Effect of the piezoelectric device on intraoperative hemorrhage control and quality of life after endodontic microsurgery: a randomized clinical study
Journal of endodontics. 2021
INTRODUCTION The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of the piezoelectric device on intraoperative hemorrhage control during surgery and the quality of life of patients after the endodontic microsurgery. METHODS A total of 40 patients were randomly divided into the piezo group (n=20) and the control group (n=20). In the piezo group after flap reflection bone cutting, granulation tissue removal, and root-end resection were performed using the piezoelectric surgical device and surgical carbide burs and curettes were used in the control group. The quality of life of patients was evaluated daily for one week postsurgery for limitations of oral and general functions, pain, and other symptoms. Limitation of functions and other symptoms were recorded by a modified version of the patient's perception questionnaire using a five-point Likert scale for mouth opening, chewing, speaking, sleeping, daily routine, missed work, swelling, nausea, bad taste/breath and VAS was adopted for pain. Hemorrhage control during surgery was independently assessed by the surgeon and two blinded observers and recorded as 0(No hemorrhage control), 1(intermittent control), and 2(complete control).Chi(_)square test was used to assess hemorrhage control. For variables related to function and symptoms other than pain, and analgesics taken Fisher exact test was used. For assessment of pain between two groups, Mann-Whitney was used. RESULTS For parameters of quality of life piezo group showed significantly less swelling on 1(st),2(nd)& 3(rd)day and pain on 1(st)& 2(nd) day as compared with the control group "p<0.05." Analgesics taken were also significantly less in the piezo group "p<0.05". In the Piezo group, complete hemorrhage control was achieved in 10 patients, and in the control group, it was achieved only in 1 patient "P < .05." CONCLUSIONS Piezoelectric surgery resulted in improved quality of life of patients in the first weekpostsurgery with lower levels of pain and swelling as well as the number of analgesics taken and better hemorrhage control during surgery.
Palatal pre-suturing for peri-operative haemostasis at free gingival graft donor sites - A randomized controlled clinical trial
Journal of periodontology. 2021
BACKGROUND The palatal suture has been well known in literature as a method for palatal hemostasis but has not been validated for its efficacy. The aim of this parallel arm randomized controlled clinical trial was to evaluate the efficacy of palatal pre-suturing using the greater palatine compression suture (GPCS) in reducing the peri-operative haemorrhage associated with the palatal free gingival graft (FGG) procedure. METHODS Twenty four patients requiring the FGG procedure for recession coverage or augmentation of keratinized tissue were recruited in the study and randomized in to the GPCS group and the control group. The GPCS was placed using a previously described protocol by a single operator in all the participants in the GPCS group. Peri-operative blood loss was estimated by weighing the gauze used to mop the palatal haemorrhage, before and after the procedure. The time required for the surgery was also recorded by an independent observer. RESULTS Significantly lesser blood loss was observed in the GPCS group (4.33±0.89 g) as compared to the control group (8.91±4.16 g). The difference in the time taken for the surgical procedure for the GPCS group (73.25±22.35 minutes) was not significantly different from that required for the control group (76.08±14.47 minutes). CONCLUSION This study demonstrates that pre-suturing of the palate using the GPCS is an effective technique to reduce the peri-operative blood loss associated with the palatal FGG procedure. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Effectiveness of local hemostatic to prevent bleeding in dental patients on anticoagulation: A systematic review and network meta-analysis
Journal of cranio-maxillo-facial surgery : official publication of the European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. 2021
This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of hemostatic protocols to prevent bleeding in dental procedures among individuals undergoing oral anticoagulation therapy. A systematic review and network meta-analysis were accomplished. Searches of literature and grey literature were performed in different electronic databases. Clinical trials were considered as part of the inclusion criteria. Data extraction and assessment of the risk of bias of the included articles were performed. Assessment of the certainty of evidence was also performed. As results we find that the N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate [RR -35.00 (95% CI - 107.12, -5.78)], calcium sulfate (CaSO(4)) [RR -5.62 (95% CI -11.41, -1.03)], and tranexamic acid (TXA) [RR -3.46 (95% CI -7.63, -0.77)] showed beneficial effects compared to placebo. However, only TXA presented beneficial effects with moderate certainty evidence. N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate and CaSO(4) presented very low certainty evidence. In the comparisons between the hemostatic agents, no differences were observed. For the mean bleeding time, no significant difference in the comparisons was observed as well. Concluding, bleeding events in individuals on oral anticoagulation decreased with the use of TXA compared to placebo. N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate and CaSO(4) were also superior to placebo, but the certainty of evidence was low. For the mean bleeding time, no significant difference in hemostatic agents was observed.
