Dorsal Wrist Ganglion: Pilot for Randomized Control Trial Comparing Aspiration Alone or Combined with Injection of Platelet-Rich Plasma
Hamlin K, Haddon A, Khan Y, Miller C, Lawrie D
Journal of wrist surgery. 2023;12(1):18-22
This pilot study assessed the feasibility of performing a randomized control trial (RCT) investigating injection with platelet-rich plasma (PRP) for dorsal wrist ganglion (DWG). Aspiration alone was compared with aspiration plus injection of PRP. Seventeen patients were enrolled. Nine patients received PRP and eight aspiration alone. Patients were followed up at 6 weeks and 1 year; recurrence of the ganglion and Patient Evaluation Measure scores were measured. At 6 weeks seven patients in the aspiration group had a recurrence and five in the PRP group, but by 1 year, this has increased to seven out of eight in the PRP group whereas in the aspiration group four had resolved leaving three out of eight patients with a ganglion still present. From the basis of our work an RCT would require a minimum of 46 patients per group; however, it is unlikely that PRP will be a panacea for ganglia. This is a Level II study.
Platelet-Rich Plasma Augmentation of Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair Lowers Retear Rates and Improves Short-Term Postoperative Functional Outcome Scores: A Systematic Review of Meta-Analyses
Ahmad Z, Ang S, Rushton N, Harvey A, Akhtar K, Dawson-Bowling S, Noorani A
Arthroscopy, sports medicine, and rehabilitation. 2022;4(2):e823-e833
PURPOSE The purpose of this study is to conduct a systematic review of meta-analyses of rotator cuff repair using platelet-rich plasma (PRP) to identify whether PRP improves clinical function and rate of tendon retears. We will (1) conduct a systematic review of the current meta-analyses of rotator cuff repair using platelet-rich plasma available in the literature, (2) evaluate the quality of these meta-analyses using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review (PRISMA) methodology, (3) identify whether PRP improves clinical function and rate of tendon retears, and develop guidance to improve future studies in this area. METHODS We carried out a systematic review of previous meta-analyses published on the clinical outcomes of PRP used in the treatment of rotator cuff tears. We performed a comprehensive search of PubMed, Medline, Cochrane, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), and Embase databases, using various combinations of the commercial names of each PRP preparation and "rotator cuff" (with its associated terms), looking specifically at human meta-analysis studies involving the repair of the rotator cuff tendon surgically in the English language. Data validity was assessed and collected on clinical outcomes. Following this, a meta-analysis was undertaken. RESULTS Thirteen meta-analyses met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. All were considered of similar quality with Oxman-Guyatt index of 9 and PRISMA score of more than 24. A total of 1,800 patients with an average follow up of 12 to 36 months. The use of PRP for arthroscopic rotator cuff tear, when compared with controls, leads to a lower number of retears, improved short-term postoperative scores, and functional outcome. The following postoperative scores were reported: Constant: 12, Simple Shoulder Test: 10, ASES (American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons): 9, UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles) 11, SANE (Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation) 1, VAS (visual analog scale): 6, and Retears: 13. Subgroup analysis showed that leukocyte content and gel application make no difference in the effectiveness of PRP. VAS score subgroup analysis showed short-term pain relief. CONCLUSIONS Our study shows that PRP is effective in reducing retears after rotator cuff repair and improving functional outcome scores and reducing short-term pain. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Level III, systematic review of Level I-III studies.
