Efficacy of Platelet-Rich Plasma in Enhancing the Osteogenic Potential of Bone Graft in Oral and Maxillofacial Region
Journal of maxillofacial and oral surgery. 2021;20(2):282-295
BACKGROUND Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been a breakthrough in the stimulation and acceleration of bone and soft tissue healing. It represents a relatively new biotechnology that is part of the growing interest in tissue engineering and cellular therapy. METHODS A prospective study was carried out in 50 patients. The cases were selected randomly in the age group of 8-50 years who needed bone grafts for alveolar cleft defects and surgical defects following removal of osteolytic jaw lesions. They were divided into study group with autologous PRP and control group without PRP. Bone density was calculated as per Hounsfield scale preoperatively and post-operatively for both the groups. RESULTS There was significant difference in the Hounsfield units at 06 months and 12 months post-operatively in both the groups showing good amount of bone regeneration. The preoperative volume of the defect and the post-operative volume of the regenerated bone were statistically analysed. The mean V2 was 0.7652 cc for the study group, whereas for control group, it was 0.4840 cc. The volume ratio for study group was 0.9070 and for control group was 0.6740. This showed greater bone regeneration in the study group. The results were statistically significant for both the groups. CONCLUSION PRP is a new application of tissue engineering and a developing area of interest for clinicians and researchers. It is a storage vehicle for growth factors, especially PDGF and TGF-b, both of which influence bone regeneration, and also eliminates the concerns about immunogenic reactions and disease transmission. PRP does enhance the healing of bone grafts in the maxillofacial region as shown by the increase in the density of bone.
Effect of Platelet-Rich Plasma on Bone Healing in Immediate Implants Analyzed by Cone Beam Computerized Tomography: A Randomized Controlled Trial
BioMed research international. 2021;2021:6685991
The possibility of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on the improvement of bone and adjacent tissue recovery has previously been validated. However, there is insufficient data supporting the use of platelet-rich plasma to improve the healing of bone and adjacent tissues around an implant in the oral cavity. The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to observe the effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) concentrate on marginal bone loss and bone density around immediate implant placement using Cone Beam Computerized Tomography (CBCT). This clinical study was conducted over a period of six months on 12 subjects, who were equally categorized into two groups. Group I was the control, whereas the subjects in Group II received PRP therapy at the surgical site. All subjects were given a standard treatment with a single implant system (DIO UFII hybrid sandblasted acid-etched implants). Inserted implants were analyzed through CBCT, and records were registered at baseline, at the 12(th) week before functional loading and the 26(th) week after functional loading. The bone loss was calculated at the proximal (mesial and distal) side of the implant and bone density at baseline, 12(th) week, and 26(th) week after implant placement. SPSS version 23.0 was used for statistical analysis of data. The changes in bone levels were measured and compared between the two groups using the Mann-Whitney U test, with no significant difference. Bone density was analyzed by an independent sample t-test, p value ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Again, no significant difference in bone density was observed between both groups at all three instances. Therefore, it can be concluded that local injection of PRP after immediate implant placement did not show any decrease in marginal bone loss or improvement in bone density. This trial is registered with NCT04650763.
Efficacy of Intraoperative Platelet-Rich Plasma Augmentation and Postoperative Platelet-Rich Plasma Booster Injection for Rotator Cuff Healing: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial
Orthopaedic journal of sports medicine. 2021;9(6):23259671211006100
BACKGROUND Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been applied as an adjuvant treatment for arthroscopic rotator cuff repair (ARCR) to enhance rotator cuff healing. However, it remains debatable whether PRP enhances tendon-to-bone healing. PURPOSE To assess the efficacy of intraoperative augmentation and postoperative injection of PRP that was prepared using the double-spin method and calcium activation without thrombin in patients with ARCR. STUDY DESIGN Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1; and cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS A total of 58 patients underwent ARCR using intraoperative PRP augmentation. Half of the patients were randomly assigned to receive an additional ultrasound-guided PRP injection at the repair site at 2 weeks postoperatively (PRP-booster group); the other half did not receive the booster injection (PRP-only group). A control group that did not receive any PRP treatment was retrospectively matched using propensity score matching. Structural integrity was assessed using magnetic resonance imaging at 1 year postoperatively, and healing rates were compared between patients with tear sizes ≤2 cm versus >2 cm. Functional outcomes were assessed using the visual analog scale (VAS) for pain; VAS for satisfaction; shoulder range of motion; and Constant, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons, and Simple Shoulder Test scores at minimum 2-year follow-up. RESULTS In patients with tears >2 cm, the rate of healing failure at 1-year follow-up was significantly less in the overall PRP group than in the control group (12.9% vs 35.7%, respectively; P = .040), however, the PRP-booster group did not present a better healing rate than did the PRP-only group. The overall PRP group had lower VAS for pain scores compared with the control group (0.5 ± 1.1 vs 1.3 ± 1.8, respectively; P = .016) and higher VAS for satisfaction scores (9.2 ± 1.2 vs 8.6 ± 1.7; P = .023) at the final follow-up, whereas no statistical difference was found between the PRP-only and PRP-booster groups in functional outcomes. CONCLUSION Intraoperative PRP augmentation during ARCR demonstrated superior anatomic healing results in patients with rotator cuff tears >2 cm as well as reduced pain and increased subjective satisfaction. PRP booster injection provided no additional benefit to tendon integrity or functional recovery.
