Comparing efficacy and safety of fibrinogen concentrate to cryoprecipitate in bleeding patients: a systematic review
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica. 2016;60((8):):1033-42
BACKGROUND Bleeding is associated with the depletion of fibrinogen, thus increasing the risk of coagulopathy, further bleeding and transfusion requirements. Both fibrinogen concentrate and cryoprecipitate replenish low plasma fibrinogen levels. This systematic review aims to identify and evaluate evidence of efficacy and safety of fibrinogen concentrate and cryoprecipitate in bleeding patients. METHOD Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Medline, EMBASE up to 2nd of March 2015 were among the electronic search strategies of randomized controlled trials and non-randomized studies with meta-analysis employed. Studies for inclusion required bleeding patients being treated with either fibrinogen concentrate or cryoprecipitate. Mortality was the primary endpoint. Secondary outcomes included bleeding, coagulopathy, transfusion requirements and clinical complications related to the intervention. PRISMA methodology, a data-extraction form and the Cochrane risk of bias tool were all employed. RESULTS Four studies were eligible for inclusion in this systematic review; one randomized controlled trial (RCT) consisting of 66 patients and three observational studies involving 218 patients in total. No mortality was reported in the published papers. There were no differences in fibrinogen-level increase, bleeding, RBC transfusions or thromboembolic complications. The RCT showed a possible increased functional improvement of haemostasis after cryoprecipitate therapy compared to fibrinogen concentrate. CONCLUSION The available evidence directly comparing fibrinogen concentrate to cryoprecipitate is sparse and with high risk of bias. Recommendation of one product over the other for fibrinogen substitution in the bleeding patient with acquired hypofibrinogenaemia is currently not possible. Future research should guide us towards evidence-based decisions of product superiority.
Early cryoprecipitate for major haemorrhage in trauma: a randomised controlled feasibility trial
British Journal of Anaesthesia. 2015;115((1)):76-83.
BACKGROUND Low fibrinogen (Fg) concentrations in trauma haemorrhage are associated with poorer outcomes. Cryoprecipitate is the standard source for Fg administration in the UK and USA and is often given in the later stages of transfusion therapy. It is not known whether early cryoprecipitate therapy improves clinical outcomes. The primary aim of this feasibility study was to determine whether it was possible to administer cryoprecipitate, within 90 min of admission to hospital. Secondary aims were to evaluate laboratory measures of Fg and clinical outcomes including thrombotic events, organ failure, length of hospital stay and mortality. METHODS This was an unblinded RCT, conducted at two civilian UK major trauma centres of adult trauma patients (age >16 yrs), with active bleeding and requiring activation of the major haemorrhage protocol. Participants were randomised to standard major haemorrhage therapy (STANDARD) (n=22), or to standard haemorrhage therapy plus two early pools of cryoprecipitate (CRYO) (n=21). RESULTS 85% (95% CI: 69-100%) CRYO participants received cryoprecipitate within 90 min, median time 60 min (IQR: 57-76) compared with 108 min (67-147), CRYO and STANDARD arms respectively (P=0.002). Fg concentrations were higher in the CRYO arm and were maintained above 1.8 g litre(-1) at all time-points during active haemorrhage. All-cause mortality at 28 days was not significantly different (P=0.14). CONCLUSIONS Early Fg supplementation using cryoprecipitate is feasible in trauma patients. This study supports the need for a definitive RCT to determine the effect of early Fg supplementation on mortality and other clinical outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRY NUMBER ISRCTN55509212.Copyright © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Cryoprecipitate for the correction of coagulopathy associated with liver disease
Anaesthesia and Intensive Care. 2003;31((4):):357-61.
In patients with liver disease at risk of pulmonary oedema, cryoprecipitate (small volume) might be a viable alternative to fresh frozen plasma (FFP, large volume) in the correction of coagulopathy. However, the efficacy of cryoprecipitate in these patients has not been tested. We evaluated the role of cryoprecipitate in the correction of the coagulopathy of liver disease. To establish initial evidence of efficacy, six consecutive patients with hepatic failure and coagulopathy received five units of cryoprecipitate. Then, using a crossover design, 11 consecutive patients were randomized to receive either four units of FFP or five units of cryoprecipitate. Pre and post infusion International Normalized Ratio (INR), activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (aPTT), fibrinogen D-dimers, Factors V and IX, and reptilase time were measured. In the first six patients, cryoprecipitate improved the INR, aPTT and fibrinogen concentration (P = 0. 03). In the crossover study, FFP administration produced a greater improvement in INR (P = 0. 007) and aPTT (P = 0. 005) than cryoprecipitate. However, there were no differences in any of the other measured variables. One patient developed acute pulmonary oedema while receiving FFP. Cryoprecipitate improves the coagulopathy of liver disease. Four units of FFP are more efficacious than five units of cryoprecipitate. Cryoprecipitate may have a role in correction of the coagulopathy associated with liver disease where concerns about pulmonary oedema exist.
