Is fresh, leucodepleted, whole blood transfusion superior to blood component transfusion in pediatric patients undergoing spinal deformity surgeries? A prospective, randomized study analyzing postoperative serological parameters and clinical recovery
European spine journal : official publication of the European Spine Society, the European Spinal Deformity Society, and the European Section of the Cervical Spine Research Society. 2021;:1-7
PURPOSE To compare the effectiveness of fresh whole blood (FWB) and blood component transfusion in improving clinical outcome and serological parameters in the early postoperative period following spinal deformity surgery. METHODS Patients undergoing major spinal deformity surgeries involving ≥ 6 levels of fusion and expected blood loss ≥ 750 ml between September 2017 and August 2018 were included in the study. The patients were randomized into two groups: FWBG and CG, receiving fresh whole blood and component transfusions, respectively. RESULTS A total of 65 patients with spinal deformities of different etiologies were included. The mean age was 14.0 and 14.9 years in FWB and CG, respectively. All other preoperative parameters were comparable. The mean fusion levels and surgical time were 11.1 and 221.20 min in FWB, as compared with 10.70 and 208.74minutes in CG, respectively. Intraoperative blood losses were 929 ml (FWBG) and 847 ml(CG), and the mean volumes of transfusion were 1.90 (FWBG) and 1.65 units (CG). FWBG was significantly superior to CG in the following clinical and laboratory parameters: duration of oxygen dependence [36.43 (FWBG) vs. 43.45 h (CG); P = 0.0256], mean arterial pH [7.442 (FWBG) vs. 7.394 (CG); p < 0.001], interleukin-6 [30.04 (FWBG) vs. 35.10 (CG); p < 0.019], mean duration of HDU stay [40.6 hours (FWBG) vs 46.51 hours (CG); p = 0.0234] and postoperative facial puffiness [7/30 in FWBG vs. 18/35 (CG) (P < 0.02)]. CONCLUSION FWB transfusion can potentially improve the immediate postoperative outcome in patients undergoing major spinal deformity surgeries by reducing the duration of intensive care unit stay and oxygen dependence. The other potential benefits of this practice, based on our study, include a reduced inflammatory response (reduced lactate and IL-6) and postoperative facial puffiness. However, further large-scale validation studies in future are necessary to precisely determine the role of FWB in spine surgeries. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE II Diagnostic: individual cross-sectional studies with the consistently applied reference standard and blinding.
Paediatric patients undergoing spinal deformity surgery (n= 65).
Fresh whole blood: FWBG group (n= 30).
Component transfusions: CG group (n = 35).
The mean fusion levels and surgical time were 11.1 and 221.20 min in FWB, as compared with 10.70 and 208.74 minutes in CG, respectively. Intraoperative blood losses were 929 ml (FWBG) and 847 ml (CG), and the mean volumes of transfusion were 1.90 (FWBG) and 1.65 units (CG). FWBG was significantly superior to CG in the following clinical and laboratory parameters: duration of oxygen dependence, mean arterial pH, interleukin-6, mean duration of high dependency unit stay and postoperative facial puffiness.
