The mid-term and long-term effects of tourniquet use in total knee arthroplasty: systematic review
Journal of experimental orthopaedics. 2022;9(1):42
PURPOSE A tourniquet is routinely used during total knee arthroplasty (TKA) to reduce intra-operative hemorrhage, though surgery without a tourniquet is becoming popular. To address concerns about the effect of blood at cement interfaces on long-term implant stability, we conducted a systematic review among patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty to determine if TKA with a tourniquet, compared to TKA without a tourniquet or with reduced tourniquet duration, is associated with better mid-term and long-term implant stability. METHODS A literature search was conducted without language restriction in PubMed, Cochrane database and Web of Science from conception to 17th March, 2021. Prospective cohorts, randomized and observational, that compared tourniquet use with a control group, followed patients for 3 months or more and reported outcomes concerning implant stability, limb function, pain and inflammation. Article selection, quality assessment according to the Revised Cochrane risk assessment scale and Newcastle Ottawa Scale, and data extraction were conducted in duplicate. PROSPERO CRD42020179020. RESULTS The search yielded 4868 articles, from which 16 randomized controlled trials (RCT) and four prospective cohort studies, evaluating outcomes of 1884 knees, were included. Eleven RCTs were evaluated to be low overall risk of bias, five RCTs had some concerns and four cohort studies were good quality. Few studies showed benefits of tourniquet use in mid-term implant stability (1/6), pain (1/11) and limb inflammation (1/5), and long-term implant stability (1/1). One study reported a significantly improved range of motion (1/14) while another reported significantly reduced quadriceps strength (1/6) in the tourniquet group. The remaining studies reported non-significant effect of tourniquet use. CONCLUSION Although few studies indicated benefits of tourniquet use in mid-term pain, limb inflammation, implant loosening and function, and long-term implant loosening, the majority of studies report no significant advantage of tourniquet use in total knee arthroplasty.
Administration of Tranexamic Acid to Reduce Intra-articular Hemarthrosis in ACL Reconstruction: A Systematic Review
Orthopaedic journal of sports medicine. 2022;10(1):23259671211061726
BACKGROUND Although tranexamic acid (TXA) has been shown to reduce bleeding in joint replacement procedures, its effectiveness for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) has not been widely reported. PURPOSE To evaluate the effectiveness of TXA to reduce postoperative hemarthrosis and improve clinical outcomes after ACLR. STUDY DESIGN Systematic review; Level of evidence, 2. METHODS A systematic review of the literature following the PRISMA guidelines (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) was performed; literature retrieval was carried out using the MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Library electronic databases. The inclusion criteria were comparative studies in English that reported the administration of intravenous or intra-articular TXA versus other modalities or placebo in patients undergoing ACLR. RESULTS Six studies comprising 418 patients who were treated with TXA were included. Heterogeneity among studies did not allow for the pooling of data. Five studies showed decreased drainage volume in the first 24 or 48 hours postoperatively as compared with control (ACLR with no TXA). Four studies showed lower hemarthrosis grades and visual analog scale scores in TXA versus control in the early postoperative period, although this difference was not evident at 4 weeks postoperatively. No studies showed differences in infection, deep venous thrombosis, or adverse events between the TXA and control groups. CONCLUSION The current best available evidence suggests that TXA administration at the time of ACLR results in decreased intra-articular bleeding (measured using a drainage system), hemarthrosis grade, and pain when compared with control.
Peri-Articular Injection of Tranexamic Acid Reduce Blood Loss and Transfusion Requirement During Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Meta-analysis
Geriatric orthopaedic surgery & rehabilitation. 2022;13:21514593221101264
BACKGROUND The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of peri-articular injection of tranexamic acid (TXA) during total knee arthroplasty (TKA) from clinical controlled trials. METHOD Eligible scientific articles published prior to October 2021 were retrieved from the PubMed, Springer, ScienceDirect and Cochrane Library databases. The statistical analysis was performed with RevMan 5.1. RESULT 2 RCTs and 3 non-RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis showed significant differences in terms of hemoglobin reduction (MD = -1.04, 95% CI: -1.33 to -.76, P < .00001), total blood loss (MD = -342.80.70, 95% CI: -437.52 to -248.08, P < .00001), drainage volume (MD = -297.24, 95% CI: -497.26 to -97.23, P = .004) and blood transfusion rate (OR = .30, 95% CI: .14 to .62, P = .001) were found in the control group. No postoperative infection and deep venous thrombosis were found between 2 groups. CONCLUSION Peri-articular injection of TXA can effectively decrease perioperative blood loss and blood transfusion rate without increasing the incidence of postoperative complications during TKA.
