Treatment of Atrophic Acne Scars: Topical or intralesional plasma gel?
Photodermatology, photoimmunology & photomedicine. 2021
BACKGROUND Atrophic post acne scarring is considered to be a therapeutic challenge. OBJECTIVES The aim was to compare the safety and efficacy of A) FCL combined with intradermal injection of plasma gel, B) FCL combined with topical application of plasma gel, and C) FCL monotherapy in the treatment of atrophic postacne scars. METHODS Thirty patients with facial atrophic post-acne scars were enrolled in this study and randomly assigned into one of three groups. All of them underwent 4 treatment sessions at 4-weeks intervals. They were assessed objectively by the quantitative global scarring grading system (GSGS). This system was applied at baseline, and after 1- and 6-month follow-up (FU). Subjective assessments were performed through the global aesthetic improvement scale (GAIS) and level of patient satisfaction. The DLQI questionnaire was employed at the baseline and 6-month FU. RESULTS According to the quantitative GSGS scores, the reductions in group A (68.4%) and group B (63%) scores were comparable and both were significantly higher than that in group C (41.2%) in all steps of evaluation. At 6-month FU, both groups A and B showed further significant improvement while group C did not. Based on the GAIS and patients' satisfaction, there were no significant differences between all groups. The reductions in DLQI scores in groups A and B were comparable, however both were significantly higher than group C (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS The combination of plasma gel and FCL resurfacing was noticeably outstanding in their efficacy and impact on the patients' quality of life.
Plasma trial: Pilot randomized clinical trial to determine safety and efficacy of plasma transfusions
BACKGROUND Plasma is frequently administered to patients with prolonged INR prior to invasive procedures. However, there is limited evidence evaluating efficacy and safety. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS We performed a pilot trial in hospitalized patients with INR between 1.5 and 2.5 undergoing procedures conducted outside the operating room. We excluded patients undergoing procedures proximal to the central nervous system, platelet counts <40,000/μl, or congenital or acquired coagulation disorders unresponsive to plasma. We randomly allocated patients stratified by hospital and history of cirrhosis to receive plasma transfusion (10-15 cc/kg) or no transfusion. The primary outcome was change in hemoglobin concentration within 2 days of procedure. RESULTS We enrolled 57 patients, mean age 56.0, 34 (59.6%) with cirrhosis, and mean INR 1.92 (SD = 0.27). In the intention to treat analysis, there were 10 of 27 (38.5%) participants in the plasma arm with a post procedure INR <1.5 and one of 30 (3.6%) in the no treatment arm (p < .01). The mean INR after receiving plasma transfusion was -0.24 (SD 0.26) lower than baseline. The change from pre-procedure hemoglobin level to lowest level within 2 days was -0.6 (SD = 1.0) in the plasma transfusion arm and -0.4 (SD = 0.6) in the no transfusion arm (p = .29). Adverse outcomes were uncommon. DISCUSSION We found no differences in change in hemoglobin concentration in those treated with plasma compared to no treatment. The change in INR was small and corrected to less than 1.5 in minority of patients. Large trials are required to establish if plasma is safe and efficacious.
Patients with cirrhosis (n= 57).
Plasma transfusion (n= 27).
No transfusion (n= 30).
In the intention to treat analysis, there were 10 of 27 (38.5%) participants in the plasma arm with a post procedure INR <1.5 and one of 30 (3.6%) in the no treatment arm. The mean INR after receiving plasma transfusion was -0.24 (SD 0.26) lower than baseline. The change from pre-procedure haemoglobin level to lowest level within 2 days was -0.6 (SD = 1.0) in the plasma transfusion arm and -0.4 (SD = 0.6) in the no transfusion arm. Adverse outcomes were uncommon.
