Efficacy of platelet poor plasma gel in combination with fractional CO(2) laser in striae distensae: a clinical, histological and immunohistochemical study
Journal of cosmetic dermatology. 2021
BACKGROUND Platelet-poor plasma gel is a semi-solid plasma formulation that recently recommended as autologous bio-filler for treatment of atrophic dermal scars. OBJECTIVE To compare the therapeutic efficacy and safety of intradermal injection of plasma gel in combination with fractional CO(2) laser versus fractional CO(2) laser alone in striae distensae (SD). PATIENTS AND METHODS This study included 36 SD patients treated by 3 sessions (one session/1.5 months) of fractional CO(2) laser on all SD lesions following intradermal injection of plasma gel on one side, and saline (as placebo) on the other side. RESULTS Significant clinical improvements associated with remarkable narrowing of SD lesions and prominent enhancement of skin texture were observed on both treatment sides. Obviously, higher degrees of clinical improvements of SD lesions were reported following combined therapy with fractional CO(2) laser and plasma gel rather than fractional CO(2) laser monotherapy. However, post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) was reported more frequently with fractional CO(2) laser monotherapy. Histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations revealed significant epidermal improvement, and homogenization, and orientation of dermal collagen bundles as a result of both therapeutic procedures. CONCLUSION Plasma gel in combination with fractional CO(2) laser could be considered a promising novel treatment modality for SD. Plasma gel not only improves the efficacy of fractional CO(2) laser, but also decreases the frequency of PIH.
The wound healing effect of local leukocyte platelet-rich plasma after total hip arthroplasty: A randomized controlled trial
Wound repair and regeneration : official publication of the Wound Healing Society [and] the European Tissue Repair Society. 2021
Rapid wound closure is important after arthroplasty procedures to prevent postoperative complications. Platelets are rich in growth factors and leukocytes contribute to innate immunity. We hypothesized that topical leukocyte platelet-rich plasma (L-PRP) derived from the blood of patients would be beneficial to wound healing. In this randomized controlled trial, patients subjected to elective total hip arthroplasty (THA) were assigned by concealed allocation either L-PRP application onto the sutured fascia or no application (control) after the THA intervention. In addition, all patients received 1.5 g protein/kg, 5 g L-arginine, 500 mg vitamin C and 44 mg zinc daily over the 4-week postoperative period to obtain optimal nutrition. The primary endpoint was complete healing of the skin incision. The secondary endpoints were blood transfusions, length of hospital stay, pain and wound infections. Sixteen patients in the L-PRP group and 17 patients in the control group completed the trial. L-PRP treatment accelerated complete wound healing after 3 weeks (seven in the L-PRP group vs. zero in the control group, p = 0.003) and after 4 weeks (12 in the L-PRP group vs. six in the control group, p = 0.037). No postoperative superficial wound infections occurred within 4 weeks, and there were no significant differences in the other secondary outcomes. L-PRP generated in 10 sex-matched healthy volunteers revealed increased concentrations of platelets (5.8-fold) and leukocytes (2.3-fold) compared with those in whole blood. Furthermore, the concentration of keratinocyte mitogen epidermal growth factor in L-PRP (380 ± 130 pg/ml, mean ± SD) was higher (p < 0.001) than that in serum (130 ± 26 pg/ml). In conclusion, a single intraoperative local application of L-PRP promoted wound healing after THA, possibly mediated by EGF receptor agonists.
