Autologous platelet gel improves outcomes in tubularized incised plate repair of hypospadias
Journal of pediatric surgery. 2021
BACKGROUND hypospadias is one of the most widespread male congenital anomalies, occurring in 1:250 to 1:300 live births. Several repair techniques have been developing to improve the outcomes. PURPOSE a randomized prospective controlled study was adopted to evaluate effectiveness of autologous platelet gel in healing promotion and improving the outcomes of hypospadias repair. METHODS thirty children who aged between 6 months and 12 years were recruited and subdivided into two groups; group A had tubularized incised plate (TIP) repair with autologous platelet gel application and group B had TIP repair without autologous platelet gel. RESULTS there was no significant difference in duration of operation between both groups. All patients in groups A and B had slit-like meatus shape in the distal glans. While all those of group A had one urine stream, yet only 11 of group B had one. There were complications that happened exclusively in group B such as spray stream (27%) and fistula (20%). Whereas other complications occurred insignificantly more in group B than in A including meatal stenosis (53 versus 27%), glans dehiscence, (20 versus 7%), bleeding (33 versus 13%), infection (33 versus 27%), edema (27% versus13), respectively. The incidence of skin necrosis was equal in both groups. CONCLUSION autologous platelet gel usage in TIP hypospadias repair can be a reliable technique to promote wound healing, and to limit of postoperative surgical complications.
Pulp Revascularization/Revitalization of Bilateral Upper Necrotic Immature Permanent Central Incisors with Blood Clot vs Platelet-rich Fibrin Scaffolds-A Split-mouth Double-blind Randomized Controlled Trial
International journal of clinical pediatric dentistry. 2020;13(4):337-343
OBJECTIVES Clinical and radiographic evaluation of the regeneration of bilateral necrotic upper permanent central incisors with open apex using blood clot (BC) and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) scaffolds. TRIAL DESIGN Split-mouth double-blind parallel arm randomized controlled clinical trial. MATERIALS AND METHODS Randomization and blinding: The study started with 15 patients with bilateral necrotic upper permanent central incisors with open apex. Computer-generated tables were used to allocate treatments. The two maxillary central incisors were randomly assigned to either the control (BC scaffold) or the examined (PRF scaffold) groups. Participants: Thirteen patients aged 8-14 years fulfilled the study requirements. Follow-up was performed for 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Standardized radiographs were collected each 3 months, and difference in measurements was calculated using Image J software. Primary outcomes measured were sinus/fistula formation, pain complaint, mobility grade, and swelling presence/absence. Radiographic: Root length elongation and increase in root thickness. Secondary outcomes were sensibility test and crown color change. Radiographic: Change in bone density and apical diameter. Radiographs that were standardized used during the follow-up time, and occurred changes were calculated using Image J software. RESULTS One patient was lost during follow-up; therefore, 24 treated teeth were analyzed, they showed 100% success rate. Platelet-rich fibrin teeth displayed a statistically significant growth in radiographic root length and width, increased periapical bone density, and a reduction in apical diameter when compared with BC. At the end of the follow-up period, all treated teeth were negative to sensibility test. Blood clot displayed greater crown discoloration in comparison to PRF group. CONCLUSION For teeth with open apex and necrotic pulp, revascularization using PRF is an appropriate substitute to BC. HOW TO CITE THIS ARTICLE Rizk HM, Salah AL-Deen MS, Emam AA. Pulp Revascularization/Revitalization of Bilateral Upper Necrotic Immature Permanent Central Incisors with Blood Clot vs Platelet-rich Fibrin Scaffolds-A Split-mouth Double-blind Randomized Controlled Trial. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2020;13(4):337-343.
The Role of Platelets in Premature Neonates with Intraventricular Hemorrhage: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Seminars in thrombosis and hemostasis. 2019
Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) affects up to 22% of extremely low birth weight neonates. Impaired coagulation might contribute to the pathogenesis of IVH. The aims of this study were to summarize the current knowledge on the role of platelet indices in premature neonates with IVH and to provide an overview of secondary hemostasis parameters as well as fibrinolysis in premature neonates with IVH. The review was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The databases PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science were searched on March 7, 2019, without time restrictions. In total, 30 studies were included. Most studies investigated the significance of platelet counts and/or mean platelet volume (MPV). The meta-analysis showed that at day 1 of life, neither platelet count nor MPV differed significantly between neonates with or without IVH (standardized mean difference [SMD]: -0.15 x 10(9)/L, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.37 to 0.07 and SMD: 0.22 fl, 95% CI: -0.07 to 0.51, respectively). However, platelet counts < 100 x 10(9)/L were associated with an increased risk of IVH. Secondary hemostasis parameters did not differ between neonates with and without IVH. Fibrinolysis was only sparsely investigated. In conclusion, platelet counts < 100 x 10(9)/L were associated with an increased risk of IVH in premature neonates. The impact of secondary hemostasis was only sparsely investigated but seemed to be minor, and the role of fibrinolysis in IVH in premature neonates needs further research. Whether reduced platelet function is associated with an increased risk of IVH in premature neonates remains to be investigated.