Transfusion Guidelines in Adult Spine Surgery: A Systematic Review and Critical Summary of Currently Available Evidence
The spine journal : official journal of the North American Spine Society. 2021
BACKGROUND CONTEXT Red blood cell transfusion can be associated with complications in medical and surgical patients. Acute anemia in ambulatory patients undergoing surgery can also impede wound healing and independent self-care. Current transfusion threshold guidelines are still based on evidence derived from critically-ill intensive care unit medical patients and may not apply to spine surgery candidates. PURPOSE We aimed to provide the reader with a synthesis of the best available evidence to recommend transfusion trigger thresholds and guidelines in adult patients undergoing spine surgery. STUDY DESIGN/SETTING This is a systematic review. OUTCOME MEASURES Physiological measure: Blood transfusion thresholds and associated posttransfusion complications (morbidity, mortality, length of stay, infections, etc…) of the published articles. PATIENT SAMPLE Adult spine surgery patients. METHODS A systematic review of the literature using the PubMed, Google Scholar, and Web of Science electronic databases was made according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Focus was set on papers discussing thresholds for blood transfusion in adult surgical spine patients, as well as complications associated with transfusion after acute surgical blood loss in the operating room or postoperative period. Publications discussing pediatric cases, blood type analyses, blood loss prevention strategies and protocols, systematic reviews and letters to the editor were excluded. RESULTS A total of 22 articles fitting our search criteria were reviewed. Patients who received blood transfusion in these studies were older, of female gender, had more severe comorbidities except for smoking, and had prolonged surgical time. Blood transfusion was associated with multiple adverse postoperative complications, including a higher rate of superficial or deep surgical site infections, sepsis, urinary and pulmonary infections, cardiovascular complications, return to the operating room, and increased postoperative length of stay and 30-day readmission. Analysis of transfusion thresholds from these studies showed that a pre-operative hemoglobin (Hb) of > 13 g/dL, and an intraoperative and post-operative Hb nadir above 9 and 8 g/dL, respectively, were associated with better outcomes and fewer wound infections than lower thresholds (Level B Class III). Additionally, it was generally recommended to transfuse autologous blood that was < 28 days old, if possible, with a limit of 2 to 3 units to minimize patient morbidity and mortality. CONCLUSION Blood transfusion thresholds in surgical patients may be specialty-specific and different than those used for critically-ill medical patients. For adult spine surgery patients, red blood cell transfusion should be avoided if Hb numbers remain > 9 and 8 g/dL in the intraoperative and direct post-operative periods, respectively.
Adult spine surgery patients (22 studies).
Systematic review of studies on recommended thresholds for blood transfusion, and its associated complications.
Patients who received blood transfusion in the studies reviewed were older, female, had more severe comorbidities except for smoking, and had prolonged surgical time. Blood transfusion was associated with multiple adverse postoperative complications, including a higher rate of superficial or deep surgical site infections, sepsis, urinary and pulmonary infections, cardiovascular complications, return to the operating room, and increased postoperative length of stay and 30-day readmission. Analysis of transfusion thresholds showed that a pre-operative haemoglobin (Hb) of > 13 g/dL, and an intraoperative and post-operative Hb nadir above 9 and 8 g/dL, respectively, were associated with better outcomes and fewer wound infections than lower thresholds. Additionally, it was generally recommended to transfuse autologous blood that was < 28 days old, if possible, with a limit of 2 to 3 units to minimize patient morbidity and mortality.
Transfusion requirements after head trauma: a randomized feasibility controlled trial
Critical care (London, England). 2019;23(1):89
BACKGROUND Anemia is frequent among patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and is associated with an increased risk of poor outcome. The optimal hemoglobin concentration to trigger red blood cell (RBC) transfusion in patients with TBI is not clearly defined. METHODS All eligible consecutive adult patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with moderate or severe TBI were randomized to a "restrictive" (hemoglobin transfusion threshold of 7 g/dL), or a "liberal" (threshold 9 g/dL) transfusion strategy. The transfusion strategy was continued for up to 14 days or until ICU discharge. The primary outcome was the mean difference in hemoglobin between groups. Secondary outcomes included transfusion requirements, intracranial pressure management, cerebral hemodynamics, length of stay, mortality and 6-month neurological outcome. RESULTS A total of 44 patients were randomized, 21 patients to the liberal group and 23 to the restrictive group. There were no baseline differences between the groups. The mean hemoglobin concentrations during the 14-day period were 8.4 +/- 1.0 and 9.3 +/- 1.3 (p < 0.01) in the restrictive and liberal groups, respectively. Fewer RBC units were administered in the restrictive than in the liberal group (35 vs. 66, p = 0.02). There was negative correlation (r = - 0.265, p < 0.01) between hemoglobin concentration and middle cerebral artery flow velocity as evaluated by transcranial Doppler ultrasound and the incidence of post-traumatic vasospasm was significantly lower in the liberal strategy group (4/21, 3% vs. 15/23, 65%; p < 0.01). Hospital mortality was higher in the restrictive than in the liberal group (7/23 vs. 1/21; p = 0.048) and the liberal group tended to have a better neurological status at 6 months (p = 0.06). CONCLUSIONS The trial reached feasibility criteria. The restrictive group had lower hemoglobin concentrations and received fewer RBC transfusions. Hospital mortality was lower and neurological status at 6 months favored the liberal group. TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02203292 . Registered on 29 July 2014.
