Evaluating the Impact of Cardiopulmonary Bypass Priming Fluids on Bleeding After Pediatric Cardiac Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia. 2021
OBJECTIVES Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) predisposes young children to coagulopathy. The authors evaluated possible effects of CPB priming fluids on perioperative bleeding in pediatric cardiac surgery. DESIGN Meta-analysis and systematic review of previously published studies. SETTING Each study was conducted in a surgical center or intensive care unit. PARTICIPANTS Studies investigating patients <18 years without underlying hematologic disorders were included. INTERVENTIONS The authors evaluated randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published between 1980 and 2020 on MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, and CENTRAL databases. The primary outcome was postoperative bleeding; secondary endpoints included blood product transfusion, mortality, and safety. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Twenty eligible RCTs were analyzed, with a total of 1,550 patients and a median of 66 patients per study (range 20-200). The most frequently assessed intervention was adding fresh frozen plasma (FFP) to the prime (8/20), followed by albumin (5/20), artificial colloids (5/20), and blood-based priming solutions (3/20). Ten studies with 771 patients evaluated blood loss at 24 hours in mL/kg and were included in a meta-analysis. Most of them investigated the addition of FFP to the priming fluid (7/10). No significant difference was found between intervention and control groups, with a mean difference of -0.13 (-2.61 to 2.34), p = 0.92, I(2) = 69%. Further study endpoints were described but their reporting was too heterogeneous to be quantitatively analyzed. CONCLUSIONS This systematic review of current evidence did not show an effect of different CPB priming solutions on 24-hour blood loss. The analysis was limited by heterogeneity within the dataset regarding population, type of intervention, dosing, and the chosen comparator, compromising any conclusions.
Systematic review of plasma to packed red blood cell ratio on survival in ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms
Journal of vascular surgery. 2020
BACKGROUND The ideal perioperative fluid resuscitation for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms (rAAA) is unknown. It has been shown in the trauma literature that a higher ratio of plasma and platelets to packed red blood cells confers a mortality benefit. There remains controversy whether this is true also in the ruptured aneurysm population. The objective of this study is to investigate the benefit of higher ratio of plasma to packed red blood cells in patients with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms. METHODS A health sciences librarian searched four electronic databases including PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, and ClinicalTrials.gov using concepts for the terms fluid resuscitation, survival, and ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. Two reviewers independently screened the studies that were identified through the search strategy and read in full any study that was potentially relevant. Papers were included if they compared mortality of patients with rAAA who received a higher ratio of plasma to other component therapy to patients who received a lower ratio. Risk of bias was assessed using the ROBINS-I validated tool and evidence quality was rated using the GRADE profile. No data synthesis or meta-analysis was planned or performed given the anticipated paucity of research on this topic and the high degree of heterogeneity of available studies. RESULTS Our search identified seven observational studies to be included in this review. Of these seven studies, three found an associated decrease in mortality with a higher ratio of plasma to packed red blood cells and the remaining four found no significant difference. The overall risk of bias was serious and the evidence quality was very low. CONCLUSIONS Overall, the available studies would suggest that for patients that have undergone open surgery for a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm, mortality rates tend to decrease when the amount of plasma transfused perioperatively is similar to the amount of packed red blood cells. However, this is very low-quality evidence based solely off of highly heterogenous observational studies and further research is warranted.
Fresh frozen plasma for cardiovascular surgery
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.. 2015;((7)):CD007614.