Determination of the Concentration of IgG against the Spike Receptor-Binding Domain That Predicts the Viral Neutralizing Activity of Convalescent Plasma and Serum against SARS-CoV-2
Several hundred millions of people have been diagnosed of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), causing millions of deaths and a high socioeconomic burden SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, induces both specific T- and B-cell responses, being antibodies against the virus detected a few days after infection Passive immunization with hyperimmune plasma from convalescent patients has been proposed as a potentially useful treatment for COVID-19 Using an in-house quantitative ELISA test, we found that plasma from 177 convalescent donors contained IgG antibodies specific to the spike receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2, although at very different concentrations which correlated with previous disease severity and gender Anti-RBD IgG plasma concentrations significantly correlated with the plasma viral neutralizing activity (VN) against SARS-CoV-2 in vitro Similar results were found using an independent cohort of serum from 168 convalescent health workers These results validate an in-house RBD IgG ELISA test in a large cohort of COVID-19 convalescent patients and indicate that plasma from all convalescent donors does not contain a high enough amount of anti-SARS-CoV-2-RBD neutralizing IgG to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro The use of quantitative anti-RBD IgG detection systems might help to predict the efficacy of the passive immunization using plasma from patients recovered from SARS-CoV-2
Micro-Thrombosis, Perfusion Defects, and Worsening Oxygenation in COVID-19 Patients: A Word of Caution on the Use of Convalescent Plasma
Mayo Clinic proceedings. 2021;96(1):259
Patient-centered comparative outcome analysis of platelet-rich fibrin-reinforced vestibular incision subperiosteal tunnel access technique and Zucchelli's technique
Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology. 2021;25(4):320-329
BACKGROUND Multiple gingival recession (MGR) coverage, especially in esthetic area, demands a high patient satisfaction. Coronally advanced flap modifications, namely Zucchelli's technique (ZT) and vestibular incision subperiosteal tunnel access (VISTA), are techniques, recommended in the correction of MGR. AIM: The purpose was to comparatively analyze the ZT and VISTA technique reinforced with the platelet-rich fibrin membrane in the management of MGR. MATERIALS AND METHODS This split-mouth, randomized study comprised 16 consenting, systemically healthy participants. The bilateral Miller's multiple class I and II lesions were managed with ZT and VISTA technique and had a follow-up period of 18 months. Gingival thickness (GT), mean percentage of root coverage, and patient-centered outcome scales, including patient comfort score, patient esthetic score, and hypersensitivity score, were the primary outcome measures. Further clinical parameters assessed were gingival index, probing depth, clinical attachment level, and width of keratinized gingiva. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS AND RESULTS Paired t-test and unpaired t-test were used for intragroup comparison and intergroup analysis, respectively. While both the techniques exhibited high root coverage percentage (VISTA 93.95% and ZT: 96.84%), statistically significant difference was noted with patient esthetic score and surgical mortality score in VISTA. CONCLUSION Both ZT and VISTA were effective in terms of root coverage and GT augmentation in MGR management. From the patient's perspective, they preferred VISTA technique over ZT, stating its minimal postoperative morbidity and improved esthetic outcome. Hence, within the limitations of this study, the VISTA technique was found to be a superior alternative compared to that of ZT in MGR management.
Randomized clinical trial to evaluate safety and efficacy of convalescent plasma use among hospitalized patients with COVID-19 (PERUCONPLASMA): a structured summary of a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial
OBJECTIVES The general objective of this study is to test the hypothesis that administration of convalescent plasma from donors with previous diagnosis of severe COVID-19 pneumonia is safe and associated with a decrease in all-cause in-hospital mortality among hospitalized patients with COVID-19 at 30 days in comparison with standard treatment alone. The secondary objectives are as follows: (1) to assess the efficacy of convalescent plasma to reduce the length of hospitalization, (2) to assess the efficacy of convalescent plasma to reduce the length of ICU stay, and (3) to assess the efficacy of convalescent plasma on reducing the requirement of invasive mechanical ventilation or ICU stay. TRIAL DESIGN PERUCONPLASMA is a IIb phase open label, randomized, superiority clinical trial with 1:1 allocation taking place in real life routine clinical practice at public hospitals in Lima, Peru. Participants will be randomized to receive convalescent plasma along with local standard treatment or local standard treatment alone. After allocation, all participants will be followed for a total of 30 days or until hospital discharge, whichever occurs first. PARTICIPANTS The population for the study are patients with severe disease with a confirmed laboratory test for SARS-CoV-2 infection hospitalized in 3 tertiary-care hospitals in Lima, Peru. Subjects are eligible for the trial if they meet all of the following inclusion criteria: 1. Age 18 or older 2. Hospitalization due to COVID-19 with laboratory confirmation (either with serologic, molecular, or antigen test along with a compatible clinical presentation) 3. Severe or critical COVID-19 disease Severe illness was defined by 2 or more of the following: Respiratory rate of 22 or more Hypoxemia with oxygen saturation equal or less than 93% Abnormal blood gas analysis (PaO(2) < 60 mmHg, PaCO(2) > 50 mmHg, or Pa/FiO(2) < 300) Critical disease was defined by either: Mechanical ventilation requirement less than 72 h. Shock. 