The effect of tranexamic acid in open reduction and internal fixation of pelvic and acetabular fracture: A systematic review and meta-analysis
BACKGROUND Pelvic bone fractures may cause extensive bleeding; however, the efficacy of tranexamic acid (TXA) usage in pelvic fracture surgery remains unclear. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of TXA in open reduction and internal fixation surgery for pelvic and acetabular fracture. METHODS MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were systematically searched for studies published before April 22, 2020, that investigated the effect of TXA in the treatment of pelvic and acetabular fracture with open reduction and internal fixation. A pooled analysis was used to identify the differences between a TXA usage group and a control group in terms of estimated blood loss (EBL), transfusion rates, and postoperative complications. RESULTS We included 6 studies involving 764 patients, comprising 293 patients who received TXA (TXA group) and 471 patients who did not (control group). The pooled analysis showed no differences in EBL between the groups (mean difference -64.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] -185.27 to -55.93, P = .29). The study period transfusion rate showed no significant difference between the groups (odds ratio [OR] 0.77, 95% CI 0.19-3.14, P = .71, I2 = 82%), nor in venous thromboembolism incidence (OR 1.53, 95% CI 0.44-5.25, P = .50, I2 = 0%) or postoperative infection rates (OR 1.15, 95% CI 0.13-9.98, P = .90, I2 = 48%). CONCLUSIONS Despite several studies having recommended TXA administration in orthopedic surgery, our study did not find TXA usage to be more effective than not using TXA in pelvic and acetabular fracture surgery, especially in terms of EBL reduction, transfusion rates, and the risk of postoperative complications.
The effect of antifibrinolytic agents in periacetabular osteotomy: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Orthopaedics & traumatology, surgery & research : OTSR. 2022;108(4):103271
BACKGROUND Periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) is a major hip preservation surgery for developmental dysplasia of the hip. It is inevitably associated with significant blood loss, so it requires frequent transfusions and could be a cause of perioperative morbidity. However, to date, a large number of studies has not evaluated the effect of antifibrinolytic agents in PAO. Therefore we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess if antifibrinolytics would be effective in reducing blood loss and transfusion rate after PAO surgery. METHODS In this systematic review and meta-analysis, MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were systematically searched for studies published before April 4, 2020, that investigated the effect of antifibrinolytic agents in PAO. A pooled analysis was designed to identify differences between antifibrinolytic and control groups focusing on blood loss, transfusion, operation time, postoperative venous thromboembolism (VTE), and length of hospital stay. RESULTS We included five studies involving 507 patients (antifibrinolytic group: 256; control group: 251). The pooled analysis showed that the control group had a greater total estimated blood loss (EBL) than the antifibrinolytic group (mean difference [MD]=-257.60mL, 95% confidence interval [CI] -389.68 to -125.53, p=0.0001), but there were no statistical differences in intraoperative EBL (MD=-46.46mL, 95% CI: -192.57 to 99.64, p=0.53). The allogenic transfusion rate was higher in the control group than in the antifibrinolytic group (odds ratio [OR] 0.21, 95% CI: 0.10-0.43, p<0.0001), but there was no difference in the autogenic transfusion rate (OR 0.35, 95% CI: 0.09-1.43, p=0.14). The pooled result showed no difference in operation time (MD=9.13min, 95% CI: -8.54 to 26.80, p=0.31). For the VTE rate, a pooled analysis was not conducted due to the lack of data. The length of hospital stay showed no differences (MD=-0.51 days, 95% CI: -1.17 to 0.16, p=0.13). CONCLUSIONS Antifibrinolytic use in PAO has positive effects in terms of reduced total EBL and allogenic transfusion rate. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE III; meta-analysis.
Intra-articular versus intravenous administration of tranexamic acid in lower limb total arthroplasty: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised clinical trials
European journal of orthopaedic surgery & traumatology : orthopedie traumatologie. 2022
AIM: The ideal route of tranexamic acid (TXA) administration in total hip arthroplasty (THA) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA) remains controversial. This study aims to identify the optima route of TXA administration in THA or TKA. METHODS PUBMED, EMBASE, MEDLINE and CENTRAL database were systematically searched until 4 August 2021 for randomised studies that compared intravenous (IV) or intra-articular (IA) administration of TXA in THA or TKA. RESULTS Sixty-seven studies enrolling 8335 patients (IA: 4162; IV: 4173) were eligible for quantitative and qualitative analysis. Comparable results were demonstrated in the incidence of venous thromboembolisation (OR:0.96, p = 0.84), total blood loss (MD: - 9.05, p = 0.36), drain output (MD: - 7.36, p = 0.54), hidden blood loss (MD: - 6.85, p = 0.47), postoperative haemoglobin level (MD: 0.01, p = 0.91), haemoglobin drop (MD: - 0.10, p = 0.22), blood transfusion rate (OR: 0.99, p = 0.87), total adverse events (OR: 1.12, p = 0.28), postoperative range of motion (MD: 1.08, p = 0.36), postoperative VAS pain score (MD: 0.13, p = 0.24) and postoperative D-dimer level (MD: 0.61, p = 0.64). IV route of TXA administration was associated with significantly longer length of hospital stay compared to IA route of administration (MD: - 0.22, p = 0.01). CONCLUSION In this meta-analysis, both IV and IA route of TXA administration were equally effective in managing blood loss and postoperative outcomes in lower limb joints arthroplasty. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Level 1. PROSPERO Registration CRD42021271355.
