Exploration on the effect of predeposit autotransfusion on bone marrow hematopoiesis after femoral shaft fracture
Transfusion clinique et biologique : journal de la Societe francaise de transfusion sanguine. 2020
OBJECTIVE By observing the changes in the number and activity of CD34+ cells in bone marrow after predeposit autotransfusion (PAT) to patients with femoral shaft fracture (FSF), to evaluate the effects of PAT on hematopoietic function and hematopoietic stem cells in bone marrow. METHODS Selected FSF patients were randomly divided into 2 groups: the control group (patients did not receive blood transfusion after surgery) and PAT group (patients received PAT after surgery). The content of RBC and Plt in blood samples were counted by blood routine. The cell cycle and proportion of CD34+ myelinated cells in blood samples was analyzed by flow cytometry. The telomere DNA length of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in the control groups and PAT group at postoperation 24 was analyzed by southern blot. RESULTS The content of RBC and Plt in postoperation 6h and 24h in the control group was evidently higher compared to that in PAT group, while Hb content in control group was significantly lower compared to that in PAT group. The proportion of CD34+ myelinated cells in post-transfusion 6h and postoperation 24h in PAT group was evidently higher compared to that in the control group. In PAT group, S phase at postoperation 24h was significantly larger compared to that at post-transfusion 6h. The telomere DNA length of HSCs in PAT group was longer than that in the control group. CONCLUSION PAT can increase the number of HSC, while doesn't cause the abnormal aging of HSCs. PAT is suitable for postoperative blood transfusion of patients with FSF.
Restrictive versus liberal strategy for red blood-cell transfusion in hip fracture patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis
BACKGROUND Most clinical guidelines recommend a restrictive red-blood-cell (RBC) transfusion threshold. However, indications for transfusion in patients with a hip fracture have not been definitively evaluated or remain controversial. We compared the pros and cons of restrictive versus liberal transfusion strategies in patients undergoing hip fracture surgery. METHODS Electronic databases were searched to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and retrospective cohort studies (RCSs) to investigate the effects of a restrictive strategy versus its liberal counterpart in patients undergoing hip fracture surgery. The main clinical outcomes included delirium, mortality, infections, cardiogenic complications, thromboembolic events, cerebrovascular accidents, and length of hospital stay. The meta-analysis program of the Cochrane Collaboration (RevMan version 5.3.0) was used for data analysis. Statistical heterogeneity was assessed by both Cochran chi-squared test (Q test) and I test. Both Begg and Egger tests were used to assess potential publication bias. RESULTS We identified 7 eligible RCTs and 2 eligible RCSs, involving 3,575 patients in total. In patients undergoing hip fracture surgery, we found no differences in frequency of delirium, mortality, the incidence rates of all infections, pneumonia, wound infection, all cardiovascular events, congestive heart failure, thromboembolic events or length of hospital stay between restrictive and liberal thresholds for RBC transfusion (P >.05). However, we found that the use of restrictive transfusion thresholds is associated with higher rates of acute coronary syndrome (P <.05) while liberal transfusion thresholds increase the risk of cerebrovascular accidents (P <.05). CONCLUSION In patients undergoing hip fracture surgery, clinicians should evaluate the patient's condition in detail and adopt different transfusion strategies according to the patient's specific situation rather than merely using a certain transfusion strategy.
Mortality, Morbidity and Related Outcomes Following Perioperative Blood Transfusion in Patients with Major Orthopaedic Surgery: A Systematic Review
Transfusion medicine and hemotherapy : offizielles Organ der Deutschen Gesellschaft fur Transfusionsmedizin und Immunhamatologie. 2018;45((5):):355-367.
Background: Benefits and risks of liberal and restrictive transfusion regimens are under on-going controversial discussion. This systematic review aimed at assessing both regimens in terms of pre-defined outcomes with special focus on patients undergoing major orthopaedic surgery. Methods: We performed a literature search for mortality, morbidity and related outcomes following peri-operative blood transfusion in patients with major orthopaedic surgery in electronic databases. Combined outcome measure estimates were calculated within the scope of meta-analyses including randomised clinical trials comparing restrictive versus liberal blood transfusion regimens (e.g. MH risk ratio, Peto odds ratio). Results: A total of 880 publications were identified 15 of which were finally included (8 randomised clinical trials (RCTs) with 3,693 patients and 6 observational studies with 4,244,112 patients). Regarding RCTs, no significant differences were detected between the transfusion regimes for all primary outcomes (30-day mortality, thromboembolic events, stroke/transitory ischaemic attack, myocardial infarction, wound infection and pneumonia) and a secondary outcome (length of hospital stay), whereas there was a significantly reduced risk of receiving at least one red blood concentrate under a restrictive regimen. Conclusion: The results of this systematic review do not suggest an increased risk associated with either a restrictive or a liberal transfusion regimen in patients undergoing major orthopaedic surgery.
Blood transfusion and postoperative infection in spine surgery: A systematic review
Global Spine Journal. 2018;8((2)):198-207.
Study Design: Systematic review. Objectives: Allogeneic blood transfusion-related immunomodulation may relatively suppress the immune system, heightening the risk of infection following spine surgery. This systematic review seeks to determine whether allogeneic blood transfusion increases the risk of postoperative infection and whether there are any factors that modify this association. Methods: PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and reference lists from included studies were searched from inception to April 20, 2017 to identify studies examining the risk of infection following allogeneic blood transfusion in adult patients receiving surgery for degenerative spine disease. Results: Eleven retrospective cohort or case-control studies, involving 8428 transfusion patients and 43 242 nontransfusion patients, were identified as meeting the inclusion criteria. Regarding surgical site infection (SSI), the results were mixed with roughly half reporting a significant association. There was an association between allogeneic transfusion and urinary tract infection (UTI) and any infection, but not respiratory tract infection. There was no statistical modifying effect of lumbar versus thoracic surgery on the association of allogeneic transfusion and SSI, though subgroup analyses in 3 of 4 studies reported a statistical association between transfusion and postoperative infections, including SSI, UTI, and any infection within the lumbar spine. Conclusions: This systematic review failed to find a consistent association between allogeneic transfusion and postoperative infection in spine surgery patients. However, these studies were all retrospective with a high or moderately high risk of bias. To properly examine this association an observational prospective study of sufficient power, estimated as 2400 patients, is required.
