Development and validation of a nomogram to predict intraoperative blood transfusion for gastric cancer surgery
Transfusion medicine (Oxford, England). 2021
OBJECTIVE To construct and validate a nomogram composed of preoperative variables to predict intraoperative blood transfusion for gastric cancer surgery. BACKGROUND Intraoperative transfusion for gastric cancer surgery is a common medical procedure that is associated with increased postoperative complications. METHODS A total of 999 patients who underwent gastrectomy between January 2010 and June 2019 were randomly allocated into the primary and validation cohorts in a 2:1 ratio. In the primary cohort, logistic analyses were performed to identify independent predictors for transfusion. Using the Akaike information criterion, selected variables were incorporated to construct a nomogram. Validations of the nomogram were performed in the primary and validation cohorts. The discrimination ability of the nomogram was assessed by the concordance index (C-index), and calibration was assessed by calibration curves and the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test. RESULTS The following risk factors for transfusion were identified and used to construct the nomogram: ASA status (III-IV vs I-II: odds ratio [OR] 1.74), comorbidities (yes vs no: OR 1.57), tumour location (diffuse vs lower: OR 4.05), cTNM stage (III vs I: OR 1.95), and a preoperative haemoglobin level less than 80 g/L (vs over 120 g/L: OR 35.30). The C-index was 0.859 and 0.850 in the primary and validation cohorts, respectively, which both indicated good discrimination of the nomogram. Additionally, both calibration curves and Hosmer-Lemeshow tests (p-value 0.184 and 0.887, respectively) demonstrated high agreement between the predictions and actual outcomes. CONCLUSION A nomogram composed of preoperative variables to predict blood transfusion for gastric cancer surgery was effectively developed and validated. This nomogram could be used to improve the utilisation of red blood cells for gastrectomy.
Patients undergoing gastric cancer surgery (n= 999).
Nomogram of preoperative variables to predict intraoperative blood transfusion (primary cohort, n= 666).
Nomogram of preoperative variables to predict intraoperative blood transfusion (validation cohort, n= 333).
The following risk factors for transfusion were identified and used to construct the nomogram: ASA (American Society of Anaesthesiologists) physical status, comorbidities, tumour location, Clinical Tumour-Lymph Node-Metastasis stage, and a preoperative haemoglobin level less than 80 g/L. The concordance index was 0.859 and 0.850 in the primary and validation cohorts, respectively, which both indicated good discrimination of the nomogram. Additionally, both calibration curves and Hosmer-Lemeshow tests demonstrated high agreement between the predictions and actual outcomes.
The Effect of Perioperative Blood Transfusion on Long-Term Survival Outcomes After Surgery for Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma: A Systematic Review
OBJECTIVE To evaluate survival outcomes associated with perioperative allogeneic red blood cell transfusion (RBCT) in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma undergoing surgery. METHODS PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, and Web of Science Core Collection were queried for English-language articles until May 28, 2020. Studies evaluating long-term outcomes of RBCT compared with no transfusion in adults with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma undergoing pancreatectomy were included. E-value sensitivity analysis assessed the potential for unmeasured confounders to overcome these findings. RESULTS Of 4379 citations, 5 retrospective cohort studies were included. Three studies reported shorter recurrence-free survival by 1 to 5 months with RBCT. Two studies found shorter disease-specific survival by 5 to 13 months with RBCT. Overall survival was reduced by 5 to 7 months with RBCT in 3 studies. All multivariable findings associated with RBCT could be readily overcome unmeasured confounding on sensitivity analysis. Confounding in baseline characteristics resulted in high risk of bias. CONCLUSIONS Imprecision, unmeasured confounding, small effect sizes, and overall low quality of the available literature result in uncertainty regarding the effect of transfusion on recurrence-free survival, disease-specific survival, and overall survival in patients undergoing surgery for pancreatic cancer. Randomized trials are needed to determine if there is a causal relationship between transfusion and survival after pancreatic resection.