Extremely low birth weight neonates (30 studies).
Platelet indices in neonates with IVH.
Platelet indices in neonates without IVH.
The meta-analysis showed that at day 1 of life, neither platelet count nor MPV differed significantly between neonates with or without IVH. However, platelet counts < 100 x 10(9)/L were associated with an increased risk of IVH. Secondary hemostasis parameters did not differ between neonates with and without IVH. Fibrinolysis was only sparsely investigated.
Preterm neonates benefit from low prophylactic platelet transfusion threshold despite varying risk of bleeding or death
The Platelets for Neonatal Thrombocytopenia (PlaNeT-2) trial reported an unexpected overall benefit of a prophylactic platelet transfusion threshold of 25x109/L compared to 50x109/L for major bleeding and/or mortality in preterm neonates (7% absolute risk reduction). However, some neonates in the trial may have experienced little benefit or even harm from the 25x109/L threshold. We aimed to assess this heterogeneity of treatment effect in the PlaNet-2 trial, in order to investigate whether all preterm neonates benefit from the low threshold. We developed a multivariable logistic regression model in the PlaNet-2 data to predict baseline risk of major bleeding and/or mortality for all 653 neonates. We then ranked the neonates based on their predicted baseline risk and categorized them into four risk quartiles. Within these quartiles we assessed absolute risk difference between the 50x109/L and 25x109/L threshold group. A total of 146 neonates died or developed major bleeding. The internally validated C-statistic of the model was 0.63 (95% confidence interval 0.58 - 0.68). The 25x109/L threshold was associated with absolute risk reduction in all risk groups, varying from 4.9% in the lowest to 12.3% in the highest risk group. These results suggest that a 25x109/L prophylactic platelet count threshold can be adopted in all preterm neonates, irrespective of predicted baseline outcome risk. Future studies are needed to improve the predictive accuracy of the baseline risk model. Current Controlled Trials number ISRCTN87736839.
Haemostasis and analgesia with autologous platelet-rich plasma in tonsillectomy
The Journal of laryngology and otology. 2019;:1-7
OBJECTIVE A single-centre, single-blinded prospective experimental study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of autologous platelet-rich plasma applied to the tonsillar bed post-operatively in reducing post-operative pain and haemorrhage. METHODS Platelet-rich plasma, prepared prior to surgery, was applied with calcium gluconate to one randomly chosen tonsillar fossa. Pain and haemorrhage were analysed, using a visual analogue scale and a pre-defined grading scale respectively, four times on the day of surgery at 2-hourly intervals, and thrice on the following day. RESULTS The pain score and haemorrhage grade on the test side were lower than on the control side. These findings were statistically significant. CONCLUSION This pilot study, conducted in India, revealed valid positive results for a promising new technology. The manual preparation of platelet-rich plasma could be automated in the future to allow a larger sample size.
Postnatal intervention for the treatment of FNAIT: a systematic review
Journal of perinatology : official journal of the California Perinatal Association. 2019
OBJECTIVE Fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) is associated with life-threatening bleeding. This systematic review of postnatal management of FNAIT examined transfusion of human platelet antigen (HPA) selected or unselected platelets, and/or IVIg on platelet increments, hemorrhage and mortality. STUDY DESIGN MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane searches were conducted until 11 May 2018. RESULT Of 754 neonates, 382 received platelet transfusions (51%). HPA-selected platelets resulted in higher platelet increments and longer response times than HPA-unselected platelets. However, unselected platelets generally led to sufficient platelet increments to 30 x 10(9)/L, a level above which intracranial hemorrhage or other life-threatening bleeding rarely occurred. Platelet increments were not improved with the addition of IVIg to platelet transfusion. CONCLUSION Overall, HPA-selected platelet transfusions were more effective than HPA-unselected platelets but unselected platelets were often effective enough to achieve clinical goals. Available studies do not clearly demonstrate a benefit for addition of IVIg to platelet transfusion.