Efficacy of hemostatic agents in endodontic surgery: A systematic review and network meta-analysis
The journal of evidence-based dental practice. 2021;21(3):101540
OBJECTIVE Adequate hemostasis is a critical step in endodontic surgery. It facilitates the procedure and affects the success and prognosis of the operation. This systematic review and network meta-analysis (NMA) aimed to systematically assess the efficacy of hemostatic agents in endodontic surgery and to identify the most effective ones. METHODS PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, ProQuest, and EBSCOhost databases were searched up to December 2020. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the efficacy of different hemostatic measures in endodontic surgery, and their risk of bias was assessed using Cochrane's randomized trial tool (RoB 2.0). Frequentist network meta-analysis was conducted, with Odds Ratios and 95% confidence intervals (OR, 95% CI) as effect estimates using the "netmeta" package in R. The quality of evidence was assessed using the CINeMA approach. RESULTS Six RCTs involving 353 patients (mean age 48.12 y) were included. NMA revealed that aluminum chloride achieved higher hemostatic efficacy than epinephrine (OR = 2.55, 95% CI [1.41, 4.64]), while there was non-significant difference when compared with PTFE strips + epinephrine (OR = 1.00, 95% CI [0.35, 2.90]), electrocauterization (OR = 2.67, 95% CI [0.84, 8.46]), or ferric sulfate (OR = 8.65, 95% CI [0.31, 240.92]). Of all hemostatic agents, aluminum chloride ranked first in control bleeding during endodontic surgery (P-score = 0.84), followed by PTFE strips + epinephrine (P-score = 0.80), electrocauterization (P-score = 0.34), epinephrine (P-score = 0.34), ferric sulfate (P-score = 0.18). The quality of evidence was very low. CONCLUSIONS Based on the limited data, aluminum chloride provides better hemostasis than epinephrine, while there was no significant difference between the remaining hemostatic agents used in endodontic surgery, which could help clinicians choose the hemostatic agent that achieves adequate hemostasis. achieve adequate hemostasis. Given insufficient evidence, future RCTs addressing this evidence gap are required.
Tranexamic acid and bleeding in patients treated with non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants undergoing dental extraction: The EXTRACT-NOAC randomized clinical trial
PLoS medicine. 2021;18(5):e1003601
BACKGROUND Oral bleeding after dental extraction in patients on non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants (NOACs) is a frequent problem. We investigated whether 10% tranexamic acid (TXA) mouthwash decreases post-extraction bleeding in patients treated with NOACs. METHODS AND FINDINGS The EXTRACT-NOAC study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter, clinical trial. Patients were randomly assigned to 10% TXA or placebo mouthwash and were instructed to use the mouthwash prior to dental extraction, for 3 times a day for 3 days thereafter. The primary outcome was the number of patients with any post-extraction oral bleeding up to day 7. Secondary outcomes included the periprocedural, early, and delayed bleeding, and the safety outcomes included all thrombotic events. The first patient was randomized on February 9, 2018 and the last patient on March 12, 2020. Of 222 randomized patients, 218 patients were included in the full analysis set, of which 106 patients were assigned to TXA (74.8 (±8.8) years; 81 men) and 112 to placebo (72.7 (±10.7) years; 64 men). Post-extraction bleeding occurred in 28 (26.4%) patients in the TXA group and in 32 (28.6%) patients in the placebo group (relative risk, 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.60 to 1.42; P = 0.72). There were 46 bleeds in the TXA group and 85 bleeds in the placebo group (rate ratio, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.31 to 1.05; P = 0.07). TXA did not reduce the rate of periprocedural bleeding (bleeding score 4 ± 1.78 versus 4 ± 1.82, P = 0.80) and early bleeding (rate ratio, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.42 to 1.37). Delayed bleeding (rate ratio, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.12 to 0.89) and bleeding after multiple extractions (rate ratio, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.20 to 0.78) were lower in the TXA group. One patient in the placebo group had a transient ischemic attack while interrupting the NOAC therapy in preparation for the dental extraction. Two of the study limitations were the premature interruption of the trial following a futility analysis and the assessment of the patients' compliance that was based on self-reported information during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS In patients on NOACs undergoing dental extraction, TXA does not seem to reduce the rate of periprocedural or early postoperative oral bleeding compared to placebo. TXA appears to reduce delayed bleeds and postoperative oral bleeding if multiple teeth are extracted. TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03413891 EudraCT; EudraCT number:2017-001426-17; EudraCT Public website: eudract.ema.europa.eu.