Evaluation of the Histomorphometric and Micromorphometric Performance of a Serum Albumin-Coated Bone Allograft Combined with A-PRF for Early and Conventional Healing Protocols after Maxillary Sinus Augmentation: A Randomized Clinical Trial
Materials (Basel, Switzerland). 2021;14(7)
The aim of this study was to compare the microarchitecture of augmented bone following maxillary sinus augmentation (MSA) after healing periods of 3 (test) and 6 (control) months using the combination of advanced platelet-rich fibrin (A-PRF) and a serum albumin-coated bone allograft (SACBA). Twenty-six patients with 30 surgical sites who required two-stage MSA were enrolled and grafted with the combination of A-PRF and SACBAs. The surgical sites were randomly allocated to the test or control group. During implant site preparation, 17 bone core biopsy samples were collected from each study group for histological, histomorphometric and micromorphometric analysis. Resonance frequency analysis was performed at the time of implant placement and 6, 8, 10, and 12 weeks postoperatively. The percentage of newly formed bone was 44.89 ± 9.49% in the test group and 39.75 ± 8.15% in the control group (p = 0.100). The results of the µCT analysis showed no significant differences in morphometric parameters between the study groups. The implant stability quotient was not significantly different between the two groups at 10 and 12 weeks postoperatively. Based on these findings, the total treatment time may be reduced by 3 months with the use of A-PRF and SACBAs for two-stage MSA.
Quality of evidence-based guidelines for platelet transfusion and use: A systematic review
BACKGROUND Guidelines for platelet (PLT) transfusion are an important source of information for clinicians. Although guidelines intend to increase consistency and quality of care, variation in methodology and recommendations may exist that could impact the value of a guideline. We aimed to determine the quality of existing PLT transfusion guidelines using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE II) instrument and to describe the inconsistencies in recommendations. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS A systematic search was undertaken for evidence-based guidelines from January 1, 2013, to January 25, 2019. Citations were reviewed in duplicate for inclusion and descriptive data extracted. Four physicians appraised the guideline using the AGREE II instrument and the scaled score for each item evaluated was calculated. The protocol was registered in PROSPERO. RESULTS Of 6744 citations, 6740 records were screened. Seven of 28 full-text studies met the inclusion criteria. The median scaled score (and the interquartile range of the scaled score) for the following items were as follows: scope and purpose, 94% (8%); stakeholder involvement, 63% (18%); rigor of development, 83% (14%); clarity of presentation, 94% (6%); applicability, 58% (20%); and editorial independence, 77% (4%). Overall quality ranged from 4 to 7 (7 is the maximum score). Inconsistent recommendations were on prophylactic PLT transfusion in hypoproliferative thrombocytopenia in the presence of risk factors and dose recommendations. CONCLUSION Inconsistencies between guidelines and variable quality highlight areas for future guideline writers to address. Areas of specific attention include issues of stakeholder involvement and applicability.
Guidelines for platelet (PLT) transfusion (7 studies).
Systematic review to determine the quality of existing PLT transfusion guidelines and to describe the inconsistencies in recommendations.