4. Capacity to provide informed consent (patient or patient's direct relative) 5. Availability of convalescent plasma units compatible with ABO blood type of the subject. EXCLUSION CRITERIA Subjects are not eligible for the trial if they meet any of the following criteria: 1. Contraindication for transfusion (e.g., prior anaphylaxis, congestive heart failure) 2. Hemodynamic instability (PA < 60 mmHg refractory to vasopressors) 3. Uncontrolled concomitant infections\ 4. Stupor or coma 5. Platelets < 50,000/μL or disseminated intravascular coagulation 6. Serum creatinine > 3.5 mg/dL or dialysis requirement 7. Total bilirubin > 6 mg/dL or jaundice of unknown etiology 8. Myocardial infarction or acute coronary syndrome 9. Active or recent (< 7 days) intracranial hemorrhage 10. Pregnancy Donors: The donors have to meet the following criteria: male between 30 and 60 years with a previous diagnosis of severe COVID-19-associated pneumonia within the last 3 months, with resolution of symptoms of at least 28 days. The rationale for including donors with severe disease is to maximize the probability of collecting convalescent plasma units with high titer of neutralizing antibodies, as the technology to measure this specific type of antibodies is not routinely available in Peru. Aliquots of plasma will be stored for future quantification of neutralizing antibodies. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR Convalescent plasma from donors with previous severe COVID-19 is the investigational medical product. The experimental group will receive 1 to 2 units of 200 to 250 ml of convalescent plasma along with local standard treatment. The control group will receive local standard treatment alone. The participants randomized to plasma will have evaluations at 6 h and 24 h to specifically evaluate possible post transfusion events. All the participants will be evaluated at day 3, day 7, and day 30 after enrolment. MAIN OUTCOMES Safety outcome: Incidence of serious adverse reactions related to convalescent plasma transfusion within 24 h after convalescent plasma administration. Efficacy outcomes: Mortality from any cause during hospitalization at 30 days post randomization. Length of hospitalization at 30 days post randomization or until hospital discharge. Duration of mechanical ventilation at 30 days post randomization or until hospital discharge. Length of hospitalization in an intensive care unit at 30 days post randomization or until hospital discharge. Exploratory: Oxygen requirement evolution at days 3 and 7. Score Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) evolution at days 3 and 7. Dynamics of inflammatory marker (lymphocyte, C-reactive protein (CRP), D-dimer, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)) evolution at days 3 and 7. Proportion of patients progressing to multi-organ failure at 30 days post randomization or until hospital discharge. Proportion of transfusion related adverse reactions at 30 days post randomization or until hospital discharge. RANDOMIZATION Randomization will be carried out within the electronic case report form (eCRF) in 1:1 ratio (receive plasma/control) in a randomization process established by blocks of size 2, 4, and 6. Allocation to the treatment arm of an individual patient will not be available to the investigators before completion of the whole randomization process. Randomization blocks will be performed with "ralloc", Stata's randomization process v.16.0. Randomization through the eCRF will be available 24 h every day. BLINDING (MASKING): Both the participants and study staff will be aware of the allocated intervention. Blinded statistical analysis will be performed. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMIZED (SAMPLE SIZE): The sample size was calculated using the Fleiss formula with continuity correction to detect a mortality reduction from 50 to 20% between the two treatment arms with a confidence level of 95% and a power of 80%. Based on this information, a total of 45 patients per arm would be needed. After adjustment for a drop-out rate of 10% after enrolment, a total of 50 patients per arm (100 patients in total) will be enrolled. TRIAL STATUS Current protocol version: 5.0 dated January 04, 2021. Recruitment started on September 21, 2020, and is expected to finish by the end of March 2021. TRIAL REGISTRATION Peruvian Register of Clinical Trials (REPEC) ID: PER-016-20, registered on June 27, 2020. Clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT04497324 , registered on August 4, 2020. FULL PROTOCOL The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.
Dynamics of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 in convalescent plasma donors
Clinical & Translational Immunology. 2021;10(5):e1285
OBJECTIVES Characterisation of the human antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 infection is vital for serosurveillance purposes and for treatment options such as transfusion with convalescent plasma or immunoglobulin products derived from convalescent plasma. In this study, we longitudinally and quantitatively analysed antibody responses in RT-PCR-positive SARS-CoV-2 convalescent adults during the first 250 days after onset of symptoms. METHODS We measured antibody responses to the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and the nucleocapsid protein in 844 longitudinal samples from 151 RT-PCR-positive SARS-CoV-2 convalescent adults. With a median of 5 (range 2-18) samples per individual, this allowed quantitative analysis of individual longitudinal antibody profiles. Kinetic profiles were analysed by mixed-effects modelling. RESULTS All donors were seropositive at the first sampling moment, and only one donor seroreverted during follow-up analysis. Anti-RBD IgG and anti-nucleocapsid IgG levels declined with median half-lives of 62 and 59 days, respectively, 2-5 months after symptom onset, and several-fold variation in half-lives of individuals was observed. The rate of decline of antibody levels diminished during extended follow-up, which points towards long-term immunological memory. The magnitude of the anti-RBD IgG response correlated well with neutralisation capacity measured in a classic plaque reduction assay and in an in-house developed competitive assay. CONCLUSION The result of this study gives valuable insight into the long-term longitudinal response of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2.
