Leukocyte and platelet rich fibrin in the management of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Muñoz-Salgado A, Silva FF, Padín-Iruegas ME, Camolesi GC, Bernaola-Paredes WE, Veronese HR, Celestino MD, Filho WJ, Lorenzo-Pouso AI, Pérez-Sayáns M
Medicina oral, patologia oral y cirugia bucal. 2023
BACKGROUND Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) has a frequent adverse effect after the administration of nitrogenous bisphosphonates, as non-nitrogenous bisphosphonates are metabolized more rapidly and would produce this effect to a lesser extent. The objective of this study is to analyze the results obtained in the literature with the use of L-PRF in the treatment of ONJ through a systematic review and meta-analysis. MATERIAL AND METHODS Medline (via PubMed), Cochrane, Web of Science and Grey Literature Database was screened from which 10 were selected. RESULTS In the meta-analysis with full resolution, combining the use of L-PRF in the treatment of ONJ, a weighted proportion (PP) of 94.3% of complete resolution is obtained (95% CI: 91.2-97.4, p<0.001), with a low degree of heterogeneity, statistically significant (I2 = 29.02%; p<0.001). When analyzing the non-resolution data, a weighted proportion (PP) of 7.7% (95% CI: 3.6-11.9; p<0.001) was obtained with moderate heterogeneity (I2: 41.87%; p=0.112). In the meta-regression, no significant correlation was found between complete resolution and year of publication (intercept = 2.88, p=0.829). In consistency analysis no major changes in PP are identified when any of the studies are eliminated, demonstrating a high reliability in the combined results. CONCLUSION L-PRF alone or in combination with other therapies in treatment of ONJ achieved high percentages of complete lesion resolution (94.3%). In studies where L-PRF is combined with other therapies, and where the effectiveness of the other therapy alone is analyzed, L-PRF has been shown higher percentages of resolution.
Platelet-Rich Plasma Injections are at Least Equivalent to Corticosteroid Injections for Adhesive Capsulitis: A Systematic Review of Prospective Cohort Studies
Nudelman B, Song B, Higginbotham DO, Piple AS, Montgomery WH
Arthroscopy : the journal of arthroscopic & related surgery : official publication of the Arthroscopy Association of North America and the International Arthroscopy Association. 2023
PURPOSE To evaluate the role of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) for adhesive capsulitis (AC) as compared to other injectables. METHODS A literature search was performed on PubMed and Embase online databases identifying articles evaluating injection therapy for the treatment of AC. Inclusion criteria included prospective studies comparing PRP against alternative injectables with a minimum 15 patients in each treatment arm and a minimum 12-week follow-up. Pain scores, range of motion, and function scores were the primary outcomes assessed. RESULTS Five articles met inclusion criteria comparing PRP to corticosteroid or saline injections. There were 157 patients treated with PRP with follow-up duration ranging from three to six months. All five studies demonstrated statistically significant improvement in pain scores, motion, and function scores for patients receiving PRP, corticosteroid, and saline injections. However, PRP was consistently superior on intergroup analyses in all but one study. In four studies, pain and function scores favored PRP over control at final follow-up (range in mean difference for VAS pain score: -2.2 - 0.69, n=5 and SPADI score: -50.5 - -4.0, n=3) while three studies found greater improvement in shoulder motion after PRP (range in mean difference for forward flexion: 0.7 - 34.3 degrees and external rotation -2.3 - 20.4 degrees, n=4). One study found no significant difference between PRP and corticosteroid injections, but noted results were comparable. CONCLUSIONS According to a limited number of prospective studies, PRP injections for AC is at least equivalent to corticosteroid or saline injections and often leads to improved pain, motion, and functional outcomes at 3-6-month follow-up. Given the small number of studies, with design heterogeneity, there is insufficient evidence to routinely recommend PRP for AC. However, the results are promising and do support considering PRP as an adjunct treatment option for AC, especially for patients refractory and/or averse to corticosteroids or alternative treatment modalities.