Platelet-rich plasma use in meniscus repair treatment: a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical studies
Li Z, Weng X
Journal of orthopaedic surgery and research. 2022;17(1):446
BACKGROUND There is conflicting clinical evidence whether platelet-rich plasma (PRP) therapies could translate to an increased meniscus healing rate and improved functional outcomes. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to compare the failure rate and patient-reported functional outcomes in meniscus repair augmented with and without PRP. METHODS We comprehensively searched the PubMed, Web of Science, Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases to identify studies that compared the clinical efficacy of meniscus repair performed with PRP versus without PRP. The primary outcome was the meniscus repair failure rate, while the secondary outcomes were knee-specific patient-reported outcomes, including the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score, Lysholm knee scale, visual analog scale, Tegner activity level score, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index score, Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation score, and Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score. Furthermore, subgroup analyses were performed by stratifying the studies according to the PRP preparation technique to investigate the potential sources of heterogeneity among studies. RESULTS Our meta-analysis included nine studies (two RCTs and seven non-RCTs) with 1164 participants. The failure rate in the PRP group was significantly lower than that in the non-PRP group [odds ratio: 0.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) (0.42, 0.96), P = 0.03]. Furthermore, the PRP group was associated with a statistically significant improvement in the visual analog scale for pain [Mean difference (MD): - 0.76, 95% CI (- 1.32, - 0.21), P = 0.007] and Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score-symptom [MD: 8.02, 95% CI (2.99, 13.05), P = 0.002] compared with the non-PRP group. However, neither the IKDC score nor the Lysholm knee scale showed any differences between the two groups. In addition, the results of subgroup analyses favored PRP over platelet-rich fibrin matrix (PRFM) regarding the IKDC score. CONCLUSIONS Although meniscus repairs augmented with PRP led to significantly lower failure rates and better postoperative pain control compared with those of the non-PRP group, there is insufficient RCT evidence to support PRP augmentation of meniscus repair improving functional outcomes. Moreover, PRP could be recommended in meniscus repair augmentation compared with PRFM. PRFM was shown to have no benefit in improving functional outcomes.
Injection of leukocyte-poor platelet-rich plasma for moderate-to-large rotator cuff tears do not improve clinical outcomes but reduce retear rates and fatty infiltration: A prospective single-blinded randomized study
Zhang C, Cai YZ, Wang Y
Arthroscopy : the journal of arthroscopic & related surgery : official publication of the Arthroscopy Association of North America and the International Arthroscopy Association. 2022
OBJECTIVES To determine whether leukocyte-poor platelet-rich plasma (Lp-PRP) reduced retear rates, reduced fatty infiltration and improved functional outcomes in patients with degenerative moderate-to-large RCTs. METHODS This was a randomized controlled study at a single centre. Consecutive series of 104 patients with moderate-to-large rotator cuff tears were enrolled and randomly allocated to a control group (double-row suture-bridge arthroscopic rotator cuff repair alone, n=52) and a study group (double-row suture-bridge repair followed by three Lp-PRP injections at the tendon repair site during surgery, at days 7 and 14 after surgery, n=52). All patients were followed up for 27.2 months (range 24-36 months), with UCLA shoulder rating scale, the Constant score and a visual analog scale (VAS) evaluated respectively. The integrity and fatty infiltration of repaired tissue were assessed by MRI using the Sugaya classification and Goutallier grade classification at 24 months after surgery. Statistical analysis was performed based on T-test, chi-square test and the Kendall tau-b correlation coefficient. RESULTS 4 patients refused follow-up, and 11 patients had incomplete data. Eventually, a total of 89 patients were available for 24 months follow-up. The mean UCLA score increased from 14.802.53 to 29.372.06 in control group and from 13.743.30 to 30.142.32 in study group (p=0.103). The mean Constant score increased from 46.565.90 to 86.834.94 in control group and from 44.377.92 to 88.804.92 in study group (p=0.063). The VAS score decreased from 3.221.24 to 0.971.12 in control group and in 3.491.52 to 1.160.99 in study group (p=0.41). All differences of UCLA score, Constant score and VAS between pre- and post-operation achieve minimal clinically important difference (MCID) proposed for arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Of the 89 patients, 76 had MRI performed at 24 months after surgery. The retear rate was 17.6% in study group, which was lower than that in control group (38.1%, p=0.049). And the Goutallier grade was found to be significant difference between groups postoperatively (Kendall tau-b -0.24, p=0.03), but no significant difference preoperatively (Kendall tau-b -0.18, p=0.11). There were no complications in all patients. CONCLUSION Our procedures, involving repeated injections of Lp-PRP during surgery and at days 7 and 14, as described in this study, has positive effects on reducing retear rate and promoting Goutallier grade by patients following arthroscopic RCR, and could also provide substantial clinical outcomes that reaching MCID for surgical treatment. However, given the numbers available for analysis, it did not promote better clinical results when compared with the control group.
