Platelet to erythrocyte transfusion ratio and mortality in massively transfused trauma patients. A systematic review and meta-analysis
The journal of trauma and acute care surgery. 2021
BACKGROUND Platelet transfusion during major hemorrhage is important and often embedded in massive transfusion protocols. However, the optimal ratio of platelets to erythrocytes (platelet rich plasma (PLT) :RBC ratio) remains unclear. We hypothesized that high PLT:RBC ratios, as compared to low PLT:RBC ratios, are associated with improved survival in patients requiring massive transfusion. METHODS Four databases (Pubmed, CINAHL, EMBASE and Cochrane) were systematically screened for literature published up to January 21, 2021 to determine the effect of PLT:RBC ratio on the primary outcome measure mortality at 1-6 and 24 hours and at 28-30 days. Studies comparing various PLT:RBC ratios were included in meta-analysis. Secondary outcomes included intensive care unit length of stay and in-hospital length of stay and total blood component use. The study protocol was registered in PROSPERO under number CRD42020165648. RESULTS The search identified a total of 8903 records. After removing duplicates second screening of title, abstract and full text a total of 59 articles were included in the analysis. Of these articles 12 were included in meta-analysis. Mortality at 1-6, 24-hours and 28-30 days was significantly lower for high PLT:RBC ratios as compared to low PLT:RBC ratios. CONCLUSIONS Higher PLT:RBC ratios are associated with significantly lower 1-6 hours, 24 hours, 28-30 days mortality as compared to lower PLT:RBC ratios. The optimal PLT:RBC ratio for massive transfusion in trauma patients is approximately 1:1. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Systematic review and meta-analysis, therapeutic level III.
Low-dose, Early Fresh frozen plasma Transfusion therapy after severe trauma brain injury: a clinical, prospective, randomized, controlled study (LEFT)
World neurosurgery. 2019
BACKGROUND To investigate the role of Low-dose, Early Fresh frozen plasma Transfusion (LEFT) therapy in preventing peri-operative coagulopathy and improving long-term outcome after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS A prospected, single-centre, parallel-group, randomized trial was designed. Patients with severe TBI were eligible. We used a computer-generated randomization list, and closed opaque envelopes to randomly allocate patients to treatment with FFP (5mL/kg of body weight) as LEFT treatment or normal saline (5mL/kg of body weight) as no LEFT treatment once admitting to operation room. RESULTS Between 1 January 2018 and 31 November 2018, 63 patients were included and randomly allocated to LEFT (n=28) and NO LEFT (n=35) groups. 20 patients in the LEFT group and 32 patients in the NO LEFT group were included in the final interim analysis. The study was terminated early for futility and safety reasons because of the high proportion of patients (7 of 20, 35.0 %) in the LEFT group developing new delayed traumatic intracranial hematoma (DTICH) after surgery as compared with 3 of 32 in the NO LEFT group (9.4 %) (relative risk, 5.205; 95% CI, 1.159 to 23.384; P=0.023). Demographic characteristics and indexes of severity of brain injury were similar at baseline. CONCLUSION Low-dose, early fresh frozen plasma transfusion therapy was associated with higher incidence of DTICH than normal FFP transfusion in patients with severe TBI. A restricted FFP transfusion protocol, in the right clinical setting, may be more appropriate in patients with TBIs. (Current Controlled Trials number, ChiCTR-INR-17013901).
Outcomes after concomitant traumatic brain injury and hemorrhagic shock: a secondary analysis from the Pragmatic, Randomized Optimal Platelets and Plasma Ratios trial
The Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery. 2017;83((4)):668-674.
BACKGROUND Often the clinician is faced with a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma in patients with concomitant traumatic brain injury (TBI) and hemorrhagic shock (HS), as rapid deterioration from either can be fatal. Knowledge about outcomes after concomitant TBI and HS may help prioritize the emergent management of these patients. We hypothesized that patients with concomitant TBI and HS (TBI + HS) had worse outcomes and required more intensive care compared with patients with only one of these injuries. METHODS This is a post hoc analysis of the Pragmatic, Randomized Optimal Platelets and Plasma Ratios (PROPPR) trial. TBI was defined by a head Abbreviated Injury Scale score greater than 2. HS was defined as a base excess of -4 or less and/or shock index of 0.9 or greater. The primary outcome for this analysis was mortality at 30 days. Logistic regression, using generalized estimating equations, was used to model categorical outcomes. RESULTS Six hundred seventy patients were included. Patients with TBI + HS had significantly higher lactate (median, 6.3; interquartile range, 4.7-9.2) compared with the TBI group (median, 3.3; interquartile range, 2.3-4). TBI + HS patients had higher activated prothrombin times and lower platelet counts. Unadjusted mortality was higher in the TBI + HS (51.6%) and TBI (50%) groups compared with the HS (17.5%) and neither group (7.7%). Adjusted odds of death in the TBI and TBI + HS groups were 8.2 (95% confidence interval, 3.4-19.5) and 10.6 (95% confidence interval, 4.8-23.2) times higher, respectively. Ventilator, intensive care unit-free and hospital-free days were lower in the TBI and TBI + HS groups compared with the other groups. Patients with TBI + HS or TBI had significantly greater odds of developing a respiratory complication compared with the neither group. CONCLUSION The addition of TBI to HS is associated with worse coagulopathy before resuscitation and increased mortality. When controlling for multiple known confounders, the diagnosis of TBI alone or TBI+HS was associated with significantly greater odds of developing respiratory complications. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Prognostic study, level II.
