Short-course vasoconstrictors are adequate for esophageal variceal bleeding after endoscopic variceal ligation: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Science progress. 2021;104(3):368504211031711
Endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL) with vasoconstrictors has been recommended for acute esophageal variceal bleeding. However, the optimal duration of vasoconstrictors after EVL is controversial. This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to explore the efficacy of short-course vasoconstrictors (≤3 days) versus standard combination (3-5 days). A comprehensive literature review was conducted using the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane library databases with subsequent meta-analysis. The primary outcomes were 5-day rebleeding, mortality, and treatment failure rates. A risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence interval is used for outcome comparison. Nine randomized studies with 838 patients were included. The initial hemostasis (96.8% vs 97.4%, p = 0.919), 5-day rebleeding (11.2% vs 8.3%, RR = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.62-1.76), mortality (0 vs 1.3%, RR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.10-2.39), and treatment failure (7.4% vs 5.9%, RR = 1.10, 95% CI = 0.48-2.49) were similar in both groups. Subgroup analysis suggested EVL alone had no significant difference of 5-day re-bleeding (15.9% vs 7.1%, RR = 2.25, 95% CI = 0.87-5.77), mortality (0 vs 0.7%, RR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.08-6.03), treatment failure (9.6% vs 6.7%, RR = 1.43, 95% CI = 0.54-3.75) compared to standard combination. Clinical heterogeneity was found for the rebleeding rate for the subgroup during sensitivity analysis. EVL with short-course vasoconstrictors is highly efficacious for esophageal variceal bleeding. Further studies are required to determine the genuine need of subsequent vasoconstrictor after successful EVL.
Efficacy and Safety of Bioabsorbable Bone Hemostatic Agent in Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial
Clinical and applied thrombosis/hemostasis : official journal of the International Academy of Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/Hemostasis. 2021;27:10760296211023589
Although a bioabsorbable bone hemostatic agent (BBHA) was developed approximately 20 years ago to overcome the shortcomings of conventional bone wax, its bleeding control capacity has not yet been studied. This study was aimed at investigating the efficacy and safety of BBHA in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Sixty-two patients who underwent unilateral primary TKA for knee osteoarthritis were included and randomized to the control or BBHA group. Before releasing the tourniquet, BBHA was applied on the bone-cut surface that was not covered by implants. The primary variable was the drainage volume during the postoperative period. The secondary outcomes were total estimated blood loss (EBL), hemoglobin level, hematocrit level, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP) level, range of motion (ROM), pain visual analog scale (VAS) score, and rate of complications. There were no significant differences in drainage volume or EBL between the 2 groups. Hemoglobin and hematocrit levels were higher in the BBHA group during the 4-week postoperative period; however, the intergroup differences were not significant. The ESR, CRP, ROM, and pain VAS scores in the BBHA group were not significantly different from the corresponding values in the control group. No specific complications were observed. Although BBHA was found to be safe without complications, it did not decrease bleeding after TKA in general cases. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the efficacy of BBHA in patients with coagulation problems.
Safety and efficacy of thalidomide in patients with transfusion-dependent β-thalassemia: a randomized clinical trial
Signal transduction and targeted therapy. 2021;6(1):405
Thalidomide induces γ-globin expression in erythroid progenitor cells, but its efficacy on patients with transfusion-dependent β-thalassemia (TDT) remains unclear. In this phase 2, multi-center, randomized, double-blind clinical trial, we aimed to determine the safety and efficacy of thalidomide in TDT patients. A hundred patients of 14 years or older were randomly assigned to receive placebo or thalidomide for 12 weeks, followed by an extension phase of at least 36 weeks. The primary endpoint was the change of hemoglobin (Hb) level in the patients. The secondary endpoints included the red blood cell (RBC) units transfused and adverse effects. In the placebo-controlled period, Hb concentrations in patients treated with thalidomide achieved a median elevation of 14.0 (range, 2.5 to 37.5) g/L, whereas Hb in patients treated with placebo did not significantly change. Within the 12 weeks, the mean RBC transfusion volume for patients treated with thalidomide and placebo was 5.4 ± 5.0 U and 10.3 ± 6.4 U, respectively (P < 0.001). Adverse events of drowsiness, dizziness, fatigue, pyrexia, sore throat, and rash were more common with thalidomide than placebo. In the extension phase, treatment with thalidomide for 24 weeks resulted in a sustainable increase in Hb concentrations which reached 104.9 ± 19.0 g/L, without blood transfusion. Significant increase in Hb concentration and reduction in RBC transfusions were associated with non β0/β0 and HBS1L-MYB (rs9399137 C/T, C/C; rs4895441 A/G, G/G) genotypes. These results demonstrated that thalidomide is effective in patients with TDT.