Effect of adjuvant autologous platelet concentrates on secondary repair of alveolar clefts: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Siddiqui HP, Sennimalai K, Bhatt K, Samrit VD, Duggal R
Special care in dentistry : official publication of the American Association of Hospital Dentists, the Academy of Dentistry for the Handicapped, and the American Society for Geriatric Dentistry. 2023
OBJECTIVE To review the existing evidence on the adjuvant use of autologous platelet concentrates (APCs) with iliac crest bone graft (ICBG) in the reconstruction of the secondary alveolar cleft. METHODS Electronic databases were searched systematically until November 2022. Clinical trials comparing the three-dimensional radiological outcomes of patients who underwent secondary alveolar bone grafting (SABG) with ICBG and APCs to those with ICBG alone and the radiological outcomes assessed 6 months after surgery were included. Two authors performed the study selection and the assessment of the risk of bias. Meta-analysis was performed using the random-effects model to determine the risk ratio (RR) for developing wound dehiscence and the mean difference (MD) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) for the percentage of newly formed bone. RESULTS Nine studies (seven RCT and two CCT) were included with a low to high risk of bias. At the 6-month follow-up, the study group revealed insignificant results regarding the percentage of newly formed bone (MD = 6.49; 95% CI: -0.97, 13.94; p = .09; χ(2) = 0.01; I(2) = 71%). In addition, the overall risk of developing wound dehiscence was lower in the study group (RR = 0.34; 95% CI: 0.15, 0.78; p = .01; χ(2) = 0.67; I(2) = 0%). CONCLUSION Currently, there is insufficient evidence to support the adjuvant use of APCs with ICBG on enhanced bone regeneration following secondary alveolar bone grafting. However, combining ICBG and APCs might be beneficial in reducing the risk of developing wound dehiscence.
Does the use of platelet-rich plasma in sinus augmentation improve the survival of dental implants? A systematic review and meta-analysis
Sivakumar I, Arunachalam S, Mahmoud Buzayan M, Sharan J
Journal of oral biology and craniofacial research. 2023;13(1):57-66
BACKGROUND Platelet-rich plasma is considered an effective modality to promote bone regeneration, improve hard and soft tissue healing in surgical procedures including sinus augmentation. However, the survival of dental implants in sinus augmented sites with platelet-rich plasma has shown equivocal results in recent studies. PURPOSE In this systematic review, data on dental implants' survival in sinus augmentation sites with platelet-rich plasma were examined. MATERIALS AND METHODS Randomized controlled trials on the topic with a minimum mean follow-up of 6 months with no language restriction were considered. Other study designs on the topic were excluded. Accordingly, relevant articles were searched in Clinicaltrials.gov, Cochrane databases, PubMed/Medline, and Scopus up to April 2021. Using the Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool, the listed studies' risk of bias was evaluated. From the included studies, the pertinent information was taken and pooled for qualitative and quantitative analysis using R software 4.1.1. RESULTS Six randomized controlled trials involving 188 patients who underwent sinus augmentation with and without platelet-rich plasma, and 781 implants were included for qualitative and quantitative analysis. Four hundred and eleven implants were placed in the intervention group (with platelet-rich plasma) and 370 implants were placed in the control group (without platelet-rich plasma). The pooled estimate (OR 0.84, 95% CI 0.37 to 1.91; I(2) = 0%) indicated that there was no statistically significant difference observed between the groups. The test for subgroup differences showed no statistically significant differences between the subgroups (p = 0.45) with no heterogeneity (I(2) = 0%). CONCLUSION The bias associated with selective reporting of outcome data was considered as some concern for bias. This systematic review revealed that the effect of platelet-rich plasma is uncertain on the survival of dental implants.