BACKGROUND Fresh frozen plasma (FFP) is a blood component containing procoagulant factors, which is sometimes used in cardiovascular surgery with the aim of reducing the risk of bleeding. The purpose of this review is to assess the risk of mortality for patients undergoing cardiovascular surgery who receive FFP. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the risk to benefit ratio of FFP transfusion in cardiovascular surgery for the treatment of bleeding patients or for prophylaxis against bleeding. SEARCH METHODS We searched 11 bibliographic databases and four ongoing trials databases including the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Issue 3, 2015), MEDLINE (OvidSP, 1946 to 21 April 2015), EMBASE (OvidSP, 1974 to 21 April 2015), PubMed (e-publications only: searched 21 April 2015), ClinicalTrials.gov, World Health Organization (WHO) ICTRP and the ISRCTN Register (searched 21 April 2015). We also searched the references of all identified trials and relevant review articles. We did not limit the searches by language or publication status. SELECTION CRITERIA We included randomised controlled trials in patients undergoing major cardiac or vascular surgery who were allocated to a FFP group or a comparator (no plasma or an active comparator, either clinical plasma (any type) or a plasma-derived blood product). We included participants of any age (neonates, children and adults). We excluded studies of plasmapheresis and plasma exchange. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Two authors screened all electronically derived citations and abstracts of papers identified by the review search strategy. Two authors assessed risk of bias in the included studies and extracted data independently. We took care to note whether FFP was used therapeutically or prophylactically within each trial. MAIN RESULTS We included 15 trials, with a total of 755 participants for analysis in the review. Fourteen trials compared prophylactic use of FFP against no FFP. One study compared therapeutic use of two types of plasma. The timing of intervention varied, including FFP transfusion at the time of heparin neutralisation and stopping cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) (seven trials), with CPB priming (four trials), after anaesthesia induction (one trial) and postoperatively (two trials). Twelve trials excluded patients having emergency surgery and nine excluded patients with coagulopathies.Overall the trials were small, with only four reporting an a priori sample size calculation. No trial was powered to determine changes in mortality as a primary outcome. There was either high risk of bias, or unclear risk, in the majority of trials included in this review.There was no difference in the number of deaths between the intervention arms in the six trials (with 287 patients) reporting mortality (very low quality evidence). There was also no difference in blood loss in the first 24 hours for neonatal/paediatric patients (four trials with 138 patients; low quality evidence): mean difference (MD) -1.46 ml/kg (95% confidence interval (CI) -4.7 to 1.78 ml/kg); or adult patients (one trial with 120 patients): MD -12.00 ml (95% CI -101.16 to 77.16 ml).Transfusion with FFP was inferior to control for preventing patients receiving any red cell transfusion: Peto odds ratio (OR) 2.57 (95% CI 1.30 to 5.08; moderate quality evidence). There was a difference in prothrombin time within two hours of FFP transfusion in eight trials (with 210 patients; moderate quality evidence) favouring the FFP arm: MD -0.71 seconds (95% CI -1.28 to -0.13 seconds). There was no difference in the risk of returning to theatre for reoperation (eight trials with 398 patients; moderate quality evidence): Peto OR 0.81 (95% CI 0.26 to 2.57). Only one included study reported adverse events as an outcome and reported no significant adverse events following FFP transfusion. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS This review has found no evidence to support the prophylactic administration of FFP to patients without coagulopathy undergoing elective cardiac surgery. There was insufficient evidence about treatment of p
The role of prophylactic fresh frozen plasma in decreasing blood loss and correcting coagulopathy in cardiac surgery. A systematic review
Summary: Fresh frozen plasma is commonly used in cardiac surgery in an attempt to replace clotting factors and to decrease bleeding. Despite this, there has been no previous review of the available literature to support this practice. The aim of this review was to study the effect of prophylactic peri-operative transfusion of fresh frozen plasma on bleeding and coagulopathy in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. A comprehensive literature search was performed and all randomised controlled trials of the use of fresh frozen plasma in cardiac surgery were included. Six small trials were found that included a total of 363 participants with six different dose regimens of fresh frozen plasma. The overall quality of the studies was poor due to small patient numbers and lack of allocation concealment. There was no evidence that the prophylactic use of fresh frozen plasma affected peri-operative blood loss in cardiac surgery. There was some evidence that it may improve platelet count and fibrinogen concentration.