Peri-articular administration of tranexamic acid is an alternative route in total knee arthroplasty: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Journal of orthopaedic surgery and research. 2022;17(1):211
BACKGROUND As an antifibrinolytic agent, tranexamic acid (TXA) is increasingly used in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) to reduce blood loss. The administration of intravenous and intra-articular TXA has been well explored, but the most efficient way to administer TXA remains in question. Peri-articular injection (PAI) of TXA is a recently mentioned method. A meta-analysis of the efficacy of PAI TXA in patients after TKA should be performed. METHODS A systematic search was performed within PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library up to November 8, 2021. Two authors independently screened studies for eligibility and extracted data for analysis. The primary outcome was haemoglobin change. The secondary outcomes were haematocrit change, total drainage volume, thromboembolic events, and blood transfusion. RESULTS A total of ten studies were included in this meta-analysis. The results indicated that there was a significant decrease in haemoglobin change when using PAI TXA compared with no TXA (mean difference - 1.05; 95% CI - 1.28 to - 0.81; P < 0.00001; I(2) = 0%), but it had no significant differences compared with IA and IV (mean difference - 0.01; 95% CI - 0.17 to - 0.14; P = 0.85; I(2) = 39%). There were no significant differences between the TXA < 1.5 g subgroup (0.10, 95% CI - 0.27 to 0.46; P = 0.60; I(2) = 0%) and the TXA ≥ 1.5 g subgroup (0.18, 95% CI - 0.12 to 0.48; P = 0.24; I(2) = 74%). In addition, the combined group (PAI plus IV or IA) was superior to the IV or IA group in terms of haemoglobin change (mean difference - 0.51; 95% CI - 0.76 to - 0.27; P < 0.0001; I(2) = 19%). Regarding haematocrit change, the pooled result showed it was significantly less in the PAI group than the non-TXA group. Similarly, comparing it against the IV subgroup, the result revealed a difference in favour of the PAI group, with a mean difference of - 1.89 g/dL (95% CI - 2.82 to - 0.95; P < 0.0001; I(2) = 67%). For total drainage volume, the pooled result was in favour of PAI TXA over no TXA (297 ml, 95% CI - 497.26 to - 97.23; P = 0.004; I(2) = 87%), but it had no significant difference compared with IA and IV (mean difference - 37.98; 95% CI - 115.68 to 39.71; P = 0.34; I(2) = 95%). There was no significant difference in thromboembolic events (OR 0.74; 95% CI 0.25 to 2.21; P = 0.59; I(2) = 0%). Blood transfusion was not significantly different between the PAI group and the non-TXA group (OR 0.50; 95% CI 0.23 to 1.06; P = 0.07; I(2) = 21%), and there was no significant difference between PAI and the other two TXA injection methods (OR 0.72; 95% CI 0.41 to 1.25; P = 0.24; I(2) = 19%). CONCLUSION PAI has comparable effects to IV and IA injections. PAI is an alternative injection route of TXA for patients who have undergone TKA.
Wide-Awake Local Anesthesia With no Tourniquet Versus General Anesthesia for the Plating of Distal Radius Fracture: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Frontiers in surgery. 2022;9:922135
BACKGROUND Distal radius fractures are treated using open reduction and internal fixation and using general anesthesia (GA) or regional blocks. A new technique, wide-awake local anesthesia with no tourniquet (WALANT), allows this operation to be conducted in nonsedated patients without the use of tourniquets. OBJECTIVE We analyzed whether WALANT yields better outcomes than GA in the treatment of patients with distal radius fractures. EVIDENCE REVIEW We searched the PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, and Scopus databases for cases of distal radius fractures treated using WALANT or GA. The outcomes of interest were duration of preparation for surgery, duration of surgery, blood loss, and length of postoperative hospitalization; visual analog scale (VAS), Mayo wrist score, and Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (QuickDASH) questionnaire score on postoperative day 1; range of motion (ROM); time until bone union; and complication rate. FINDINGS We systematically reviewed 4 studies with a total of 263 patients (128 with WALANT and 135 with GA). In comparison with GA, WALANT required less time for preparation for surgery, shorter postoperative hospitalization, and lower postoperative day 1 VAS scores; however, blood loss was greater. Functional outcomes (ROM, QuickDASH score, and Mayo wrist score), complication rates, and times until union did not differ considerably between the two methods. CONCLUSION The included studies demonstrated that durations of preparation for surgery and postoperative hospitalization were shorter and pain on postoperative day 1 was less severe with WALANT than with GA. Although blood loss in surgery was greater with WALANT, this technique is a novel and promising alternative to GA.