Value of intrauterine platelet-rich concentrates in patients with intrauterine adhesions after hysteroscopy: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Korany S, Baradwan S, Badghish E, Talat Miski N, Alshahrani MS, Khadawardi K, Baradwan A, Alanwar A, Labib K, Dahi AA, et al
European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology. 2022;271:63-70
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the value of intrauterine platelet-rich concentrates among patients with intrauterine adhesions (IUAs) after hysteroscopic adhesiolysis. METHODS Four different databases (PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus, and ISI web of science) were searched for the available studies from inception to November 2021. We selected randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that compared platelet-rich concentrates in the intervention group versus no injection of platelet-rich concentrates in the control group among women with intrauterine adhesions after operative hysteroscopy. Revman software was utilized for performing our meta-analysis. Our primary outcomes were the adhesion score and incidence of recurrence of severe intrauterine adhesions postoperatively. Our secondary outcomes were the clinical pregnancy rate, menstrual flow duration in days, and menstrual flow amount (number of pads). RESULTS Five RCTs met our inclusion criteria with a total number of 329 patients. We found that platelet-rich concentrates were linked to a significant reduction in the postoperative adhesion score (MD = -1.00, 95% CI [-1.68, -0.32], p = 0.004). Moreover, there was a significant reduction in the incidence of severe IUAs recurrence among the platelet-rich concentrates group (7.6%) compared to the control group (23.4%) after hysteroscopy (p = 0.001). The clinical pregnancy rate was significantly increased among the platelet-rich concentrates group (37.1%) in comparison with the control group (20.7%) after hysteroscopic adhesiolysis (p = 0.008). There were significant improvements in the menstrual flow duration and amount among the platelet-rich concentrates group (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Intrauterine placement of platelet-rich concentrates is an effective method for the treatment of intrauterine adhesions after hysteroscopy.
Platelet-rich plasma injection in the treatment of patellar tendinopathy: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Barman A, Sinha MK, Sahoo J, Jena D, Patel V, Patel S, Bhattacharjee S, Baral D
Knee surgery & related research. 2022;34(1):22
PURPOSE The objective of the study was to assess the efficacy of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections in the treatment of patellar tendinopathy. METHODS The PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases were searched for clinical trials which compared PRP injection with other 'active treatment' interventions ('Non-PRP' injection and 'No-injection' treatments) or 'No-active treatment' interventions. Randomized and non-randomized clinical trials that had been published up to 15 November 2021, were included in the meta-analysis. The primary outcome, pain relief, was measured on a 'visual analog scale.' Secondary outcomes were knee functional activities and quality of life (QoL). The PRISMA guidelines were followed throughout the study. RESULTS Eight comparative studies were identified for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Assessment of these studies revealed that there were no significant differences in pain relief, functional outcomes, and QoL in the short, medium, and long term between PRP injection and Non-PRP injection interventions. Similarly, comparison of PRP injection to the No-active treatment intervention showed no differences in short- and medium-term pain relief. However, when PRP injection was compared to the No-injection treatment intervention extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ECWT), the former was found to be more effective in terms of pain relief in the medium term (mean difference [MD] - 1.50; 95% confidence interval [CI] - 2.72 to - 0.28) and long term (MD - 1.70; 95% CI, - 2.90 to - 0.50) and functional outcomes in the medium term (MD 13.0; 95% CI 3.01-22.99) and long term (MD 13.70; 95% CI 4.62-22.78). CONCLUSIONS In terms of pain relief and functional outcomes, the PRP injection did not provide significantly greater clinical benefit than Non-PRP injections in the treatment of patellar tendinopathy. However, in comparison with ESWT, there was a significant benefit in favor of PRP injection.
