Effect of blood donor characteristics on transfusion outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Transfusion Medicine Reviews. 2016;30((2):):69-80
Optimal selection of blood donors is critical for ensuring the safety of blood products. The current selection process is concerned principally with the safety of the blood donor at the time of donation and of the recipient at the time of transfusion. Recent evidence suggests that the characteristics of the donor may affect short- and long-term transfusion outcomes for the transfused recipient. We conducted a systematic review with the primary objective of assessing the association between blood donor characteristics and red blood cell (RBC) transfusion outcomes. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central databases and performed manual searches of top transfusion journals for all available prospective and retrospective studies. We described study characteristics, methodological quality, and risk of bias and provided study-level effect estimates and, when appropriate, pooled estimates with 95% confidence intervals using the Mantel-Haenszel or inverse variance approach. The overall quality of the evidence was graded using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology. From 6121 citations identified by our literature search, 59 studies met our eligibility criteria (50 observational, 9 interventional). We identified the evaluation of association of 17 donor characteristics on RBC transfusion outcome. The risk of bias and confounding of the included studies was high. The quality of evidence was graded as very low to low for all 17 donor characteristics. Potential associations were observed for donor sex with reduced survival at 90 days and 6 months in male recipients that receive donated blood from females (hazard ratio 2.60 [1.09, 6.20] and hazard ratio 2.40 [1.10, 5.24], respectively; n = 1), Human Leukocyte Antigen - antigen D Related (HLA-DR) selected transfusions (odds ratio [OR] 0.39 [0.15, 0.99] for the risk of transplant alloimmunization, n = 9), presence of antileukocyte antibodies (OR 5.84 [1.66, 20.59] for risk of transfusion-related acute lung injury, n = 4), and donor RBC antigens selection (OR 0.20 [0.08, 0.52] for risk of alloimmunization, n = 4). Based on poor quality evidence, positive antileukocyte antibodies, female donor to male recipients, HLA-DR selected RBC transfusion, or donor RBC antigen selection may affect RBC transfusion outcome. Our findings that donor characteristics may be associated with transfusion outcomes warrant establishing vein-to-vein data infrastructure to allow for large robust evaluations. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42013006726.
Fresh and stored red blood cell transfusion equivalently induce subclinical pulmonary gas exchange deficit in normal humans
Anesthesia & Analgesia. 2012;114((3):):511-9.
BACKGROUND Transfusion can cause severe acute lung injury, although most transfusions do not seem to induce complications. We tested the hypothesis that transfusion can cause mild pulmonary dysfunction that has not been noticed clinically and is not sufficiently severe to fit the definition of transfusion-related acute lung injury. METHODS We studied 35 healthy, normal volunteers who donated 1 U of blood 4 weeks and another 3 weeks before 2 study days separated by 1 week. On study days, 2 U of blood were withdrawn while maintaining isovolemia, followed by transfusion with either the volunteer's autologous fresh red blood cells (RBCs) removed 2 hours earlier or their autologous stored RBCs (random order). The following week, each volunteer was studied again, transfused with the RBCs of the other storage duration. The primary outcome variable was the change in alveolar to arterial difference in oxygen partial pressure (AaDo(2)) from before to 60 minutes after transfusion with fresh or older RBCs. RESULTS Fresh RBCs and RBCs stored for 24.5 days equally (P = 0.85) caused an increase of AaDo(2) (fresh: 2.8 mm Hg [95% confidence interval: 0.8-4.8; P = 0.007]; stored: 3.0 mm Hg [1.4-4.7; P = 0.0006]). Concentrations of all measured cytokines, except for interleukin-10 (P = 0.15), were less in stored leukoreduced (LR) than stored non-LR packed RBCs; however, vascular endothelial growth factor was the only measured in vivo cytokine that increased more after transfusion with LR than non-LR stored packed RBCs. Vascular endothelial growth factor was the only cytokine tested with in vivo concentrations that correlated with AaDo(2). CONCLUSION RBC transfusion causes subtle pulmonary dysfunction, as evidenced by impaired gas exchange for oxygen, supporting our hypothesis that lung impairment after transfusion includes a wide spectrum of physiologic derangements and may not require an existing state of altered physiology. These data do not support the hypothesis that transfusion of RBCs stored for >21 days is more injurious than that of fresh RBCs.