The median scaled score for the following items were as follows: scope and purpose, 94%; stakeholder involvement, 63%; rigor of development, 83%; clarity of presentation, 94%; applicability, 58%; and editorial independence, 77%. Overall quality ranged from 4 to 7 (7 was the maximum score). Inconsistent recommendations were found on prophylactic PLT transfusion in hypoproliferative thrombocytopenia in the presence of risk factors, and dose recommendations.
Synergistic Effects of Autologous Platelet-Rich Plasma and Hyaluronic Acid Injections on Facial Skin Rejuvenation
Aesthetic surgery journal. 2021
BACKGROUND Many therapeutic options are currently available for facial skin rejuvenation, but little evidence exists about the efficacy of combining such procedures. OBJECTIVES To assess and investigate the synergic effect of HA and a-PRP injections on facial skin rejuvenation. METHODS For this randomized controlled prospective study, 93 eligible patients were enrolled and randomized into three intervention groups to undergo a series of three treatments sessions with either a-PRP, HA or Cellular Matrix-BCT-HA (PRP-HA) injected on facial cheeks. RESULTS A total of 93 patients were included. Treatment with Cellular Matrix BCT-HA led to a very significant improvement in the overall facial appearance compared to groups treated with a-PRP and HA alone (p<0.0001). Participants treated with Cellular Matrix showed a 20%, 24% and 17% increase in FACE-Q score at 1 month, 3 months and 6 months post-treatment, respectively. For the HA group, the improvement of FACE-Q score was 12%, 11% and 6% at 1, 3- and 6-months post-treatment, respectively, while the a-PRP group showed a 9% improvement in FACE-Q score at 1 month and 11% and 8% improvement at 3- and 6-months post-treatment, respectively.Biophysical measurements showed significantly improved skin elasticity for the group Cellular BCT-HA compared to a-PRP and HA alone. No serious adverse events were reported. CONCLUSIONS Combining a-PRP and HA seems to be a promising treatment for facial rejuvenation with a very significant improvement in facial appearance and skin elasticity compared to a-PRP or HA alone.
The Effectiveness of Advanced Platelet-Rich Fibrin in comparison with Leukocyte-Platelet-Rich Fibrin on Outcome after Dentoalveolar Surgery
International journal of dentistry. 2021;2021:6686857
METHODS The study included 60 patients according to sample size calculation, recruited from patients seeking tooth extraction at oral and maxillofacial surgery clinic at Umm Al-Qura University, Faculty of Dentistry. Patients were divided into three groups. Group Ӏ included 20 patients managed by advanced platelet-rich fibrin after extraction. Group ӀӀ included 20 patients managed by leukocyte-platelet-rich fibrin after tooth extraction. Group ӀII included 20 patients left without any addition. Each group was further subdivided into surgical and nonsurgical extraction. Afterwards, patients in each group were assessed for postextraction pain by VAS, number of analgesics, and early soft tissue healing by LWHI. RESULTS The study outcomes demonstrate that the use of A-PRF significantly reduces postoperative pain in the 1(st) and 2(nd) day. VAS pain scores on the first day were significantly higher in the control surgical extraction group and L-PRF nonsurgical extraction group. In early soft tissue healing. The Landry Wound Healing Index (LWHI) was used after 1 and 2 weeks of extraction to evaluate the extraction site. In first week, the A-PRF group and L-PRF group (nonsurgical extraction) had a better healing index when compared to control group, and A-PRF group (surgical extraction) had a best healing index when compared to L-PRF and control groups. In the second week, individuals in the A-PRF group (surgical and nonsurgical extraction) had a better healing index when compared to L-PRF and control groups.