The Use of Intra-articular Platelet-Rich Plasma as a Therapeutic Intervention for Hip Osteoarthritis: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Lim A, Zhu JB, Khanduja V
The American journal of sports medicine. 2022;:3635465221095563
BACKGROUND There is a cohort of patients in whom hip preservation surgery is not indicated, because they have developed signs of early osteoarthritis (OA), and nor can they have a hip replacement, as they are too early in the disease process. Management of this cohort of patients is not standardised and both pharmacological and nonpharmacological measures are utilised to reduce pain. Interventions available for early OA include intra-articular injections of steroids, viscosupplementation and more recently platelet-rich plasma (PRP). However, the use of PRP in hip OA has not yet been studied systematically. PURPOSE To assess intra-articular PRP as a therapeutic intervention for hip OA, including the duration of efficacy, influence of dose and composition of PRP, and the incidence of adverse effects. STUDY DESIGN A systematic review and meta-analysis; Level of evidence, 4. METHODS We performed literature searches on the MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, WEB OF SCIENCE, COCHRANE, and SCOPUS databases, and the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines were followed. Data were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. We assessed the quality of the included studies using the methodological index for non-randomized studies instrument, with an additional assessment for randomized controlled trials with the revised Cochrane risk of bias tool for randomized trials. This is the first study to concisely collate the available data on the use of PRP in hip OA. RESULTS Eight studies were included in the analysis, with data from a total of 331 patients. PRP significantly reduced pain compared with the baseline at multiple time points, with the greatest effect at the 1- to 2-month follow-up, but PRP significantly improved function only at the 1- to 2-month follow-up. A significantly larger reduction in pain was achieved with a single injection of PRP compared with multiple injections, a total injected dose of PRP <15 mL compared with ≥15 mL, and use of a leukocyte-poor PRP preparation compared with leukocyte-rich PRP. There were no lasting adverse effects. CONCLUSION Low- and moderate-quality evidence suggests that PRP reduces pain and improves function at the end-point follow-up of studies compared with the baseline. Moderate-quality evidence suggests that a larger reduction in pain is achieved with a single injection of PRP compared with multiple injections, and low-quality evidence attributes a larger reduction of pain with a total injected dose of PRP <15 mL compared with ≥15 mL and using leukocyte-poor PRP compared with leukocyte-rich PRP.
The role of Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) intraarticular injections in restoring articular cartilage of osteoarthritic knees. A systematic review and meta-analysis
Prodromidis AD, Charalambous CP, Moran E, Venkatesh R, Pandit H
Osteoarthritis and cartilage open. 2022;4(4):100318
OBJECTIVE To assess the effect of PRP on knee articular cartilage content (thickness/volume) and examine the correlation between cartilage changes and clinical outcomes in patients with knee OA. METHOD A systematic literature search was performed using the Cochrane methodology in four online databases. Studies were included if they reported on cartilage content with cross-sectional imaging pre- and post-injection. A random-effects model meta-analysis was performed. Correlation with clinical outcomes was evaluated. RESULTS 14 studies (n = 1099 patients) from 1452 records met the inclusion criteria: seven RCTs (n = 688), one prospective (n = 50), one retrospective (n = 68), and four case-series (n = 224). The PRP preparation process and treatment protocol varied widely (follow-up 6-12 months). In meta-analysis, PRP treatment was not associated with a significant increase in cartilage thickness (4 studies, n = 187, standardized mean difference: Hedges g: 0.079; 95%CI: 0.358 - 0.516; p = 0.723). Meta-analysis of 3 RCTs (n = 112) showed no significant difference in the change of overall knee cartilage content with PRP injections compared with no PRP (Hedges' g: 0.217; 95%CI: 0.177 - 0.611; P = 0.281). CONCLUSION The current literature does not support the PRP as chondrogenic in treatment of knee OA. However, there is substantial heterogeneity in the evaluated studies which limits the robustness of any conclusion. An adequately powered RCT, with a standardized PRP regime and standardized high-resolution MRI is needed to definitely define any effect of PRP on knee cartilage content and its relation to clinical outcomes. Until such high-quality evidence becomes available, we recommend that PRP is not administered with the intention of promoting chondrogenesis.