Efficacy and safety of platelet-rich plasma in the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome: A network meta-analysis of different injection treatments
Hong P, Zheng Y, Rai S, Ding Y, Zhou Y, Liu R, Li J
Frontiers in pharmacology. 2022;13:906075
Purpose: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a common form of median nerve compression in the wrist caused by focal peripheral neuropathy. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) therapy could improve the healing ability by exposing the injured tissues to high concentrations of autologous growth factors. Our study aims to compare all injective treatments for CTS and assess the efficacy and priority of PRP therapy. Methods: We searched Medline, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane databases, and Clinicaltrial.gov until 17 October 2022. We only included data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated PRP injection therapy or drug injection therapy. The included RCTs measured at least one of the following three outcomes with validated instruments: in the visual analog scale (VAS), symptom severity scale (SSS), and functional status scale (FSS). Results: Overall, 19 studies with 1,066 patients were included in this study. We used the SUCRA rankings to determine the merits of various therapies. In all, 5% dextrose injections were the best treatment strategy for the VAS (MD -1.22, 95% CI -2.66 to 0.23; SUCRA = 79.2%), followed by triamcinolone (high-dose) injections (MD -0.69, 95% CI -2.11 to 0.73; SUCRA = 62.7%) and PRP injections (MD -0.39, 95% CI -1.67 to 0.89; SUCRA = 60.0%). In the SSS, the most effective intervention was hydroxyprogesterone injections (MD -0.62, 95% CI -1.09 to -0.16; SUCRA = 91.0%). The SUCRA ranking of PRP was second only to steroids and estrogen (MD -0.39, 95% CI -0.60 to -0.18; SUCRA = 60.8%). In the FSS, the best regimen strategy was hydroxyprogesterone injections (MD 0.12, 95% CI -0.30 to 0.54; SUCRA = 99.5%), followed by triamcinolone (low-dose) injections (MD -0.02, 95% CI -0.54 to 0.49; SUCRA = 87.4%) and PRP injections (MD -0.26, 95% CI -0.43 to -0.09; SUCRA = 77.1%). Conclusion: PRP is an alternative choice for CTS treatment. PRP injection is second only to steroids and estrogen in the treatment efficacy of CTS, with a wide indication and safe outcome.
Comparison of Platelet-Rich Plasma Treatment and Partial Plantar Fasciotomy Surgery in Patients with Chronic Plantar Fasciitis: A Randomized, Prospective Study
Atzmon R, Eilig D, Dubin J, Vidra M, Marom O, Tavidi A, Drexler M, Palmanovich E
Journal of clinical medicine. 2022;11(23)
Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) injection has become a desirable alternative to Partial Plantar Fasciotomy (PPF) surgery and steroid injection for patients with chronic plantar fasciitis (CPF) due to its potential for shorter recovery times, reduced complications, and similar activity scores. As such, we compared PRP treatment to PPF surgery in patients with CPF. Between January 2015 and January 2017, patients were randomly divided into two groups, a PRP treatment group, and a PPF group. All procedures were performed by a single foot and ankle fellowship-trained specialist surgeon. Visual Analog Score (VAS) and Roles-Maudsley Scale (RM) were collected during the preoperative visit and 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. The patients were also closely followed by a physiotherapist. There were 16 patients in each group after four patients refused to participate. Patients in the PPF had low Roles-Maudsley Scale (RM) scores compared to the PRP group one-year after treatment (3.77 vs. 2.72, p < 0.0001). Both procedures showed a reduction in RM scores during the follow-up year (9 to 1.62 for PPF and 8.7 to 2.4 for PRP). There was no significant change in VAS pain between the two groups (p = 0.366). Patients treated with PRP injection reported a significant increase in their activity scores, shorter recovery time, and lower complication rates compared to PPF treatment. Moreover, with respect to existing literature, PRP may be as efficient as steroid injection with lower complication rates, including response to physical therapy. Therefore, PRP treatment may be a viable option before surgery as an earlier line treatment for CPF. Level of Clinical Evidence: II.