Application of cryoprecipitate as a hematostatic glue
Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery. 1998;39((5):):609-12.
BACKGROUND The effectiveness of cryoprecipitate, harvested from a patient's own fresh frozen plasma, for use in cardiac surgery as a hematostatic glue was studied in 32 randomized elective adult cardiac surgery patients from January 1993 to July 1994. MATERIALS AND METHODS Patients from the Toho Sakura Hospital were randomly allocated to two groups: Group 1 (n=11) received conventional fibrin glue presently available in our institution; while Group 2 (n=21) received autologous cryoprecipitate as a hematostatic glue. Surgical procedures broken down by group were as follows: Group 1: 4 CABG, 5 valvular surgeries and 2 other. Group 2: 11 CABG, 6 valvular surgery, 4 other. We preserved the patient's own blood and stored pure red cell and fresh frozen plasma (FFP). Cryoprecipitate was prepared from the FFP and preserved until required. RESULTS Cryoprecipitate had a 5-fold increase in fibrinogen activity (1190+/-311 mg/dl vs 238+/-34 mg/dl p<0.001), a 10-fold increase in factor VIII activity (362+/-219% vs 34+/-11%, p=0.001), and 4.5-fold increase in factor XIII activity (538+/-213% vs 119+/-50%, p<0.001), compared to serum. The amount of bleeding postoperatively was slightly lower in the cryoprecipitate glue group compared to the conventional glue group, but this was not significantly different. CONCLUSIONS We conclude that autologous samples of human cryoprecipitate prepared from a patient's own FFP had a strong hematostatic effect compared to conventional fibrin glue and was a very valuable hematostatic agent during cardiac surgery.
Fibronectin in severe sepsis
Surgery, Gynecology & Obstetrics. 1986;162((3):):222-8.
Fibronectin was given in the form of cryoprecipitate of human plasma to patients with severe surgical sepsis in a double blind, prospective and randomized clinical study. Of the 19 patients assigned to the control group receiving no fibronectin, only eight (42 per cent) survived. Of the 12 patients given the cryoprecipitate, nine survived (75 per cent) (p less than 0.05). In the control group, initial serum fibronectin levels were depressed to 121 micrograms per milliliter (normal = 313). The mean values in the blank plasma controls did not increase after 24 hours, with a mean of 122. In contrast, the group treated with cryoprecipitate increased serum fibronectin values after 24 hours to 216 micrograms per milliliter, up from initial values of 161 micrograms per milliliters. Improvements in pulmonary function, serum bilirubin and serum creatinine values were also noted, but the changes fell short of statistical significance. Fibronectin appears to benefit patients in severe surgical sepsis in this study of a relatively small number of patients.
Fibronectin and other DIC-related variables in patients with moderately severe infections receiving cryoprecipitate
Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation Supplement. 1985;178:57-65.
Plasma fibronectin (Fn), a glucoprotein of suggested importance in host defence during infections also seems to be involved in blood coagulation and to be consumed during clot formation. Low Fn concentrations have been found in patients with DIC, but also in patients with infections without signs of overt DIC. In a randomized trial of Fn supplementation 28 patients with moderately severe infections, hospitalized in the Department for Infectious Diseases, were scheduled to receive either cryoprecipitate from 30 donors (n = 14) or 250-300 ml of stored plasma (n = 14). To elucidate the relationship between Fn plasma levels, Fn-rich cryoprecipitate infusion, and possible low-grade DIC in these patients, we measured platelet count, prothrombin complex (NT), fibrinogen, F V, F VIIIRAg, F VIIIC, F XII, plasminogen (Plg), antiplasmin (AP), antithrombin III (AT), kallikrein-inhibiting activity (KI) and spontaneous proteolytic activity (SPA). Compared to healthy controls, high initial values (p less than .001) were found for fibrinogen, F VIIIRAg, F VIIIC and SPA. Most values for platelets, F V, Plg, AP and KI were within the reference range. Low levels (p less than .001) were found for Fn, NT, F XII, AT and for the ratio F VIIIC/F CIIIRAg. A significant correlation was found between F XII, Plg and AT. Fn correlated poorly to the other variables. Cryoprecipitate infusion normalized the Fn concentration, but had no influence on other measured variables. Thus, although no patient had clinically overt DIC, and all survived, we observed a distinct pattern indicating activation of the coagulation system. Fn levels were low, but were not specifically related to this activation.