The effect of tranexamic acid on blood loss in orthognathic surgery: a randomized, placebo-controlled, equivalence study
International journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery. 2021
Orthognathic surgery can cause substantial bleeding. Recent meta-analyses concluded that there is a statistically significant reduction in perioperative blood loss with the preventive use of tranexamic acid (TA). However, the mean reported difference in bleeding was moderate, and the clinical relevance of this blood-sparing effect remains debated. We therefore conducted a prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled equivalence study of the effect of TA in patients undergoing Lefort I or bimaxillary osteotomies. Our main outcome measure was total blood loss on postoperative day 1. The equivalence margin was ± 250 ml for the difference in blood loss and its 95% confidence interval. One hundred and forty-seven patients were randomized, of which 122 underwent bimaxillary osteotomies. Blood loss in the treatment group was 682 ± 323 vs. 875 ± 492 ml. The mean difference in bleeding was -132 [-243; -21] ml as per-protocol, but -193 [-329; -57] ml in intention-to-treat: the limits of this confidence interval exceeded the margin of equivalence. Similar results were obtained when analysing only patients undergoing bimaxillary osteotomy. Haemoglobin decreased by 1.8 ± 1.2 g/dl with TA, vs. 2.6 ± 1.1 g/dl with placebo (p<0.001). Our study did not demonstrate equivalence between TA and placebo on perioperative blood loss in orthognathic surgery. TA may reduce blood loss but without evidence of clinical consequences.
Clinical and radiographic evaluation of demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft with concentrated growth factor versus concentrated growth factor alone in the treatment of intrabony defects
Medicine and pharmacy reports. 2021;94(2):220-228
BACKGROUND Periodontal disease is one of the major causes of alveolar bone loss. There are various ways of regenerating the lost bone, i.e. guided tissue regeneration, bone grafts, and growth factors. In this purview, it becomes immensely important for a clinician to decide the best modality of treatment. In this study, we compared the effect of demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft (DFDBA) in combination with concentrated growth factors (CGF) verses CGF alone. METHODS This double-blind, split-mouth study was conducted on ten patients with two comparable bilateral intrabony defects. Each pair of defects was randomly treated by DFDBA + CGF or CGF alone. Clinical parameters such as plaque index (PI), modified gingival index (MGI), pocket probing depth (PPD), and relative attachment level (RAL) were recorded at baseline, three months, and six months. In addition, radiograph with grids was also taken at baseline and six months. The paired t-test was used to compare the pre- and post-treatment values and the unpaired t-test was used to compare the test and control group. RESULTS The PI score decreased significantly from baseline to six months. Similarly, the mean MGI score decreased significantly from baseline to six months. The intragroup comparison showed that there was a significant reduction in PPD in both the test and control group. However, the intergroup comparison showed that the reduced pocket depth was not significant. The intragroup radiographic comparison showed that there was the significant formation of bone in both the test and control group but inter-group showed that the formation of bone among both the group were non-significant. CONCLUSION Radiographic and clinical outcomes of this study concluded that post six months, both groups demonstrated significant improvement in clinical and radiographic parameters. However, the addition of DFDBA to CGFs did not give any additional benefits.