Platelet-rich plasma: a narrative review
EFORT open reviews. 2021;6(4):225-235
The aim of this article was to synopsize platelet-rich plasma (PRP) use in musculoskeletal pathologies through evidence-based assessment of the preparation, classification, mechanism of action and applications of PRP, thereby answering which PRP type is best for each clinical indication.The literature search was performed using Medline, EMBASE and Cochrane Reviews databases for papers containing the key terms "platelet-rich plasma" AND "orthopaedics" AND ("classification" OR "mechanism of action" OR "preparation" OR "clinical application"). Generated papers were evaluated for pertinence in following areas: preparation, classification, mechanism of action, clinical application within orthopaedics. Non-English papers were excluded. Included studies were evaluated for quality.Sixty studies were included in our review. There are many commercial PRP preparation kits with differing component concentrations. There is no consensus on optimal component concentrations. Multiple PRP classifications exist but none have been validated. Platelet-rich plasma acts via growth factors (GFs) released from α-granules within platelets. Growth factors have been shown to be beneficial in healing. Grossly elevated concentrations of GFs may have inhibitory effects on healing. Multiple systematic reviews show efficacy of PRP in tendinopathies, early osteoarthritis, acute muscle injuries and in combination with rotator cuff repair and anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.The literature suggests leukocyte-rich PRP (L-PRP) is more beneficial in tendinopathies and pure PRP (P-PRP) is more beneficial in cartilage pathology. However, different PRP preparations have not been directly compared in any pathology. Classification of PRP type is frequently not stated in research. Standardization of PRP research parameters is needed to streamline findings and generate clear indications for PRP types to yield maximum clinical benefit. Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2021;6:225-235. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.6.200017.
CHARACTERIZATION OF UNEXPECTED SURVIVORS FOLLOWING A PREHOSPITAL PLASMA RANDOMIZED TRIAL
J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2020
BACKGROUND Prehospital plasma improves survival for severely injured trauma patients transported by air ambulance. We sought to characterize the unexpected survivors, patients who survived despite having high predicted mortality following traumatic injury. METHODS The Prehospital Air Medical Plasma (PAMPer) trial randomized severely injured patients (n=501) to receive either standard care (crystalloid) or two units of prehospital plasma followed by standard care fluid resuscitation. We built a generalized linear model to estimate patient mortality. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to evaluate model performance. We defined unexpected survivors as patients who had a predicted mortality >50% and survived to 30 days. We characterized patient demographics, clinical features, and outcomes of the unexpected survivors. Observed to expected (O/E) ratios and Z-statistics were calculated using model-estimated mortality for each cohort. RESULTS Our model predicted mortality better than ISS or RTS parameters and identified 36 unexpected survivors. Compared to expected survivors, unexpected survivors were younger (33 [24, 52] vs. 47 [32, 59] years, P=0.013), were more severely injured (ISS 34 [22, 50] vs. 18 [10, 27], P<0.001), had worse organ dysfunction and hospital resource outcomes (MOF, ICU and hospital length of stay, and ventilator days), and were more likely to receive prehospital plasma (67 vs. 46%, P=0.031). Nonsurvivors with high predicted mortality were more likely to receive standard care resuscitation (P<0.001). Unexpected survivors who received prehospital plasma had a lower observed to expected mortality than those that received standard care resuscitation (O/E 0.56 [0.33-0.84] vs. 1.0 [0.73-1.32]). The number of prehospital plasma survivors (24) exceeded the number of predicted survivors (n=10) estimated by our model (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS Prehospital plasma is associated with an increase in the number of unexpected survivors following severe traumatic injury. Prehospital interventions may improve the probability of survival for injured patients with high predicted mortality based on early injury characteristics, vital signs, and resuscitation measures.Secondary Analysis LEVEL OF EVIDENCE II.
Severely injured patients enrolled in the Prehospital Air Medical Plasma (PAMPer) trial (n=501).
Two units of prehospital plasma followed by standard care fluid resuscitation (n=230).
Standard care (crystalloid) (n=271).
The generalized linear model to estimate patient mortality predicted mortality better than ISS or RTS parameters and identified 36 unexpected survivors. Compared to expected survivors, unexpected survivors were younger, were more severely injured, had worse organ dysfunction and hospital resource outcomes, and were more likely to receive prehospital plasma (67 vs. 46%). Non-survivors with high predicted mortality were more likely to receive standard care resuscitation. Unexpected survivors who received prehospital plasma had a lower observed to expected mortality than those that received standard care resuscitation. The number of prehospital plasma survivors (24) exceeded the number of predicted survivors (10) estimated by the model.
