Platelet to erythrocyte transfusion ratio and mortality in massively transfused trauma patients. A systematic review and meta-analysis
Rijnhout TWH, Duijst J, Noorman F, Zoodsma M, van Waes O, Verhofstad MHJ, Hoencamp R
The journal of trauma and acute care surgery. 2021
BACKGROUND Platelet transfusion during major hemorrhage is important and often embedded in massive transfusion protocols. However, the optimal ratio of platelets to erythrocytes (platelet rich plasma (PLT) :RBC ratio) remains unclear. We hypothesized that high PLT:RBC ratios, as compared to low PLT:RBC ratios, are associated with improved survival in patients requiring massive transfusion. METHODS Four databases (Pubmed, CINAHL, EMBASE and Cochrane) were systematically screened for literature published up to January 21, 2021 to determine the effect of PLT:RBC ratio on the primary outcome measure mortality at 1-6 and 24 hours and at 28-30 days. Studies comparing various PLT:RBC ratios were included in meta-analysis. Secondary outcomes included intensive care unit length of stay and in-hospital length of stay and total blood component use. The study protocol was registered in PROSPERO under number CRD42020165648. RESULTS The search identified a total of 8903 records. After removing duplicates second screening of title, abstract and full text a total of 59 articles were included in the analysis. Of these articles 12 were included in meta-analysis. Mortality at 1-6, 24-hours and 28-30 days was significantly lower for high PLT:RBC ratios as compared to low PLT:RBC ratios. CONCLUSIONS Higher PLT:RBC ratios are associated with significantly lower 1-6 hours, 24 hours, 28-30 days mortality as compared to lower PLT:RBC ratios. The optimal PLT:RBC ratio for massive transfusion in trauma patients is approximately 1:1. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Systematic review and meta-analysis, therapeutic level III.