Randomized Trial of Platelet-Transfusion Thresholds in Neonates
The New England Journal of Medicine. 2018
BACKGROUND Platelet transfusions are commonly used to prevent bleeding in preterm infants with thrombocytopenia. Data are lacking to provide guidance regarding thresholds for prophylactic platelet transfusions in preterm neonates with severe thrombocytopenia. METHODS In this multicenter trial, we randomly assigned infants born at less than 34 weeks of gestation in whom severe thrombocytopenia developed to receive a platelet transfusion at platelet-count thresholds of 50,000 per cubic millimeter (high-threshold group) or 25,000 per cubic millimeter (low-threshold group). Bleeding was documented prospectively with the use of a validated bleeding-assessment tool. The primary outcome was death or new major bleeding within 28 days after randomization. RESULTS A total of 660 infants (median birth weight, 740 g; and median gestational age, 26.6 weeks) underwent randomization. In the high-threshold group, 90% of the infants (296 of 328 infants) received at least one platelet transfusion, as compared with 53% (177 of 331 infants) in the low-threshold group. A new major bleeding episode or death occurred in 26% of the infants (85 of 324) in the high-threshold group and in 19% (61 of 329) in the low-threshold group (odds ratio, 1.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06 to 2.32; P=0.02). There was no significant difference between the groups with respect to rates of serious adverse events (25% in the high-threshold group and 22% in the low-threshold group; odds ratio, 1.14; 95% CI, 0.78 to 1.67). CONCLUSIONS Among preterm infants with severe thrombocytopenia, those randomly assigned to receive platelet transfusions at a platelet-count threshold of less than 50,000 per cubic millimeter had a significantly higher rate of death or major bleeding within 28 days after randomization than those in the group that received less than 25,000 per cubic millimeter. (Funded by the National Health Service Blood and Transplant Research and Development Committee and others; Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN87736839 .).
Are thrombocytopenia and platelet transfusions associated with major bleeding in preterm neonates? A systematic review
Blood Reviews. 2018
Over 75% of severely thrombocytopenic preterm neonates receive platelet transfusions to prevent bleeding, but transfusion guidelines are based mainly on expert opinion. The aim of this review was to investigate whether platelet counts or transfusions are associated with major bleeding in preterm neonates. We performed a systematic search of the EMBASE and MEDLINE databases until December 2017. We included randomized trials, cohort and case control studies. (Prospero: CRD42015013399). We screened 8734 abstracts and 1225 fulltexts, identifying 36 eligible studies. In 30, timing of the platelet counts or transfusions in relation to the bleeding was unclear. Of the remaining six studies, two showed that thrombocytopenia was associated with increased risk of bleeding, two showed no such assocation, and three showed lack of an association between platelet transfusions and bleeding risk. The study results suggest that prophylactic platelet transfusions may not reduce bleeding risk in preterm neonates.
Efficacy of Platelet-Rich Fibrin Combined with Autogenous Bone Graft in the Quality and Quantity of Maxillary Alveolar Cleft Reconstruction
Iranian journal of otorhinolaryngology. 2018;30((101):):329-334.
Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) on the quality and quantity of bone formation in unilateral maxillary alveolar cleft reconstruction using cone beam computed tomography. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 10 non-syndromic patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate within the age group of 9-12 years. The study population was randomly assigned into two groups of PRF and control, each of which entailed 5 cases. In the PRF group, the autogenous anterior iliac crest bone graft was used in combination with PRF gel. On the other hand, the control group was subjected to reconstruction only by bone graft. The dental cone beam CT images were obtained immediately (T0) and 3 months (T1) after the operation to assess the quality and quantity of the graft. Independent and paired sample t-tests and analysis of covariance were used to analyze and compare the data related to the height, thickness, and density of the new bone. Results: The mean thickness difference of the graft in both PRF and control groups at T0 and T1 was not significantly different (P>0.05). Furthermore, the reduction changes of bone height at the graft site from T0 to T1 were not statistically significant for both groups (P=0.78). The mean total bone loss of the regenerated bone from T0 to T1 was lower in the control group than that in the PRF group; however, this difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The usage of PRF exerted no significant effect on the thickness, height, and density of maxillary alveolar graft.
Clinical and radiographic comparison of platelet-rich fibrin and mineral trioxide aggregate as pulpotomy agents in primary molars
Journal of the Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry. 2017;35((4)):367-373.
AIM: This study aimed to evaluate and compare the Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) and Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) as a pulpotomy agent in primary molars. MATERIAL AND METHODS In this study, 50 primary molars from 50 healthy children aged 5-9 years requiring pulpotomy were randomly allocated into two groups. In PRF group, after coronal pulp removal and hemostasis, remaining pulp tissue was covered with PRF preparation. In the MTA group, the pulp stumps were covered with MTA (Pro Root MTA-Root Canal Repair Material, Dentsply International Inc.) paste obtained by mixing MTA powder with sterile water at a 3:1 powder to water ratio. All teeth were restored with reinforced zinc oxide eugenol base and glass - ionomer cement. Stainless steel crowns were given in both groups 24 h after treatment. Clinical evaluation was undertaken at 1, 3, and 6 months intervals whereas radiographic evaluation of the treated teeth was carried out at the interval of 6 months. RESULTS By the end of 6 months, the overall success rate was 90% in PRF group and 92% in MTA Group. A statistically significant difference was observed between the groups at 6 months of follow-up (P < 0.05). The results were statistically nonsignificant between the groups (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION Radiographic and clinical outcome in PRF group could suggest it as an acceptable alternative in pulpotomy of primary teeth. PRF holds a promising future in the area of primary tooth vital pulp therapy.