Early cryoprecipitate for major haemorrhage in trauma: a randomised controlled feasibility trial
British Journal of Anaesthesia. 2015;115((1)):76-83.
BACKGROUND Low fibrinogen (Fg) concentrations in trauma haemorrhage are associated with poorer outcomes. Cryoprecipitate is the standard source for Fg administration in the UK and USA and is often given in the later stages of transfusion therapy. It is not known whether early cryoprecipitate therapy improves clinical outcomes. The primary aim of this feasibility study was to determine whether it was possible to administer cryoprecipitate, within 90 min of admission to hospital. Secondary aims were to evaluate laboratory measures of Fg and clinical outcomes including thrombotic events, organ failure, length of hospital stay and mortality. METHODS This was an unblinded RCT, conducted at two civilian UK major trauma centres of adult trauma patients (age >16 yrs), with active bleeding and requiring activation of the major haemorrhage protocol. Participants were randomised to standard major haemorrhage therapy (STANDARD) (n=22), or to standard haemorrhage therapy plus two early pools of cryoprecipitate (CRYO) (n=21). RESULTS 85% (95% CI: 69-100%) CRYO participants received cryoprecipitate within 90 min, median time 60 min (IQR: 57-76) compared with 108 min (67-147), CRYO and STANDARD arms respectively (P=0.002). Fg concentrations were higher in the CRYO arm and were maintained above 1.8 g litre(-1) at all time-points during active haemorrhage. All-cause mortality at 28 days was not significantly different (P=0.14). CONCLUSIONS Early Fg supplementation using cryoprecipitate is feasible in trauma patients. This study supports the need for a definitive RCT to determine the effect of early Fg supplementation on mortality and other clinical outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRY NUMBER ISRCTN55509212.Copyright © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Cryoprecipitate for the correction of coagulopathy associated with liver disease
Anaesthesia and Intensive Care. 2003;31((4):):357-61.
In patients with liver disease at risk of pulmonary oedema, cryoprecipitate (small volume) might be a viable alternative to fresh frozen plasma (FFP, large volume) in the correction of coagulopathy. However, the efficacy of cryoprecipitate in these patients has not been tested. We evaluated the role of cryoprecipitate in the correction of the coagulopathy of liver disease. To establish initial evidence of efficacy, six consecutive patients with hepatic failure and coagulopathy received five units of cryoprecipitate. Then, using a crossover design, 11 consecutive patients were randomized to receive either four units of FFP or five units of cryoprecipitate. Pre and post infusion International Normalized Ratio (INR), activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (aPTT), fibrinogen D-dimers, Factors V and IX, and reptilase time were measured. In the first six patients, cryoprecipitate improved the INR, aPTT and fibrinogen concentration (P = 0. 03). In the crossover study, FFP administration produced a greater improvement in INR (P = 0. 007) and aPTT (P = 0. 005) than cryoprecipitate. However, there were no differences in any of the other measured variables. One patient developed acute pulmonary oedema while receiving FFP. Cryoprecipitate improves the coagulopathy of liver disease. Four units of FFP are more efficacious than five units of cryoprecipitate. Cryoprecipitate may have a role in correction of the coagulopathy associated with liver disease where concerns about pulmonary oedema exist.