Aggressive blood pressure reduction is not associated with decreased perfusion in leukoaraiosis regions in acute intracerebral hemorrhage patients
PloS one. 2019;14(3):e0213645
Leukoaraiosis regions may be more vulnerable to decreases in cerebral perfusion. We aimed to assess perfusion in leukoaraiosis regions in acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) patients. We tested the hypothesis that aggressive acute BP reduction in ICH patients is associated with hypoperfusion in areas of leukoaraiosis. In the ICH Acutely Decreasing Arterial Pressure Trial (ICH ADAPT), patients with ICH <24 hours duration were randomized to two systolic BP (SBP) target groups (<150 mmHg vs. <180 mmHg). Computed tomography perfusion (CTP) imaging was performed 2h post-randomization. Leukoaraiosis tissue volumes were planimetrically measured using semi-automated threshold techniques on the acute non-contrast CT. CTP source leukoaraiosis region-of-interest object maps were co-registered with CTP post-processed maps to assess cerebral perfusion in these areas. Seventy-one patients were included with a mean age of 69+/-11.4 years, 52 of whom had leukoaraiosis. The mean relative Tmax (rTmax) of leukoaraiotic tissue (2.3+/-2s) was prolonged compared to that of normal appearing white matter in patients without leukoaraiosis (1.1+/-1.2s, p = 0.04). In the 52 patients with leukoaraiosis, SBP in the aggressive treatment group (145+/-20.4 mmHg, n = 27) was significantly lower than that in the conservative group (159.9+/-13.1 mmHg, n = 25, p = 0.001) at the time of CTP. Despite this SBP difference, mean leukoaraiosis rTmax was similar in the two treatment groups (2.6+/-2.3 vs. 1.8+/-1.6 seconds, p = 0.3). Cerebral perfusion in tissue affected by leukoaraiosis is hypoperfused in acute ICH patients. Aggressive BP reduction does not appear to acutely aggravate cerebral hypoperfusion.
Longitudinal Changes in Disability Rating Scale Scores: A Secondary Analysis Among Patients With Severe TBI Enrolled in the Epo Clinical Trial
Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society : JINS. 2019;25(3):293-301
OBJECTIVES Long-term neurological response to treatment after a severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI) is a dynamic process. Failure to capture individual heterogeneity in recovery may impact findings from single endpoint sTBI randomized controlled trials (RCT). The present study re-examined the efficacy of erythropoietin (Epo) and transfusion thresholds through longitudinal modeling of sTBI recovery as measured by the Disability Rating Scale (DRS). This study complements the report of primary outcomes in the Epo sTBI RCT, which failed to detect significant effects of acute treatment at 6 months post-injury. METHODS We implemented mixed effects models to characterize the recovery time-course and to examine treatment efficacy as a function of time post-injury and injury severity. RESULTS The inter-quartile range (25th-75th percentile) of DRS scores was 20-28 at week1; 8-24 at week 4; and 3-17 at 6 months. TBI severity group was found to significantly interact with Epo randomization group on mean DRS recovery curves. No significant differences in DRS recovery were found in transfusion threshold groups. CONCLUSIONS This study demonstrated the value of taking a comprehensive view of recovery from sTBI in the Epo RCT as a temporally dynamic process that is shaped by both treatment and injury severity, and highlights the importance of the timing of primary outcome measurement. Effects of Epo treatment varied as a function of injury severity and time. Future studies are warranted to understand the possible moderating influence of injury severity on treatment effects pertaining to sTBI recovery. (JINS, 2019, 25, 293-301).