The use of higher platelet: RBC transfusion ratio in the acute phase of trauma resuscitation: a systematic review
Critical Care Medicine. 2013;41((12):):2800-11.
OBJECTIVE With the recognition of early coagulopathy, trauma resuscitation has shifted toward liberal platelet transfusions. The overall benefit of this strategy remains controversial. Our objective was to compare the effects of a liberal use of platelet (higher platelet:RBC ratios) with a conservative approach (lower ratios) in trauma resuscitation. DATA SOURCES We systematically searched Medline, Embase, Web of Science, Biosis, Cochrane Central, and Scopus. STUDY SELECTION Two independent reviewers selected randomized controlled trials and observational studies comparing two or more platelet:RBC ratios in trauma resuscitation. We excluded studies investigating the use of whole blood or hemostatic products. DATA EXTRACTION Two independent reviewers extracted data and assessed the risk of bias. Primary outcomes were early (in ICU or within 30 d) and late (in hospital or after 30 d) mortality. Secondary outcomes were multiple organ failure, lung injury, and sepsis. DATA SYNTHESIS From 6,123 citations, no randomized controlled trials were identified. We included seven observational studies (4,230 patients) addressing confounders through multivariable regression or propensity scores. Heterogeneity of studies precluded meta-analysis. Among the five studies including exclusively patients requiring massive transfusions, four observed a lower mortality with higher ratios. Two studies considering nonmassively bleeding patients observed no benefit of using higher ratios. Two studies evaluated the implementation of a massive transfusion protocol; only one study observed a decrease in mortality with higher ratios. Of the two studies at low risk of survival bias, one study observed a survival benefit. Three studies assessed secondary outcomes. One study observed an increase in multiple organ failure with higher ratios, whereas no study demonstrated an increased risk in lung injury or sepsis. CONCLUSIONS There is insufficient evidence to strongly support the use of a precise platelet:RBC ratio for trauma resuscitation, especially in nonmassively bleeding patients. Randomized controlled trials evaluating both the safety and efficacy of liberal platelet transfusions are warranted.
Utility of platelet transfusion in adult patients with traumatic intracranial hemorrhage and preinjury antiplatelet use: A systematic review
The Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery. 2012;72((6):):1658-63.
BACKGROUND Preinjury use of antiplatelet agents (e.g., clopidogrel and aspirin) is a risk factor for increased morbidity and mortality for patients with traumatic intracranial hemorrhage (tICH). Some investigators have recommended platelet transfusion to reverse the antiplatelet effects in tICH. This evidence-based medicine review examines the evidence regarding the impact of platelet transfusion on emergency department (ED) patients with preinjury antiplatelet use and tICH on patient-oriented outcomes. METHODS The MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and other databases were searched. Studies were selected for inclusion if they compared platelet transfusion with no-platelet transfusion in the treatment of adult ED patients with preinjury antiplatelet use and tICH and reported rates of mortality, neurocognitive function, or adverse effects. We assessed the quality of the included studies using standard criteria. RESULTS Five retrospective, registry-based studies were identified, which enrolled 635 patients cumulatively. Based on standard criteria, three studies were of low-quality evidence, and two studies were of very low-quality evidence. One study reported higher in-hospital mortality for patients with platelet transfusion (relative risk, 2.42; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-4.9); another showed a lower mortality rate for patients receiving platelet transfusion (relative risk, 0.21; 95% confidence interval, 0.05-0.95). Three studies did not show any statistical difference in comparing mortality rates between the groups. No studies reported intermediate or long-term neurocognitive outcomes or adverse events. CONCLUSION Five retrospective registry studies with suboptimal methodologies provide inadequate evidence to support the routine use of platelet transfusion in adult ED patients with preinjury antiplatelet use and tICH. (J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2012;72: 1658-1663. Copyright Copyright 2012 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins). LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Systematic review, level III.
Prophylactic platelet administration during massive transfusion. A prospective, randomized, double-blind clinical study
Annals of Surgery. 1986;203((1):):40-8.
Prior studies at Harborview Medical Center have suggested that dilutional thrombocytopenia is a major etiology of microvascular, nonmechanical bleeding (MVB). We undertook a prospective randomized double-blind clinical study to compare the prophylactic effects of 6 units of platelet concentrates (PLT) versus 2 units of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) administered with every 12 units of modified whole blood in patients undergoing massive transfusion (12 or more units in 12 hours). After exclusions, three of 17 patients who received PLT and three of 16 patients who received FFP developed MVB, an incidence no different from our previous findings. Regression lines of platelet counts during transfusion were no different between groups, and both groups had higher platelet counts than predicted from a standard washout equation. Only one patient had evidence of dilutional thrombocytopenia as a cause for MVB. Prophylactic platelet administration is not warranted as a routine measure to prevent MVB.