Effect of injectable platelet-rich fibrin (i-PRF) on the rate of tooth movement: A randomized clinical trial
The Angle orthodontist. 2021
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the efficiency of injectable platelet-rich fibrin (i-PRF) in accelerating canine tooth movement and to examine levels of the matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells ligand (RANKL), and osteoprotegerin (OPG) in the gingival crevicular fluid during orthodontic treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS Twenty patients (mean age = 21.4 ± 2.9 years) with Class II Division 1 malocclusion were included in a split-mouth study. The treatment plan for all patients was extraction of maxillary first premolars followed by canine distalization with closed-coil springs using 150 g of force on each side. The study group received i-PRF two times, with a 2-week interval, on one side of the maxilla. The contralateral side served as the control and did not receive i-PRF. Maxillary canine tooth movement was measured at five time points (T1-T5) on each side. Also, the activity of inflammatory cytokines was evaluated at three time points in the gingival crevicular fluid samples. RESULTS There was a significant difference in canine tooth movement between the two groups (P < .001). i-PRF significantly increased the rate of tooth movement, and stimulation in the levels of inflammatory cytokines supported this result (P < .001). The levels of cytokines changed in both groups between T1 and T2. The IL-1β, MMP8, and RANKL values were significantly increased in the study group compared with the control group, while the OPG values were significantly decreased. CONCLUSIONS i-PRF-facilitated orthodontics is an effective and safe treatment modality to accelerate tooth movement, and this method can help shorten orthodontic treatment duration.
Efficacy of platelet-rich fibrin compared with triamcinolone acetonide as injective therapy in the treatment of symptomatic oral lichen planus: a pilot study
Clinical oral investigations. 2021
OBJECTIVES Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic immune-mediated disease that affects the oral cavity. Topical steroids are considered the treatment of choice for painful lesions of OLP. The aim of this split-mouth study was to compare the efficacy of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) and triamcinolone acetonide (TA) injective therapies in patients with symptomatic OLP. MATERIALS AND METHODS Participants with symptomatic OLP were recruited in the Academic Hospital of Magna Graecia University of Catanzaro, Italy. Once a week for a month, patients randomly received a 0.5-mL TA injection in one buccal mucosa and 1-mL PRF injection in the opposite side. The measured outcomes were reduction of the lesions area and symptomatology modifications using visual analogue scale (VAS) score RESULTS Four weeks after the last injections, an average reduction of 59.8% in the lesion extension and an average reduction of 47.6% in the VAS score for PRF-treated sites were observed; the same variation for TA-treated sites was respectively of 59.2% and 40%. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS PRF was effective in reducing OLP lesions extension and symptomatology, and it seems to be as effective as TA. Additional data should be collected with a larger sample size, at a longer follow-up and on the PRF lowest effective dose. CLINICAL RELEVANCE Current treatment options for OLP are limited. The study proved benefits of PRF injections in management of painful lesions of OLP comparable with TA.
Platelet rich plasma in arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: clinical and radiological results of a prospective RCT study at 10-year follow-up
Arthroscopy : the journal of arthroscopic & related surgery : official publication of the Arthroscopy Association of North America and the International Arthroscopy Association. 2021
PURPOSE The aim of the study is to compare, at 10-year follow-up, the clinical and radiological outcomes of arthroscopic rotator cuff repair with or without the addition of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) over the tendon-bone interface at the end of the surgical procedure. METHODS Of 53 patients recruited in the study, and randomly divided into two groups (PRP=26; control=27), 38 were re-evaluated at least 10 years after the index procedure. The clinical evaluation was carried out through: University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) Shoulder Score, Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Simple Shoulder Test (SST), Constant-Murley Score (CMS), Single Assessment Numerical Evaluation (SANE), American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) and isometric strength in abduction, forward flexion and external rotation. Musculoskeletal ultrasound had been used to evaluate the integrity of the repaired cuff. RESULTS A number of 38 (71%) patients (PRP=17; control=21) with a median age of 71 [64.75-76.50] years have been evaluated. Satisfaction at follow-up is high (90%), without statistically significant difference between the two groups. We report good and excellent clinical results in both groups (PRP vs control): CMS (81.62 [72.47-85.75] vs 77.97 [69.52-82.55] points), UCLA (34 [29.00-35.00] vs 33 [29.00-35.00] points), VAS (0.34 [0.00-1.85] vs 0.70 [0.00-2.45] cm). It was not possible to find a statistically significant difference for the variables analysed, except for ASES and SANE. On average, 37% of the operated patients had a re-rupture at the ultrasound examination, regardless the treatment group (p=1.00). Compared with the previous radiological control at the 2-year follow-up, new retears occurred in 6% of the patients that received PRP treatment, whereas in the control group the percentage raises to 14% (p=0.61). CONCLUSION The clinical and radiological outcomes at the 10-year follow-up show a substantial uniformity of results between the two groups. The minor differences that had been observed at 2-year follow-up disappeared at long term. Patients' satisfaction is still high 10 years after surgical treatment.