Colloid preloading versus crystalloid preloading to prevent hypotension after spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery: A protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis
BACKGROUND Maternal hypotension is the most frequent complication of spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery, and intravenous fluid preloading is a preventive measure. We aimed to assess the efficacy of colloids versus crystalloids for preloading to reduce the incidence of spinal anesthesia-induced hypotension and vasopressor requirement in healthy parturients during elective cesarean delivery. METHODS We searched the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE and EMBASE to identify all studies published to June, 2019, through OVID and PubMed. We included randomized controlled trials, comparing colloid preloading with crystalloid preloading in women having spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery. Primary outcomes were the incidence of hypotension and vasopressor requirement. Secondary outcomes included nausea and/or vomiting, neonatal Apgar score, neonatal umbilical blood pH. We used standardized mean differences for expressing continuous outcomes and risk ratios for dichotomous outcomes. Random-effect model was performed to estimate the pooled risk ratios and standardized mean differences. RESULTS Thirty-three randomized controlled trials contributed data for this meta-analysis. Fewer women experienced hypotension in the colloid group compared with the crystalloid group (risk ratio: 0.72, 95% confidence interval: 0.63-0.82; 2566 women, 32 studies; P < .00001). The total ephedrine dose required was significantly lower with colloid preloading (standardized mean difference: -0.37, 95% CI: -0.64 to -0.09; 1472 women, 19 studies; P = .009). Colloid preloading was also associated with fewer phenylephrine requirement compared with crystalloid preloading (standardized mean difference: -0.54, 95% CI: -0.82 to -0.25; 169 women; P = .0002). The incidence of nausea and/or vomiting was significantly reduced with colloid preloading (risk ratio: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.55-0.95; 1601 women, 20 studies; P = .02). However, the incidence of 1-minute Apgar score < 7, umbilical artery pH < 7.2 and umbilical vein pH < 7.2 were not statistically different between groups. CONCLUSIONS Colloid preloading is superior to crystalloid preloading in reducing the incidence of hypotension induced by spinal anesthesia and vasopressor requirement in the healthy parturients undergoing elective cesarean delivery.The PROSPERO registration number: CRD42018096402.
Effect of different operation time on surgical effect and quality of life in patients with severe hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage
American journal of translational research. 2021;13(8):9538-9545
OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of different operation time on the surgery effect and quality of life of patients with severe hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage. METHODS A total of 98 patients with severe hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage were selected in this prospective study. According to the random number table, 98 patients were divided into group A and group B. About 47 patients in group A received surgical treatment within 6 hours after onset of a cerebral hemorrhage and 51 patients in group B received surgical treatment within 6-24 hours after onset of a cerebral hemorrhage. The effect of the operation, quality of life (the World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale Brief Version, WHOQOL-BREF) score, neuro function (National Institute of Health stroke scale, NIHSS), the ability of daily living (Barthel index), athletic ability (Fugl-Meyer motor function score), complications and prognosis (GOS) were compared between the two groups. RESULTS The total effective rate of operation in group A (91.49%) was higher than that in group B (76.47%), and the incidence of complications (8.70%) was lower than that in group B (27.08%; all P<0.05). NIHSS score of group A was lower than that of group B, and the WHOQOL-BREF score was higher than that of group B three months after the operation (all P<0.05). Barthel Index and Fugl-Meyer motor function scores of group A were higher than those of group B three months after the operation (all P<0.05). The prognosis of group A was better than group B three months after the operation (P<0.05). CONCLUSION Operation performed within 6 hours after the onset of cerebral hemorrhage is useful in the treatment of severe hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage. It can effectively improve patients' neurological function, the ability of daily living and motor function without increasing complications and, the quality of life, as well as the prognosis of patients.
Incidence of venous thromboembolism and hemorrhage in Chinese patients after pulmonary lobectomy: mechanical prophylaxis or mechanical prophylaxis combined with pharmacological prophylaxis: a randomized controlled trial
Annals of translational medicine. 2021;9(18):1478
BACKGROUND Venous thromboembolism (VTE) and postoperative bleeding are important complications of lung resection surgery. We investigated the preventive effect of mechanical prophylaxis versus pharmacological prophylaxis after lobectomy, and evaluated the effect of both on the incidence of hemorrhagic events. METHODS A prospective study of 424 lobectomies with moderate to high risk of VTE (Caprini risk score <5) in a single center was performed from April 2020 to March 2021. Patients were 1:1 randomly allocated to mechanical prophylaxis or to the low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH)-combination-prophylaxis. The incidence of postoperative thrombotic and bleeding events and relevant factors of the two groups were analyzed. RESULTS A total of 410 participants, with 202 and 208 in the mechanical prophylaxis and LMWH-combination-prophylaxis groups respectively, were selected for analysis. Both groups had similar baseline and clinical characteristics. There were no cases of VTE or major bleeding during the study, but the incidence rate of minor bleeding in the LMWH-combination-prophylaxis group was significantly higher than mechanical prophylaxis group [odds ratio (OR) 0.035, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.011-0.113]. CONCLUSIONS A case-by-case risk assessment of VTE and hemorrhage remains necessary to determine the most appropriate method of thrombosis prophylaxis for patients undergoing pulmonary surgery. Mechanical prophylaxis may be preferable for lung cancer patients with moderate to high risk of VTE (Caprini risk score <5) undergoing lobectomy. TRIAL REGISTRATION Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR2100051073.