Efficacy of Application of Plasma Rich in Growth Factors Along with the Tunnel Technique for Treatment of Gingival Recession: a Clinical Trial
Journal of dentistry (Shiraz, Iran). 2020;21(4):275-283
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The tunnel technique has shown promising results in treatment of gingival recession. Plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) is considered effective for soft tissue regeneration since it is a rich source of growth factors. PURPOSE This clinical trial aimed to assess the efficacy of PRGF along with the tunnel technique and connective tissue graft for treatment of gingival recession. MATERIALS AND METHOD In this controlled clinical trial, 20 areas around anterior and posterior teeth in 3 patients with gingival recession were bilaterally selected. The tunnel technique was used with and without PRGF in the test and control groups, respectively (10 areas in each group). The keratinized gingival width (KGW), clinical attachment level (CAL), clinical probing depth (PD), cementoenamel junction (CEJ) to mucogingival junction (MGJ) distance, and the esthetic visual analog scale (EVAS) score were evaluated preoperatively and at 6 weeks and 3 months, postoperatively. The gingival recession width (RW) and vertical recession depth (VRD) were assessed preoperatively and at 2 weeks and 3 months, postoperatively. The pain visual analog scale (PVAS) score was measured at 1, 3 and 7 days, post-treatment and the healing index (HI) was measured at 1, 3 and 7 days and 1 month, postoperatively. The root coverage percentage was assessed during 3 months. Paired t-test and repeated measures ANOVA were used for statistical analyses. p Value< 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS Significant improvements were noted in all tested parameters in both groups (p< 0.05). The mean root coverage percentage after 6 months was 88.68%±20.69% and 78.77%±24.94% in the test and control groups, respectively. None of the tested parameters were significantly different between two groups (p> 0.05). CONCLUSION Treatment of gingival recession with the tunnel technique can yield favorable clinical outcome, irrespective of the employment of PRGF.
Fresh frozen plasma prime and the level of gammaglobulin after pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass
American journal of clinical and experimental immunology. 2020;9(5):91-100
Different organ perturbation and multiple complications might occur after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). A variety of solutions might be used for pump priming with different advantages and disadvantages. The advantage of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) inclusion in pump prime has been shown in post-CPB coagulation management. Acquired hypogammaglobulinemia is the disadvantage of albumin (ALB) pump prime. Our aim was to assess the impact of FFP prime on the post-pump serum level of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and its subclasses. Fifty-six patients under the age of 5 years old who were scheduled for cardiac surgery on CPB were randomly primed with FFP or ALB. Any innate or acquired immune deficiency was considered as exclusion criteria. The pre-CPB and 24-hour post-CPB collected blood samples were analyzed by the nephelometric method for the plasma level of IgG and its four subclasses. Twenty-two patients (mean age and weight of 13 months and 6.8 kilograms) in the ALB prime group and 26 patients (mean age and weight of 15 months and 8.1 kilograms) in the FFP prime group completed the study. Using paired t-test and repeated measures ANOVA test, patients in the ALB prime group had a significant drop in the post-CPB serum level of total IgG (597±138 mg/dL to 379±179 mg/dL, P value <0.001) and its two subclasses of IgG1 and IgG3. In contrast, there was a slight elevation in the serum level of total IgG (549±207 mg/dL to 630±180 mg/dL, P value =0.008) and its two subclasses of IgG2 and IgG4 in patients who had FFP prime solution. In conclusion, compared to the ALB prime solution, FFP inclusion in prime could hamper the pediatric post-CPB induced hypogammaglobulinemia.
Evaluation of effect of scheduled fresh frozen plasma on ECMO circuit life: A randomized pilot trial
BACKGROUND Factor consumption is common during ECMO complicating the balance of pro and anticoagulation factors. This study sought to determine whether transfusion of coagulation factors using fresh frozen plasma (FFP) increased ECMO circuit life and decreased blood product transfusion. Secondly, it analyzed the association between FFP transfusion and hemorrhagic and thrombotic complications. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Thirty-one pediatric ECMO patients between October 2013 and January 2016 at a quaternary care institution were included. Patients were randomized to FFP every 48 hours or usual care. The primary outcome was ECMO circuit change. Secondary outcomes included blood product transfusion, survival to decannulation, hemorrhagic and thrombotic complications, and ECMO costs. RESULTS Median (interquartile range [IQR]) number of circuit changes was 0 (0, 1). No difference was seen in percent days without a circuit change between intervention and control group, P = .53. Intervention group patients received median platelets of 15.5 mL/kg/d IQR (3.7, 26.8) vs 24.8 mL/kg/d (12.2, 30.8) for the control group (P = .16), and median packed red blood cells (pRBC) of 7.7 mL/kg/d (3.3, 16.3) vs 5.9 mL/kg/d (3.4, 18.7) for the control group, P = .60. FFP transfusions were similar with 10.2 mL/kg/d (5.0, 13.9) in the intervention group vs 8.8 (2.5, 17.7) for the control group, P = .98. CONCLUSION In this pilot randomized study, scheduled FFP did not increase circuit life. There was no difference in blood product transfusion of platelets, pRBCs, and FFP between groups. Further studies are needed to examine the association of scheduled FFP with blood product transfusion.