Complications and Management of Patients with Inherited Bleeding Disorders During Dental Extractions: a Systematic Literature Review
Journal of oral & maxillofacial research. 2021;12(2):e1
OBJECTIVES The systematic literature review aims to assess patients' dental extraction with inherited bleeding disorders, to understand the type, dosage, and modality of administration of the haemostatic agents for safe intra- and postoperational results. MATERIAL AND METHODS The search was undertaken in MEDLINE (PubMed) databases and Cochrane library for articles published in English from 1 January, 2010 till 31 October, 2020. Before the full-text articles were considered, titles and abstracts were screened. RESULTS A total of 78 articles were screened, from which 3 met the necessary criteria and were used for the review. Minor complications, such as postoperative bleedings from the socket and epistaxis, were observed, but they were resolved with proper medical care. No major fatal complications were reported. Generally, all the articles provided evidence of successful extractions with correct treatment plans made by haematologists and surgeons. CONCLUSIONS Available clinical trials demonstrate that local and systemic haemostatic therapies in combination are effective in preventing bleeding during dental extractions in patients with coagulopathies.
Effect of hydroxyethyl cellulose soluble hemostatic gauze on hemostasis in facial contouring surgery
BACKGROUND In facial contour surgery, due to the narrow field of vision in the oral approach and the abundant blood supply to the maxillofacial area, hemostasis is not easy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hemostatic effect of soluble hemostatic gauze. METHODS We organized a prospective randomized study of 282 patients receiving facial contouring surgery (4 types of procedures in total) during 2016.1.1 to 2018.12.30. For each type of procedure, patients were randomly divided into study group (received hemostatic gauze) and control group (received sterile gauze). Two groups were compared for each type of procedure regarding 5 major perioperative variables: intraoperative blood loss, operation time, 24-hour postoperative drainage volume, total postoperative drainage volume, and postoperative drainage time. Correlation between variables was analyzed. RESULTS Compared with control group, the study group had higher amount of intraoperative blood loss in mandibular angle ostectomy (MAO) (P < .01) and mandibular angle-body-chin curved ostectomy procedures (P < .05), less total postoperative drainage volume in MAO (P < .01) but not in malarplasty with MAO and partial masseter muscle resection along with MAO procedures. No significant difference was observed between respective study and control groups regarding operation time, 24-hour postoperative drainage volume, and postoperative drainage time in any of the 4 types of surgery. In all 4 types of procedures, a strongly positive correlation was observed between total drainage volume and 24-hour drainage volume in both the study and control groups (r: 0.88-0.97, P < .01). CONCLUSION The effect of hydroxyethyl cellulose soluble hemostatic gauze on hemostasis in facial contouring surgery is associated with the type of surgery, which can reduce the risk of postoperative bleeding in MAO. However, for surgery with relatively large amount of intraoperative and postoperative bleeding, the hemostatic gauze had a limited postoperative hemostasis efficacy, which needs further evaluation.
Intraoperative Blood Loss and Postoperative Pain in the Sagittal Split Ramus Osteotomy and Intraoral Vertical Ramus Osteotomy: A Literature Review
BioMed research international. 2021;2021:4439867
PURPOSE The purpose of the present study was to review the literature regarding the blood loss and postoperative pain in the isolated sagittal split ramus osteotomy (SSRO) and intraoral vertical ramus osteotomy (IVRO). MATERIALS AND METHODS Investigating the intraoperative blood loss and postoperative pain, articles were selected from 1970 to 2021 in the English published databases (PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library). Article retrieval and selection were performed by two authors, and they independently evaluated them based on the eligibility criteria. The articles meeting the search criteria had especially at least 30 patients. RESULTS In the review of intraoperative blood loss, a total of 139 articles were retrieved and restricted to 6 articles (SSRO: 4; IVRO 2). In the review of postoperative pain, a total of 174 articles were retrieved and restricted to 4 articles (SSRO: 3; IVRO 1). The mean blood loss of SSRO and IVRO was ranged from 55 to 167 mL and 82 to 104 mL, respectively. The mean visual analog scale (VAS) scores of the first postoperative day were 2 to 5.3 in SSRO and 2.93 to 3.13 in IVRO. The mean VAS scores of the second postoperative day were 1 to 3 in SSRO and 1.1 to 1.8 in IVRO. CONCLUSION Compared to traditional SSRO, IVRO had a significantly lower amount of blood loss. However, the blood transfusion is not necessary in a single-jaw operation (SSRO or IVRO). Postoperative pain was similar between SSRO and IVRO.