[Randomized controlled multicenter study of albumin replacement therapy in septic shock (ARISS)]
Der Anaesthesist. 2021
A preliminary study of influences of hydroxyethyl starch combined with ulinastatin on degree of edema in newborns with capillary leak syndrome
American journal of translational research. 2021;13(4):2626-2634
OBJECTIVE To analyze the efficacy of hydroxyethyl starch (HES) combined with Ulinastatin (Uti) in the treatment of newborns with capillary leak syndrome (CLS). METHODS A total of 60 newborns with CLS admitted to four hospitals were selected as the study subjects, and were randomly divided into the control group (n = 30) and the observation group (n = 30) in accordance with the random number table. The control group was treated with HES alone, while the observation group was treated with Uti combined with HES. RESULTS At 5 d after treatment, the incidence rates of systemic edema and pulmonary edema, the levels of CRP, NE, and BUN, and the duration for the improvement of systemic edema, pulmonary edema and NICU hospital stay in the control group were superior to those in the observation group, while the 24-h urine output, PaO(2) and MAP levels, the levels of A, SCr, ALT, and IL-10 in the observation group were superior to those in the control group (P < 0.05). After 3 months of follow-up after treatment, the mortality rate of newborns in the observation group (13.33%) was lower than that in the control group (36.67%) (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION HES combined with Uti can effectively alleviate edema, control inflammatory levels, and improve hepatic and renal functions and neonatal survival rate of newborns with CLS.
Effect of carbazochrome sodium sulfonate combined with tranexamic acid on blood loss and inflammatory response in patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty
Bone & joint research. 2021;10(6):354-362
AIMS: The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy and safety of carbazochrome sodium sulfonate (CSS) combined with tranexamic acid (TXA) on blood loss and inflammatory responses after primary total hip arthroplasty (THA), and to investigate the influence of different administration methods of CSS on perioperative blood loss during THA. METHODS This study is a randomized controlled trial involving 200 patients undergoing primary unilateral THA. A total of 200 patients treated with intravenous TXA were randomly assigned to group A (combined intravenous and topical CSS), group B (topical CSS), group C (intravenous CSS), or group D (placebo). RESULTS Mean total blood loss (TBL) in groups A (605.0 ml (SD 235.9)), B (790.9 ml (SD 280.7)), and C (844.8 ml (SD 248.1)) were lower than in group D (1,064.9 ml (SD 318.3), p < 0.001). We also found that compared with group D, biomarker level of inflammation, transfusion rate, pain score, and hip range of motion at discharge in groups A, B, and C were significantly improved. There were no differences among the four groups in terms of intraoperative blood loss (IBL), intramuscular venous thrombosis (IMVT), and length of hospital stay (LOS). CONCLUSION The combined application of CSS and TXA is more effective than TXA alone in reducing perioperative blood loss and transfusion rates, inflammatory response, and postoperative hip pain, results in better early hip flexion following THA, and did not increase the associated venous thromboembolism (VTE) events. Intravenous combined with topical injection of CSS was superior to intravenous or topical injection of CSS alone in reducing perioperative blood loss. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2021;10(6):354-362.
The effect of pantoprazole and somatostatin combined with thrombin in the treatment of non-esophagogastric varicosity upper gastrointestinal bleeding
American journal of translational research. 2021;13(5):5484-5490
OBJECTIVE To explore the effect of pantoprazole and somatostatin combined with thrombin in the treatment of non-esophagogastric varicosity upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGB) as well as its influence on serum hs-CRP and coagulation function. METHODS From June 2016 to May 2018, patients with upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage due to non-esophagogastric varices in our hospital were selected as research subjects. After screening, they were randomly divided into the combined group (57 cases) and the control group (57 cases). After the two groups are treated, the therapeutic effect was observed. The two groups of patients were followed up for 6 consecutive months, and the data were statistically analyzed. RESULTS It was found that there wass no significant difference between the two groups in gender, age, amount of bleeding, and etiology (P > 0.05). It was found that the immediate hemostasis rate and the hemostasis rate within 24 hours in the combined group were distinctly higher compared to the control group. The difference has statistical significance (P < 0.05). The total effective rate of the combined group was distinctly higher compared to the control group (P < 0.05). By comparing the expression levels of hs-CRP and IL-6 protein in the serum of the two groups before and after treatment, it was found that there was no significant difference in the expression levels of hs-CRP and IL-6 protein before treatment. However, after treatment, it was found that the levels of hs-CRP and IL-6 protein in the combined group were distinctly lower compared to the control group (P < 0.05). By analyzing adverse reactions, it was found that the combined group had distinctly lower adverse reactions compared to the control group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION This work provides an experimental basis for the diagnosis and treatment of non-esophagogastric varicose UGB in the clinic.