Blood transfusion indications in neurosurgical patients: a systematic review
Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery. 2017;155:83-89.
Neurosurgical procedures can be complicated by significant blood losses that have the potential to decrease tissue perfusion to critical brain tissue. Red blood cell transfusion is used in a variety of capacities both inside, and outside, of the operating room to prevent untoward neurologic damage. However, evidence-based guidelines concerning thresholds and indications for transfusion in neurosurgery remain limited. Consequently, transfusion practices in neurosurgical patients are highly variable and based on institutional experiences. Recently, a paradigm shift has occurred in neurocritical intensive care units, whereby restrictive transfusion is increasingly favored over liberal transfusion but the ideal strategy remains in clinical equipoise. The authors of this study perform a systematic review of the literature with the objective of capturing the changing landscape of blood transfusion indications in neurosurgical patients.
Intraoperative transfusion threshold and tissue oxygenation: a randomised trial
Transfusion Medicine. 2012;22((6):):418-25.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Transfusion with allogeneic red blood cells (RBCs) may be needed to maintain oxygen delivery during major surgery, but the appropriate haemoglobin (Hb) concentration threshold has not been well established. We hypothesised that a higher level of Hb would be associated with improved subcutaneous oxygen tension during major spinal surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS Fifty patients aged 18 years or older scheduled for spinal fusion with instrumentation were included and randomised to receive RBCs at either a Hb concentration of 7.3 g dL (-1) (restrictive group) or a Hb concentration of 8.9 g dL (-1) (liberal group) (Registration no.: H-C-2009-072). Oxygen tension was measured with a polarographic electrode placed subcutaneously over the left deltoid muscle. The primary endpoint was subcutaneous oxygen tension at the time most patients were still undergoing surgery. RESULTS Forty-eight patients were included in the intention-to-treat analysis; 25 patients in the restrictive group and 23 patients in the liberal group. The median change in subcutaneous oxygen tension 60 min after surgical incision was -0.79 and -0.75 kPa in the restrictive and the liberal groups, respectively (P = 0.78). No significant difference was found in the lowest subcutaneous oxygen tension; -2.07 vs. -1.95 kPa in the restrictive and the liberal groups, respectively (P = 0.85). CONCLUSION A Hb concentration transfusion threshold of 8.9 g dL (-1) was not associated with a higher subcutaneous oxygen tension during major spinal surgery than a threshold of 7.3 g dL (-1), but the trial was compromised by methodological difficulties. 2012 The Authors. Transfusion Medicine 2012 British Blood Transfusion Society.
Effects of liver function on ionized hypocalcaemia following rapid blood transfusion
Journal of International Medical Research. 2012;40((2):):572-82.
OBJECTIVE Hypocalcaemia detrimentally affects the cardiovascular system and massive transfusion-related hypocalcaemia is particularly severe in end-stage liver disease patients undergoing liver transplantation (LT). This study, therefore, compared the severity and duration of ionized hypocalcaemia between patients with normal and impaired liver function. METHODS Patients (n = 26 per group) were transfused at a rate of 10 ml/kg within 10 min with packed red blood cells (PRBCs) during LT (group LP) or spinal surgery (group SP), or were infused with 0.9% normal saline during spinal surgery (group SN). Serum levels of ionized calcium were assessed before (T(0)), just after (T(1)), and at 20 (T(2)) and 60 min (T(3)) after transfusion. RESULTS Transfusion with PRBCs caused more severe ionized hypocalcaemia than 0.9% normal saline at T(1). In contrast to the faster (20 min) normalization in group SP, ionized hypocalcaemia in group LP persisted at T(3). Serum ionized calcium levels at T(3) showed correlations with vital signs, blood glucose, serum potassium, base deficit and lactate. CONCLUSION Rapid blood transfusion caused more severe and prolonged ionized hypo calcaemia in patients with liver dysfunction than in those with normal liver function.