The Statistical Fragility of Platelet-Rich Plasma as Treatment for Chronic Noninsertional Achilles Tendinopathy: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Xu AL, Ortiz-Babilonia C, Gupta A, Rogers D, Aiyer AA, Vulcano E
Foot & ankle orthopaedics. 2022;7(3):24730114221119758
BACKGROUND Randomized controlled trial (RCT) outcomes reaching statistical significance, frequently determined by P <.05, are often used to guide decision making. Noted lack of reproducibility of some RCTs has brought special attention to the limitations of this approach. In this meta-analysis, we assessed the robustness of RCTs evaluating platelet-rich plasma (PRP) for the treatment of chronic noninsertional Achilles tendinopathy (AT) by using fragility indices. METHODS The present study was a systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs comparing outcomes after PRP injection vs alternative treatment in patients with AT. Representative data sets were generated for each reported continuous outcome event using summary statistics. Fragility indices refer to the minimal number of patients whose status would have to change from a nonevent to an event to turn a statistically significant result into a nonsignificant result, or vice versa. The fragility index (FI) and continuous FI (CFI) were determined for dichotomous and continuous outcomes, respectively, by manipulating each data set until reversal of significance (a=0.05) was achieved. The corresponding fragility quotient (FQ) and continuous FQ (CFQ) were calculated by dividing FI/CFI by sample size. RESULTS Of 432 studies screened, 8 studies (52 outcome events) were included in this analysis. The 12 dichotomous outcomes had a median FI of 4.5 (FQ: 0.111), and the 40 continuous outcomes had a median CFI of 5 (CFQ: 0.154). All 52 outcome events included lost-to-follow-up data, and 12 (23.1%) indicated a greater number of patients lost to follow-up than the FI or CFI. CONCLUSION Our findings suggest that RCTs evaluating PRP for AT therapy lack statistical robustness, because changing only a small number of events may alter outcome significance. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Level II, therapeutic study.
Current Role of Intra-Articular Injections of Platelet-Rich Plasma in Adhesive Capsulitis of Shoulder: A Systematic Review
Harna B, Gupta V, Arya S, Jeyaraman N, Rajendran RL, Jeyaraman M, Gangadaran P, Khanna M, Hong CM, Ahn BC
Bioengineering (Basel, Switzerland). 2022;10(1)
Adhesive capsulitis shoulder is a common problem of patients presenting with shoulder pain and disability. The approach to such patients includes a variety of modalities. This systematic review evaluates the efficacy of intra-articular injections of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in the treatment. A literature search was performed between January 2010 and 30 May 2022. MeSH terms used were 'Platelet-rich plasma' OR 'PRP' AND 'Frozen shoulder' OR 'Adhesive capsulitis shoulder' OR 'Periarthritis shoulder'. The search included published articles in the English language involving human subjects. Studies evaluating other types of shoulder disorders, in vitro studies, review articles, animal-model studies, and pre-clinical trials were excluded. The data regarding study characteristics, efficacy, and safety outcomes were analyzed. A total of 11 studies with 347 patients over 10 years were finally included in this review. Most publications were in 2019 and 2020, mostly from India. This review included seven comparative studies, three case series, and one case report. In seven studies, a single intra-articular PRP injection was administered, whereas in the rest of the studies two or multiple injections were given. Only one study demonstrated an equivocal efficacy of PRP and steroid intra-articular injection. The rest all depicted better clinical and functional outcomes with the PRP injection. Only one study compared the outcomes of hydro-dissection treatment in adhesive capsulitis with the intra-articular PRP injection. The rest all either examined PRP alone or compared it with the steroid intra-articular injection. None of the studies showed any major side effects. The intra-articular injections of PRP in the management of adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder provide a new treatment approach. Further studies are required to ascertain the efficacy and safety of the PRP intraarticular injection as a management alternative in adhesive capsulitis.