Investigating the Effect of Fresh Frozen Plasma and Albumin on DNA Damage and Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Poisoning Cases by Organophosphates
Drug research. 2020
The efficacy of albumin and fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and their effects on biomarkers of oxidative stress has been evaluated. In a randomized clinical control trial, 33 poisoned patients by Organophosphate (OP) were enrolled in the research and divided into three groups. The first group underwent conventional treatments by atropine and pralidoxime (control group); the second and third groups, in addition to traditional treatments, received albumin and FFP. Cholinesterase (ChE) enzyme activity, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), serum thiol groups (TTG), malonyl aldehyde (MDA) and DNA damage were measured in all treatment and control groups. Patients were matched in terms of demographic characteristics at the beginning of the study. ChE activity was increased in all three groups during treatment, which was more noticeable in the FFP group and was statistically significant in both albumin and FFP group compared to the control group (p<0.05). TAC increased, and TTG decreased in FFP and albumin groups compared to the control group; no significant difference was observed. MDA decreased in albumin and FFP and was significantly different in the FFP group compared to the control group (p<0.05). The amount of DNA damage in FFP and albumin groups decreased, and there was a significant difference compared to the control group (p<0.05). According to the results of this study, due to the decrease of oxidative damage parameters and the increase of antioxidant parameters in albumin and specially FFP groups, FFP may be considered as an adjunctive treatment for OP poisoning.
Plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) in non-surgical periodontal therapy: a randomized clinical trial
Braz Oral Res. 2020;34:e034
The aim of this split mouth, double blinded, randomized clinical trial was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of use of Plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP) in the treatment of periodontal pockets. Twenty six patients (15 males, 11 females) diagnosed with generalized periodontitis with Pocket Depth > 5mm and plaque index score < 1.5, were randomly allocated by using computer generated random sequence, into two groups, one treated with intra-pocket application of PRGF adjunct to SRP and other with SRP alone. The clinical outcomes like pocket depth (PD), relative attachment level (RAL) and sulcus bleeding index (SBI) were assessed at baseline, 3 months and 6 months. Twenty two patients (44 sites) were analyzed at the end of 6 month follow-up, using SPSS 20.0v software. There was a significant statistical difference observed between both the groups favouring SRP +PRGF group in terms of PD (p = 0.007) and RAL (p = 0.021) at the end of 6 month follow-up. Also there was a statistical significant difference (< 0.001) at all time points compared to baseline, for all parameters in intra-group comparison. Moreover, the sites with PD>4mm necessitating further treatment after 6-month follow-up were significantly lesser for SRP+PRGF group. The use of PRGF technology in non-surgical periodontal therapy, by single intra-pocket application in to periodontal pockets as an adjunct to SRP, in chronic periodontitis patients, was found to be effective in reduction of pocket depth and gain in clinical attachment level.
Freeze-dried plasma in major haemorrhage: a systematic review
Vox sanguinis. 2020
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Freeze-dried plasma (FDP) has logistical advantages in terms of storage and reconstitution time compared to fresh-frozen plasma. In vitro studies show FDP to be equivalent to fresh-frozen plasma regarding coagulation and clotting capacities. FDP is used in an increasing number of countries. We wanted to evaluate the clinical effects of FDP in major haemorrhage compared to standard care. METHODS MEDLINE, Embase, Central, Biosis Previews, WHO ICTRP, Clinical Trials and Open Grey were systematically searched from inception until September 2018, without language restriction. Studies were eligible if they examined haemorrhagic adult patients transfused with FDP. Our primary outcome was mortality. Two reviewers independently assessed studies for eligibility, extracted data and assessed bias. RESULTS Nine studies were eligible for inclusion. Three studies had a comparison group: one was a randomized controlled trial and two were before and after comparisons. Six studies were uncontrolled. A total of 606 patients received FDP, while 72 patients received non-FDP transfusion. In total, five minor adverse effects were documented. Two studies compared FDP to fresh-frozen plasma and found no difference in 30-day mortality between the groups. The included studies were heterogenous and had several methodological weaknesses, such as no control group, missing data or no protocol. CONCLUSIONS The available research does not document the clinical effects of FDP. We cannot recommend or discourage use of FDP in major haemorrhage on base of available research.