Restrictive versus liberal transfusion strategy in upper gastrointestinal bleeding: A randomized controlled trial
Saudi journal of gastroenterology : official journal of the Saudi Gastroenterology Association. 2020
BACKGROUND The study aimed at comparing restrictive and liberal transfusion strategy in reducing mortality in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB). METHODS This was a single-center, prospective, open-label, non-inferiority, randomized controlled trial conducted over two years. Patients presenting with UGIB were randomized into restrictive (hemoglobin (Hb) <7 g/dl) or liberal (Hb <8 g/dl) transfusion strategy groups. Transfusion was given till patients achieved target Hb of 9 g/dl in restrictive and 10 g/dl in the liberal arms. Patients with exsanguinating bleeding, transfusion within 90 days, recent history of trauma or surgery were excluded. Primary outcome was mortality rate and the secondary outcomes were morbidity, re-bleeding episodes and the need for intervention. RESULTS A total of 224 patients were randomized to 112 patients in each group. Demographic characteristics were comparable. 45-day mortality was similar between the two groups (restrictive vs. liberal; 10/112 vs. 12/112; P = 0.65). The number of in-hospital bleeding episodes (12 vs. 9; P = 0.25), incidence of re-bleeding during the 45-day follow-up (13 vs. 14; P = 0.84), need for endoscopic banding for varices (37/112 vs. 39/112, P = 0.99), mean hospital stay (days) (3.21 ± 2.78 vs. 2.73 ± 1.29; P = 0.10) were similar between the two groups. CONCLUSION Restrictive transfusion strategy is non-inferior to liberal transfusion strategy in patients with UGIB.
Thromboelastography-Guided Blood Component Use in Patients With Cirrhosis With Nonvariceal Bleeding: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.). 2019
Thromboelastography (TEG) provides a more comprehensive global coagulation assessment than routine tests (international normalized ratio [INR] and platelet [PLT] count), and its use may avoid unnecessary blood component transfusion in patients with advanced cirrhosis and significant coagulopathy who have nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. A total of 96 patients with significant coagulopathy (defined in this study as INR >1.8 and/or PLT count <50 x 10(9) /L) and nonvariceal upper GI bleed (diagnosed after doing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy [UGIE], which showed ongoing bleed from a nonvariceal source) were randomly allocated to TEG-guided transfusion strategy (TEG group; n = 49) or standard-of-care (SOC) group (n = 47). In the TEG group, only 26.5% patients were transfused with all three blood components (fresh frozen plasma [FFP], PLTs, and cryoprecipitate) versus 87.2% in the SOC group (P < 0.001). Whereas 7 (14.3%) patients in the TEG group received no blood component transfusion, there were no such patients in the SOC group (P = 0.012). Also, there was a significantly lower use of blood components (FFP, PLTs, and cryoprecipitate) in the TEG group compared to the SOC group. Failure to control bleed, failure to prevent rebleeds, and mortality between the two groups were similar. CONCLUSION In patients with advanced cirrhosis with coagulopathy and nonvariceal upper GI bleeding, TEG-guided transfusion strategy leads to a significantly lower use of blood components compared to SOC (transfusion guided by INR and PLT count), without an increase in failure to control bleed, failure to prevent rebleed, and mortality.
Comparison of three transfusion protocols prior to central venous catheterization in patients with cirrhosis: A randomized controlled trial
Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH. 2019
BACKGROUND Transfusion of blood components prior to invasive procedures in cirrhosis patients is high and associated with adverse events. OBJECTIVES We compared three transfusion strategies prior to central venous catheterization in cirrhosis patients. PATIENTS/METHODS Single center randomized trial that included critically ill cirrhosis patients with indication for central venous line in a tertiary private hospital in Brazil. INTERVENTIONS Restrictive protocol, thromboelastometry-guided protocol, or usual care (based on coagulogram). The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients transfused with any blood component (i.e. fresh frozen plasma, platelets or cryoprecipitate). The secondary endpoints included incidence of bleeding and transfusion-related adverse events. RESULTS A total of 57 patients (19 per group; 64.9% male; mean age, 53.4 +/- 11.3 years) were enrolled. Prior to catheterization, 3/19 (15.8%) in the restrictive arm, 13/19 (68.4%) in the thromboelastometry-guided arm and 14/19 (73.7%) in the coagulogram-guided arm received blood transfusion (OR, 0.07; 95% CI, 0.01 - 0.45; p = 0.002 for restrictive vs. coagulogram-guided arm; OR, 0.09; 95% CI, 0.01 - 0.56; p = 0.006 for restrictive vs. thromboelastometry-guided arm; and OR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.14 - 4.15; p = 0.931 for thromboelastometry-guided vs. coagulogram-guided arm). The restrictive protocol was cost saving. No difference in bleeding, length of stay, mortality, and transfusion-related adverse events was found. CONCLUSIONS The use of a restrictive strategy is associated with a reduction in transfusion prior to central venous catheterization and costs in critically ill cirrhosis patients. No effect on bleeding was found among the groups.