Impact of tourniquet during total knee arthroplasty when tranexamic acid was used: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Journal of orthopaedic surgery and research. 2022;17(1):18
INTRODUCTION The efficacy of tourniquet use during primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is thought to reduce intraoperative blood loss, improve surgical exposure, and optimize cement fixation. Tranexamic acid (TXA) use can decrease postsurgical blood loss and transfusion requirements. This review aimed to appraise the effects of tourniquet use in TKA for patients with tranexamic acid use. METHODS A meta-analysis was conducted to identify relevant randomized controlled trials involving TXA plus a tourniquet (TXA-T group) and use of TXA plus no tourniquet (TXA-NT group) in TKA. Web of Science, PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Cochrane Library, Highwire, CNKI, and Wanfang database were searched from 2010 through October 2021. RESULTS We identified 1720 TKAs (1690 patients) assessed in 14 randomized controlled trials. Compared with the TXA-NT group, the TXA-T group resulted in less intra-operative blood loss (P < 0.00001) and decreased duration of surgery (P < 0.00001), however more hidden blood loss (P = 0.0004) and less knee range of motion (P < 0.00001). No significant differences were found between two groups in terms of decrease in hemoglobin (P = 0.84), total blood loss (P = 0.79), transfusion rate (P = 0.18), drainage volume (P = 0.06), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) at either the day of surgery (P = 0.2), 1 day (P = 0.25), 2 day (P = 0.39), 3 day (P = 0.21), 5 day (P = 0.21), 7 day (P = 0.06) or 1 month after surgery (P = 0.16), Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) score at either 7 day (P = 0.10), 1 month (P = 0.08), 3 month (P = 0.22) or 6 month after the surgery (P = 0.92), Knee circumference (P = 0.28), length of hospital (P = 0.12), and complications such as intramuscular venous thrombosis (P = 0.81), deep venous thrombosis (P = 0.10), superficial infection (P = 0.45), deep wound infection (P = 0.64), and delayed wound healing (P = 0.65). CONCLUSION No big differences could be found by using or not tourniquet when use the TXA, though some benefits are related to operation time and less intra-operative blood loss by using tourniquet and TXA, Using the tourniquet was related to more hidden blood loss and less knee range of motion. More adequately powered and better-designed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) studies with long-term follow-up are required to validate this study.
Personalized tourniquet pressure may be a better choice than uniform tourniquet pressure during total knee arthroplasty: A PRISMA-compliant systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized-controlled trials
BACKGROUND Pneumatic tourniquets are widely used in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Some surgeons prefer a uniform tourniquet inflation pressure (UTIP) for all patients; others use personalized tourniquet inflation pressures (PTIP) based on systolic blood pressure and limb occlusion pressure. However, no consensus exists regarding the optimal mode of inflation pressure during TKA. This review aimed to appraise if personalized tourniquet inflation pressures are better than uniform tourniquet inflation. METHODS The databases (Web of Science, Embase, PubMed, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Cochrane Library, Highwire, CBM, CNKI, VIP, Wanfang) were searched on March 2021 to systematically identify and screen the literature for randomized controlled trials involving PTIP and UTIP during total knee arthroplasty. RESULTS Thirteen randomized controlled trials, involving 1204 TKAs (1201 patients) were included in the systematic review. The meta-analysis identified a trend toward less visual analogue scale (VAS) score at rest with PTIP group at 1 day (P = .002), 2 to 3 days (P = .01), and less VAS score at activity 1 day (P < .0001), 2 to 3 days after the operation (P < .00001), and discharge (P < .0001). No significant difference was found between the groups in terms of VAS score at rest when discharge (P = 1.0). We also found no significant difference in terms of intraoperative blood loss (P = .48), total blood loss (P = .15), lower limb vein thrombosis (P = .42), and thigh bullae (P = .17). However, in the PTIP group, we found a significant higher hospital for special surgery (HSS) score (P = .007), broader knee Range of motion (P = .02), less rate of thigh ecchymosis (P = .00001), and shorter thigh circumference at 1 day (P = .006), 2 to 3 days (P = .0005), and discharge (P = .02). CONCLUSION PTIP provides a similar bloodless surgical field compared with the conventional UTIP. Furthermore, PTIP provides less pain intensity, thigh circumference, rate of thigh ecchymosis, higher hospital for special surgery, and better initial recovery of knee flexion in total knee arthroplasty. Therefore, we recommend using a PTIP method during TKA. More adequately powered and better-designed randomized controlled trials studies with long-term follow-up are required to produce evidence-based guidelines regarding the PTIP method.