Effects of Platelet-Rich Osteoconductive-Osteoinductive Allograft Compound on Tunnel Widening of ACL Reconstruction: A Randomized Blind Analysis Study
Solomon R, Hommen JP, Travascio F
Pathophysiology : the official journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology. 2022;29(3):394-404
The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a commonly injured ligament in the knee. Bone tunnel widening is a known phenomenon after soft-tissue ACL reconstruction and etiology and the clinical relevance has not been fully elucidated. Osteoconductive compounds are biomaterials providing an appropriate scaffold for bone formation such as a demineralized bone matrix. Osteoinductive materials contain growth factors stimulating bone lineage cells and bone growth. A possible application of osteoinductive/osteoconductive (OIC) material is in ACL surgery. We hypothesized that OIC placed in ACL bone tunnels: (1) reduces tunnel widening, (2) improves graft maturation, and (3) reduces tunnel ganglion cyst formation. To test this hypothesis, this study evaluated the osteogenic effects of demineralized bone matrix (DBM) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on tunnel widening, graft maturation, and ganglion cyst formation. This was a randomized controlled clinical trial pilot study. A total of 26 patients that elected to have ACL reconstruction surgery were randomized between the OIC and control group. Measurements of tunnel expansion and graft-tunnel incorporation were conducted via the quantitative image analysis of MRI scans performed at six months after surgery for both groups. No patients had adverse post-operative reactions or infections. The use of OIC significantly reduced tunnel widening (p < 0.05) and improved graft maturation (p < 0.05). Patients treated with OIC had a significantly lower prevalence of ganglion cyst compared to the control group (p < 0.05). The use of OIC has measurable effects on the reduction of tunnel widening, improved graft maturation, and decreased size of ganglion cyst after ACL reconstruction. This study explored the utilization of biologics to minimize bone tunnel widening in ACL reconstruction surgery.
[Clinical Outcomes of the Application of Platelet-Rich Fibrin during Anatomic Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: Results of Prospective Randomised Study]
Kasl J, Zeman P, Pavelka T, Cibulková J, Pilný J, Matějka J
Acta chirurgiae orthopaedicae et traumatologiae Cechoslovaca. 2022;89(4):279-285
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY It was a prospective, randomised, unblinded study. Effects of the application of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) on the anatomic anterior ligament reconstruction were examined. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 40 patients who underwent a surgery between 2012 and 2014 were enrolled in the study. The patients were randomised into two groups: the group with PRF application (n=20) and the group without PRF application (n=20, control group). The study included 11 women and 29 men, with the mean age at the time of inclusion into the study 29.1 years. Vivostat ® PRF was obtained perioperatively from the patient s blood and applied intraoperatively to the hamstring tendon graft. The ACL graft healing was assessed through magnetic resonance (MRI) at 6 and 12 months postoperatively. The clinical outcomes (the Lysholm score and the IKDC Subjective score, return to pre-injury sport levels, Pivot-shift test, graft failure) as well as standardised laxity measurements using GenouRob arthrometer were performed preoperatively and 12 months after surgery. RESULTS The study was completed by thirty-three (33) patients (17 in the PRF group and 16 in the control group). In two cases, postoperative graft failure was reported (both cases in the control group). No significant differences were found in the process of graft ligamentization evaluated through MRI (p=0.07). No significant difference between the groups was identified with respect to return to pre-injury sport levels (p=0.232), or the Lysholm score and IKDC Subjective score (p=0.259, and p=0.364 respectively). The postoperative knee laxity measurement using Genourob arthrometer did not reveal any significant differences between the PRF group and the control group. DISCUSSION Results similar to those arrived at by our study have recently been published also by other authors worldwide. We can therefore assume that the application of PRF can be of benefit, especially at the early stage of healing. The results still need to be verified on a larger study group, the study design should focus on the development in the early postoperative period. CONCLUSIONS In our study group, no significant difference was observed in the evaluated subjective and objective clinical parameters. Only the parameter regarding the ACL graft failure fell just short of statistical significance, namely to the disadvantage of the group without the PRF application. Key words: anterior cruciate ligament, arthroscopy, anatomic ACL reconstruction, magnetic resonance imaging of the graft, platelet-rich fibrin, graft healing, MRI signal intensity of the graft.