The use of a thromboelastometry-based algorithm reduces the need for blood product transfusion during orthotopic liver transplantation: A randomised controlled study
European journal of anaesthesiology. 2019;36(11):825-833
BACKGROUND Orthotopic liver transplantation is associated with a risk of bleeding. Coagulation in cirrhotic patients is difficult to assess with standard coagulation tests because of rebalanced coagulation. This can be better assessed by thromboelastometry which can detect coagulation impairments more specifically in such patients. OBJECTIVES Our first objective was to compare the number of units of blood products transfused during liver transplantation when using an algorithm based on standard coagulation tests or a thromboelastometry-guided transfusion algorithm. DESIGN Randomised controlled trial. SETTING Single-centre tertiary care hospital in France, from December 2014 to August 2016. PARTICIPANTS A total of 81 adult patients undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation were studied. Patients were excluded if they had congenital coagulopathies. INTERVENTION Transfusion management during liver transplantation was guided either by a standard coagulation test algorithm or by a thromboelastometry-guided algorithm. Transfusion, treatments and postoperative outcomes were compared between groups. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Total number of transfused blood product units during the operative period (1 U is one pack of red blood cells (RBCs), fresh frozen plasma (FFP) or platelets). RESULTS Median [interquartile range] intra-operative transfusion requirement was reduced in the thromboelastometry group (3 [2 to 4] vs. 7 [4 to 10] U, P = 0.005). FFP and tranexamic acid were administered less frequently in the thromboelastometry group (respectively 15 vs. 46.3%, P = 0.002 and 27.5 vs. 58.5%, P = 0.005), whereas fibrinogen was more often infused in the thromboelastometry group (72.5 vs. 29.3%, P < 0.001). Median transfusions of FFP (3 [2 to 6] vs. 4 [2 to 7] U, P = 0.448), RBCs (3 [2 to 5] vs. 4 [2 to 6] U, P = 0.330) and platelets (1 [1 to 2] vs. 1 [1 to 2] U, P = 0.910) were not different between groups. In the postoperative period, RBC or platelet transfusion, the need for revision surgery or occurrence of haemorrhage were not different between groups. CONCLUSION A transfusion algorithm based on thromboelastometry assessment of coagulation reduced the total number of blood product units transfused during liver transplantation, particularly FFP administration. TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02352181.
Adult patients undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation (n=81).
Transfusion management during liver transplantation was guided by a standard coagulation test algorithm.
Transfusion management during liver transplantation was guided by a thromboelastometry-guided algorithm.
Median [interquartile range] intra-operative transfusion requirement was reduced in the thromboelastometry group (3 [2 to 4] vs. 7 [4 to 10] U). FFP and tranexamic acid were administered less frequently in the thromboelastometry group (respectively 15 vs. 46.3% and 27.5 vs. 58.5%), whereas fibrinogen was more often infused in the thromboelastometry group (72.5 vs. 29.3%). Median transfusions of FFP (3 [2 to 6] vs. 4 [2 to 7] U, RBCs (3 [2 to 5] vs. 4 [2 to 6] U) and platelets (1 [1 to 2] vs. 1 [1 to 2] U) were not different between groups. In the postoperative period, RBC or platelet transfusion, the need for revision surgery or occurrence of haemorrhage were not different between groups. (1 U is one pack of red blood cells (RBCs), fresh frozen plasma (FFP) or platelets).
The safety and efficacy of hypovolemic phlebotomy on blood loss and transfusion in liver surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis
HPB : the official journal of the International Hepato Pancreato Biliary Association. 2019
BACKGROUND Hypovolemic phlebotomy (HP) is a novel intervention that involves intraoperative removal of whole blood (7-10 mL/kg) without volume replacement. The subsequent central venous pressure (CVP) reduction is hypothesized to decrease blood loss and the need for blood transfusion. The objective was to conduct a systematic assessment of the safety and efficacy of HP on blood loss and transfusion in the liver surgery literature. METHODS MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched. Outcomes of interest included blood loss, allogenic red blood cell transfusion, postoperative adverse events, and CVP change. A qualitative synthesis and meta-analysis were performed as appropriate. RESULTS Four cohort studies, one case series, and three randomized controlled trials involving 2255 patients were included. Meta-analysis of studies involving liver resections for any indication (n = 6) found no difference in transfusion (OR 0.38, p = 0.12) or incidence of adverse events with HP compared to non-use. Pooling of studies involving liver resections for an underlying pathology (n = 4) revealed HP was associated with significant reduction in transfusion (OR 0.25, p = 0.03) but no differences in blood loss (-173 mL, p = 0.17). CONCLUSION This review suggests HP is safe and associated with decreased transfusion in patients undergoing liver surgery. It supports further investigation.
