The use of Platelet rich Plasma in COVID-19 Induced Olfactory Dysfunction: Systematic Review
Indian journal of otolaryngology and head and neck surgery : official publication of the Association of Otolaryngologists of India. 2023;:1-5
PURPOSE Different modalities of treatment have been suggested in the treatment for post COVID-19 olfactory dysfunction (OD). Starting with lifestyle modification, smoking cessation, for example, was shown to improve the symptoms for patients with OD. Intranasal and oral corticosteroids have been described in the literature for the treatment of OD. In this review, we are looking at a novel intervention using platelet-rich plasma injection into the nasal cleft for treatment of post COVID-19 infection olfactory dysfunction. METHODS A literature search was done using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) 2020 Guidelines, the databases of PMC, Medline, CINAHL, Wiley online library were searched from their year of inception until February 2023. Search terms were used and included a combination of the following keywords; "platelet-rich plasma", "platelet rich plasma", "PRP", "Anosmia", "olfactory dysfunction" and "COVID". RESULTS The four studies in this review included a total of 238 adult patients who presented with olfactory dysfunction. The studies were heterogenic in terms of follow up period which was not long enough through all the included studies. Additionally, different protocol of injecting was seen in different studies. CONCLUSION Injecting PRP for treatment of COVID-19 induced olfactory dysfunction is a safe technique with what seems like promising initial results with low complication rate. However, there are not enough studies assessing its effectiveness compared to other treatment modalities. Further randomized controlled trials with shared protocol are needed to establish further understanding of its role in treatment of COVID-19 induced OD.
Use of platelet-rich plasma for COVID-19 related olfactory loss, a randomized controlled trial
International forum of allergy & rhinology. 2022
INTRODUCTION This study evaluated the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP), an autologous blood product with supraphysiologic concentrations of growth factors, in the treatment of prolonged COVID-19 related smell loss. METHODS This multi-institutional, randomized controlled trial recruited COVID-19 patients with objectively measured smell loss (University of Pennsylvania's Smell Identification Test, UPSIT≤33) between 6-12 months. Subjects were randomized to 3 intranasal injections of either PRP or sterile saline into their olfactory clefts. Primary outcome measure was change in Sniffin' sticks score (TDI) from baseline. Secondary endpoint measures included responder rate (achievement of a clinically significant improvement, ≥5.5 point TDI), change in individual TDI olfaction scores, and change in subjective olfaction via a visual analogue scale. RESULTS 35 subjects were recruited and 26 completed the study. PRP treatment resulted in a 3.67 point (95% CI: 0.05-7.29, p = 0.047) greater improvement in olfaction compared to the placebo group at 3-months and a higher response rate (57.1% versus 8.3%, odds ratio 12.5, 95% exact bootstrap CI 2.2-116.7). There was a greater improvement in smell discrimination following PRP treatment compared to placebo, but no difference in smell identification or threshold. There was no difference in subjective scores between PRP and placebo. No adverse effects were reported. CONCLUSION Olfactory function following COVID-19 can improve spontaneously after 6 months and can improve to a greater extent with PRP injection. This data builds on the promise of PRP to be a safe potential treatment option for patients with COVID-19 smell loss, and larger-powered studies will help further assess efficacy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Nonoperative Platelet-Rich Plasma Shoulder Injections for Rotator Cuff Pathology
PM & R : the journal of injury, function, and rehabilitation. 2021;13(10):1157-1168
BACKGROUND Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections have been introduced to augment the recovery of patients with shoulder pathology. Although multiple studies have been published, no large-scale trials or meta-analyses have assessed the efficacy of nonoperative shoulder PRP injection. OBJECTIVE To assess the efficacy of nonoperative PRP shoulder injection in rotator cuff pathology for pain as measured by the visual analog scale (VAS) and range of motion (ROM). DESIGN Two authors independently screened the Medline and Cochrane databases to include prospective studies that reported VAS and ROM outcomes for nonoperative shoulder PRP injections for rotator cuff pathology. Study quality was assessed using the revised Cochrane Collaboration risk-of-bias tool and modified Downs and Black checklist. Subsequent meta-analysis was performed to determine the effect of nonoperative PRP injections on pain and ROM 3 to 12 months after intervention. RESULTS Six studies met systematic review criteria. The included studies used different PRP formulations (concentration, leukocyte count), injection protocols (approach, injection number), and varied study designs. Three studies concluded that PRP provided no significant benefit for pain and ROM when compared to physical therapy. Within-group meta-analysis of six fairly heterogeneous studies (I(2) 77.8%) demonstrated a statistically significant (P < .001) improvement in pain 3 to 12 months after PRP injection. Within-group meta-analysis for four studies for shoulder flexion and abduction was found to be too heterogeneous to derive meaningful results. CONCLUSION There is a limited quantity of high-quality studies that assess the efficacy of nonoperative PRP shoulder injection for pain and ROM. Systematic review of PRP injections did not demonstrate an improvement in pain or ROM compared to physical therapy. Although within-group meta-analysis of nonoperative PRP statistically showed that nonoperative PRP improved pain, the lack of adequate negative controls precludes the ability to conclude whether improvements were due to natural recovery or nonoperative PRP.