Influence of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) analogues on healing and clinical outcomes following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructive surgery: a systematic review
McRobb J, Kamil KH, Ahmed I, Dhaif F, Metcalfe A
European journal of orthopaedic surgery & traumatology : orthopedie traumatologie. 2022
PURPOSE To systematically review the effect of PRP on healing (vascularization, inflammation and ligamentization) and clinical outcomes (pain, knee function and stability) in patients undergoing ACL reconstruction and compare the preparation and application of PRP. METHODS Independent systematic searches of online databases (Medline, Embase and Web of Science) were conducted following PRISMA guidelines (final search 10th July 2021). Studies were screened against inclusion criteria and risk of bias assessed using Critical appraisal skills programme (CASP) Randomised controlled trial (RCT) checklist. Independent data extraction preceded narrative analysis. RESULTS 13 RCTs were included. The methods of PRP collection and application were varied. Significant early increases in rate of ligamentization and vascularisation were observed alongside early decreases in inflammation. No significant results were achieved in the later stages of the healing process. Significantly improved pain and knee function was found but no consensus reached. CONCLUSIONS PRP influences healing through early vascularisation, culminating in higher rates of ligamentization. Long-term effects were not demonstrated suggesting the influence of PRP is limited. No consensus was reached on the impact of PRP on pain, knee stability and resultant knee function, providing avenues for further research. Subsequent investigations could incorporate multiple doses over time, more frequent observation and comparisons of different forms of PRP. The lack of standardisation of PRP collection and application techniques makes comparison difficult. Due to considerable heterogeneity, (I(2) > 50%), a formal meta-analysis was not possible highlighting the need for further high quality RCTs to assess the effectiveness of PRP. The biasing towards young males highlights the need for a more diverse range of participants to make the study more applicable to the general population. TRAIL REGISTRATION CRD42021242078CRD, 15th March 2021, retrospectively registered.
Prospective Comparison of Functional and Radiological Outcomes of Arthroscopic Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction by Hamstring Graft Alone and Platelet-Rich Plasma Added to the Hamstring Graft
Kumar A, Kushwaha NS, Kumar D, Singh A, Gupta V, Kumar S
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES To measure the additional effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on functional outcome of anterior cruciate ligament tear managed by augmenting anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with PRP. METHODS The present study was conducted on patients with ACL tear admitted in the department of orthopaedics, King George's Medical University, Lucknow wherein a total of 70 subjects were assigned into two groups of 35 patients each randomly, viz Group 1 in which the patients were treated by quadruple hamstring graft alone and Group 2 in which the patients were treated with augmented hamstring graft with PRP. The standardized anterior drawer test, Lachman's test, Lysholm knee score were quantified both preoperatively and postoperatively at different follow-ups and also tibial tunnel widening was measured postoperatively at different follow-ups. RESULT The present study had 70 patients with ACL tears. The mean age of patients in non-PRP groups was 29.71 ±2.99 years while that in the PRP group was 28.34±4.32 years. On comparing the improvement in grades at pre-op, immediate postop, 6 weeks, and 3 months follow-ups, there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups. The tibial tunnel widening also showed no significant difference between the two groups. CONCLUSION In our study, it was found that both the groups showed improvements in grades of anterior drawer test and Lachman's test postoperatively but the difference between both the groups was not significant. Similarly, while comparing the improvements in Lysholm knee score and tibial tunnel widening among both the groups, the difference was not significant. Follow up of 3 months was a limiting factor in our study. This technique needs further clinical evaluation to assess the long-term results.