The impact of perioperative allogeneic blood transfusion on prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma after radical hepatectomy: A systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies
This meta-analysis aims to clarify the clinical impacts of allogeneic blood transfusion (ABT) on hepatectomy outcome in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. A systematic literature search was performed for relevant articles in international and Chinese databases up to May 2018. Random- or fixed-effect meta-analysis was used to pool the effect estimates. Publication bias was assessed by Egger's and Peters's test. Heterogeneity was assessed using the I statistic. The strength of evidence was rated by the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation system. A total of 29 studies met the eligibility criteria. Meta-analysis showed HCC patients in ABT group had lower survival rate at 1, 3, 5, and 10 years after radical hepatectomy than those in no blood transfusion (NBT) group (RR = 0.9, 95%CI: 0.87-0.93, P < .05; RR = 0.83, 95%CI: 0.77-0.89, P < .05; RR = 0.7, 95%CI: 0.65-0.74, P < .05; RR = 0.64, 95%CI: 0.54-0.75, P < .05). Similar results were observed in disease-free survival (DFS) (respectively: RR = 0.86, 95%CI: 0.82-0.91, P < .05; RR = 0.77, 95%CI: 0.67-0.79, P < .05; RR = 0.71, 95%CI: 0.64-0.79, P < .05; RR = 0.62, 95%CI: 0.48-0.8, P < .05). Cancer recurrence rate was higher for the patients in ABT group at 1 and 3 years (RR = 1.5, 95%CI: 1-2.24, P < .05; RR = 1.27, 95%CI: 1.09-1.49, P < .05, respectively), but not statistically significant at 5years (RR = 1.08, 95%CI: 0.98-1.19, P = .512). The HCC patients in ABT group increased postoperative complications occurrence compared with those in NBT group (RR = 1.87, 95%CI: 1.42-2.45, P < .05). This meta-analysis demonstrated that ABT was associated with adverse clinical outcomes for HCC patients undergoing radical hepatectomy, including poor survival, DFS, and complications. Surgeons should reduce blood loss during hepatectomy and avoid perioperative allogenic blood transfusion.
Impact of Perioperative Blood Transfusions on the Outcomes of Patients Undergoing Kidney Cancer Surgery: A Systematic Review and Pooled Analysis
Clinical Genitourinary Cancer. 2018
The aim of the present study is to systematically review current evidence regarding the association between perioperative blood transfusions (PBT) and oncological outcomes of patients with renal cell carcinoma undergoing nephrectomy procedures. A computerized bibliographic search was conducted to identify pertinent studies. The Population, Intervention, Comparator, Outcome (PICO) study design approach was used to define study eligibility according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) criteria. Only 7 studies were deemed fully eligible for analysis. Most series included both open and laparoscopic cases. The rate of PBT varied between 9.6% and 76.6%, and the median number of transfused units was 2 for most of the studies. At pooled analysis, a statistically significant association was found between PBT and disease recurrence (HR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.32-2.41; P < .001), cancer-specific mortality (HR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.29-2.05; P ≤ .001), and all-cause mortality (HR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.25-1.69; P < .001). Current evidence suggests that indeed the use of PBT may be associated with worse oncologic outcomes in patients with renal cell carcinoma undergoing nephrectomy procedures. Although presents findings should be interpreted within the intrinsic limitations of this type of pooled analysis, they emphasize the need for evidence-based strategies to minimize the use of PBT during kidney cancer surgery.
The impact of perioperative red blood cell transfusions in patients undergoing liver resection: a systematic review
Hpb : the Official Journal of the International Hepato Pancreato Biliary Association. 2017;19((4):):321-330
BACKGROUND Liver resection is associated with a high proportion of red blood cell transfusions. There is a proposed association between perioperative transfusions and increased risk of complications and tumor recurrence. This study reviews the evidence of this association in the literature. METHODS The Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were searched for clinical trials or observational studies of patients undergoing liver resection that compared patients who did and did not receive a perioperative red blood cell transfusion. Outcomes were mortality, complications, and cancer survival. RESULTS Twenty-two studies involving 6832 patients were included. All studies were retrospective, with no clinical trials. No studies were scored as low risk of bias. The overall proportion of patients transfused was 38.3%. After multivariate analysis, 1 of 5 studies demonstrated an association between transfusion and increased mortality; 5 of 6 demonstrated an association between transfusion and increased complications; and 10 of 18 demonstrated an association between transfusion and decreased cancer survival. CONCLUSION This review supports the evidence linking perioperative blood transfusions to negative outcomes. The most convincing association was with post-operative complications, some association with long-term cancer outcomes, and no convincing association with mortality. These findings support the initiation, and further study, of restrictive transfusion protocols.