Preradiosurgery embolization in reducing the postoperative hemorrhage rate for patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformations: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Neurosurgical review. 2021
Few studies have examined the postoperative hemorrhage rate of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) treated by embolization prior to stereotactic radiosurgery. The objective of this analysis was to compare the postoperative hemorrhage rate between AVMs treated with and those treated without preradiosurgery embolization. A systematic search of the PubMed and Embase databases was performed with no restriction on the publication period. Based on Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, we included studies with sufficient baseline and outcome data. The analysis was performed using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis (CMA) 2.0. Eleven studies comprising 2591 patients were eligible for analysis. There was no significant difference in the postoperative hemorrhage rate between patients who had undergone embolization followed by SRS and those who had undergone SRS alone (OR 1.140, 95% CI 0.851-1.526, p = 0.38). The obliteration rate was significantly lower in the E + SRS group than in the SRS group (OR 0.586, 95% CI 0.398-0.863, p = 0.007). No significant difference in permanent neurological deficits was identified between patients who had undergone embolization followed by SRS and those who had undergone SRS alone (OR 1.175, 95% CI 0.626-2.206, p = 0.616). Available data suggested that preradiosurgery embolization did not reduce the postoperative hemorrhage rate and resulted in a significantly lower obliteration rate than treatment with SRS alone.
To Explore the Haemostatic Effect of Compression Haemostasis Using an Ultrasonic Probe under the Guidance of Ultrasound after Radial Artery Puncture
Disease markers. 2021;2021:7423101
OBJECTIVE To evaluate a new haemostasis method using an ultrasound probe to compress the radial artery and haemostasis under direct vision to replace traditional manual compression of the radial artery. METHODS According to a random number table, 240 patients with gastrointestinal tumours who had undergone arterial puncture were divided into Group A (120 cases) and Group B (120 cases). In Group A, patients were under the guidance of ultrasound to confirm the vascular port, determine the compression position of the ultrasound probe, observe the degree of vascular deformation, and press the radial artery puncture port with pressure to stop bleeding under direct vision. In Group B, traditional manual compression was used. All patients received 5 min of compression for haemostasis, and haemostasis conditions were recorded after compression and 24 hours postoperatively. RESULTS The incidence of bleeding, haematoma, and skin ecchymosis at the puncture site after 5 minutes of compression in Group A was lower than that in Group B (P < 0.05). No significant difference was found between the two groups at 24 hours after the operation (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION The method using an ultrasound probe to guide radial artery compression to haemostasis is better than traditional manual compression when applied for compression haemostasis after removing the radial artery catheter.
Factor VIII inhibitor bypass activity (FEIBA) for the reduction of transfusion in cardiac surgery: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, pilot trial
Pilot and feasibility studies. 2021;7(1):137
BACKGROUND Uncontrolled bleeding after cardiac surgery can be life-threatening. Factor eight inhibitor bypassing activity (FEIBA) is a prothrombin complex concentrate empirically used as rescue therapy for correction of refractory bleeding diathesis post-cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). FEIBA used as rescue therapy for bleeding diathesis after CPB has been associated with a low incidence of complications and a reduction in transfusion requirement and re-exploration. The feasibility and efficacy of early administration of FEIBA after the termination of CPB have not been studied in a prospective randomized trial. METHODS We designed a small randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled pilot trial to determine the feasibility of a larger trial testing the hypothesis that FEIBA decreases transfusion requirements after CPB. The study was designed to evaluate the feasibility of a larger pivotal trial to determine the effectiveness of FEIBA in reducing the total volume of blood products transfused perioperatively, and its safety profile. Study participants were adult patients undergoing elective major aortic cardiovascular surgery at a tertiary referral hospital, who were equally randomized to receive a single dose of either FEIBA or matched placebo intraoperatively at the end of CPB. RESULTS Twenty patients were screened and 12 were randomized and included in the analysis. Protocol adherence was high, and all patients received the study drug per intention-to-treat except one patient. There were no protocol deviations or events of unblinding, and adverse events were not different between groups. Patients in the FEIBA group were older and more likely to be female and had higher BMI, lower hematocrit, and longer hypothermic circulatory arrest. There were no differences in post-randomization blood product transfusions (difference FEIBA vs. placebo -899 mL; 95% CI -5206 to 3409) or in the administration of open-label FEIBA. CONCLUSIONS This pilot trial confirmed the adequacy of the trial design that involved the early, blinded administration of FEIBA, by demonstrating excellent protocol adherence. We conclude that a larger trial establishing the effectiveness of early prothrombin complex concentrate administration to reduce the use of blood products in the setting of high-risk cardiac surgery is feasible. TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02577614 . Registered 16 October 2015.
Retrograde autologous priming method reduces plasma free hemoglobin level in aortic surgery
Annals of cardiac anaesthesia. 2021;24(4):427-433
BACKGROUND Although conventional cardiopulmonary bypass (cCPB) is still the most widely used method in open heart surgery, methods such as retrograde autologous priming (RAP) are increasingly popular in terms of limiting hemodilution. Our hypothesis is that the use of the RAP method in aortic surgery may result in a limitation of hemodilution and a decrease in fHb levels. For this purpose, plasma free hemoglobin (fHb) levels were investigated in adult open aortic arch repair with axillary artery cannulation patients using cCPB and rRAP methods. MATERIALS AND METHODS In this study, a total of 36 patients undergoing aortic surgery using rRAP and standard cCPB were investigated. Measurements were performed at five time points: After induction of anesthesia, 5(th) minute of CPB, 10(th) minute of antegrade cerebral perfusion, 30(th) minute after declamping of aorta, and at sternum closure. Besides hemodynamic variables, arterial blood gas analysis and postoperative variables, patients were assessed for fHb levels. RESULTS The rRAP group had a significantly lower increase in fHb levels in T3, T4, and T5 time points, when compared to the cCPB group (p = 0.002, 0.047, 0.009, respectively). There was no significant difference between the rRAP and cCPB groups in other intraoperative, and postoperative variables. Also, it was observed that rRAP did not make a difference in terms of blood and blood product transfusion. CONCLUSION In this study, in patients undergoing aortic surgery, a reduction in the increase of fHb was observed with the rRAP method which is a simple procedure that does not require high cost or advanced technology.