One-year efficacy of platelet-rich plasma for moderate-to-severe carpal tunnel syndrome: A prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled trial
Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation. 2021
OBJECTIVE To assess the therapeutic effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) for moderate-to-severe carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). DESIGN A prospective, randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial (1-year follow-up). SETTING Outpatient of local medical center settings. PARTICIPANTS Twenty-six patients who were diagnosed with bilateral moderate-to-severe CTS (total 52 wrists) were included. For each patient, one wrist was randomized into either the PRP or control group and the contralateral wrist of the same patient was allocated to another group. Twenty-four patients were included in the final data analysis. INTERVENTIONS The wrists in the PRP group received a single ultrasound-guided dose of PRP injection (3.5 mL), and the control group received a single ultrasound-guided injection with normal saline (3.5 mL). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The Boston Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Questionnaire (BCTQ) scores were used as the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes encompassed the cross-sectional area of the median nerve and electrophysiological study. Assessments were conducted prior to injection and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months post-injection. RESULTS Compared to the control group, the PRP group exhibited significant improvements in BCTQ severity scores at all time-points, BCTQ functional scores at the 6(th) month, and cross-sectional area at the 12(th) month post-injection (P<0.0125). CONCLUSIONS A single dose of ultrasound-guided perineural PRP injection can provide therapeutic effect for 1 year post-injection.
A matched cohort study of convalescent plasma therapy for COVID-19
Journal of Clinical Apheresis. 2021
INTRODUCTION COVID-19, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a public health crisis. Prior studies demonstrated successful use of convalescent plasma therapy for treatment of other viral illnesses. Our primary objective was to evaluate treatment efficacy of convalescent plasma in patients with COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS In this retrospective matched cohort study, we enrolled recipients of convalescent plasma collected from donors recovered from laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection under the single patient eIND process. We individually matched 35 cases with 61 controls based on age, gender, supplemental oxygen requirements, and C-reactive protein level at the time of hospital admission. We compared the outcomes of in-hospital mortality and hospital length of stay between the groups. RESULTS In-hospital mortality was 20% among the cases and 24.6% among the controls (P = .61). A multivariable logistic regression model that included age, gender, duration of symptoms, need for mechanical ventilation, and pharmacologic interventions revealed no significant difference in mortality by study group (P = .71). The median length of stay was significantly greater among convalescent plasma recipients compared with controls, 10 (IQR, 6-17) vs 7 (IQR, 4-11) days, P < .01. The difference was not significant after controlling for covariates (P > .1). CONCLUSIONS We did not find convalescent plasma reduced in-hospital mortality in our sample, nor did it reduce length of stay. Further investigation is warranted to determine the efficacy of this treatment in patients with COVID-19, particularly early in the disease process.
Use of PRP, PRF and CGF in Periodontal Regeneration and Facial Rejuvenation-A Narrative Review
Growth factors (GFs) play a vital role in cell proliferation, migration, differentiation and angiogenesis. Autologous platelet concentrates (APCs) which contain high levels of GFs make them especially suitable for periodontal regeneration and facial rejuvenation. The main generations of APCs presented are platelet-rich plasma (PRP), platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) and concentrated growth factor (CGF) techniques. The purpose of this review is to provide the clinician with an overview of APCs' evolution over the past decade in order to give reliable and useful information to be used in clinical work. This review summarizes the most interesting and novel articles published between 1997 and 2020. Electronic and manual searches were conducted in the following databases: Pubmed, Scopus, Cochrane Library and Embase. The following keywords were used: growth factors, VEGF, TGF-b1, PRP, PRF, CGF and periodontal regeneration and/or facial rejuvenation. A total of 73 articles were finally included. The review then addresses the uses of the three different techniques in the two disciplines, as well as the advantages and limitations of each technique. Overall, PRP is mainly used in cases of hard and soft tissue procedures, while PRF is used in gingival recession and the treatment of furcation and intrabony defects; CGF is mainly used in bone regeneration.