Restrictive versus liberal strategy for red blood-cell transfusion: A systematic review and meta-analysis in orthopaedic patients
The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume. 2018;100((8)):686-695.
BACKGROUND Current guidelines recommend restrictive criteria for red blood-cell transfusion in most clinical settings. However, patients undergoing orthopaedic surgery may require distinct transfusion criteria since benefits and potential harm often vary considerably based on patient characteristics and surgical procedures. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of restrictive transfusion in patients undergoing orthopaedic surgery, especially in important subgroups. METHODS Electronic databases were searched to identify randomized controlled trials investigating restrictive (mostly a hemoglobin level of 8.0 g/dL or symptomatic anemia) versus liberal (mostly a hemoglobin level of 10.0 g/dL) transfusion in patients undergoing orthopaedic surgery. For the primary outcome of cardiovascular events, we performed random-effects meta-analyses to synthesize the evidence and to assess the effects in different subgroups according to patient characteristics (with versus without preexisting cardiovascular disease) and surgical procedures (hip fracture surgery versus elective arthroplasty). RESULTS Ten trials involving 3,968 participants who underwent hip or knee surgery were included. Mean participant age ranged from 68.7 to 86.9 years. Compared with liberal transfusion, restrictive transfusion increased the risk of cardiovascular events (8 trials; 3,618 participants; relative risk [RR], 1.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16 to 1.98; p = 0.003; with no heterogeneity across all trials), irrespective of preexisting cardiovascular disease (pinteraction = 0.63). In a subgroup analysis, the increase was observed in patients undergoing hip fracture surgery (RR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.08 to 2.10; p = 0.02), but did not reach significance in those undergoing elective arthroplasty (RR, 1.53; 95% CI, 0.96 to 2.44; p = 0.07). To minimize the bias caused by variations in transfusion threshold, we conducted an analysis that only included trials using 8.0 g/dL hemoglobin or symptomatic anemia as the threshold for restrictive transfusion and obtained identical results (6 trials; 2,872 participants; RR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.09 to 2.08; p = 0.01; I = 0%). The 2 arms did not differ with respect to the rates of all infections, 30-day mortality, thromboembolic events, wound infection, pulmonary infection (mainly pneumonia), and cerebrovascular accidents (mainly stroke). CONCLUSIONS In patients undergoing orthopaedic surgery, when compared with liberal transfusion, restrictive transfusion increases the risk of cardiovascular events irrespective of preexisting cardiovascular disease. Importantly, the increased risk was observed in patients undergoing hip fracture surgery but did not reach significance in those undergoing elective arthroplasty. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Therapeutic Level I. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Restrictive versus liberal transfusion strategies for red blood cell transfusion after hip or knee surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis
BACKGROUND Red blood cell (RBC) transfusions are commonly used in surgical patients, but accompanied by many risks such as metabolic derangement, and allergic and febrile reactions. Indications for transfusion in patients after hip or knee surgery have not been definitively evaluated and remain controversial. We performed a meta-analysis to compare the benefits and harms of restrictive versus liberal transfusion strategies in patients after hip or knee surgery. METHODS The PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched for relevant studies through September 2015. The main clinical outcomes reported in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) included 30-day mortality, infection rate, cardiogenic complications, and length of hospital stay. The meta-analysis program of the Cochrane Collaboration (RevMan version 5.3.0) was used for data analysis. Statistical heterogeneity was assessed by both Cochran chi-squared test (Q test) and I test. Begg and Egger test were used to assess potential publication bias. RESULTS We identified 10 eligible RCTs, involving 3788 patients in total. In patients undergoing hip or knee surgery, we found no differences in mortality, or the incidence rates of pneumonia, wound infection, myocardial infarction, or congestive heart failure, between restrictive and liberal thresholds for RBC transfusion (P > .05). CONCLUSION Restrictive transfusion has no advantage over the liberal strategy. However, considerably less patients received blood transfusion via the restrictive strategy than with the liberal counterpart. Due to variations in the included studies, additional larger scale and well-designed studies are required to validate these conclusions.
Transfusion thresholds for major orthopedic surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis
The Journal of Arthroplasty. 2017;32((12):):3815-3821
BACKGROUND More than a million surgeries are performed annually in the United States for hip or knee arthroplasty or hip fracture stabilization. One-fifth of these patients have blood transfusions during their hospital stay. Increases in transfusion rates have caused concern about increased adverse events from unnecessary transfusions. METHODS We systematically reviewed randomized trials examining the effect of restrictive vs liberal transfusion thresholds on patients having major orthopedic surgery. Study results were meta-analyzed with a random-effects model and heterogeneity was tested with the I2 statistic. Study risk of bias was assessed using a modified Jadad scale and evidence strength was measured using the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) system. RESULTS A total of 504 published articles were screened, and 15 met inclusion criteria. The articles described 9 randomized trials, most comparing transfusion thresholds of 8 vs 10 g/dL hemoglobin. All involved hip or knee arthroplasty and/or hip fracture patients. Moderate-strength evidence suggested a reduction in need for transfusion (relative risk, 0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39-0.71; I2 = 95%) and mean number of units transfused (-0.95 units, 95% CI, -1.48 to -0.41, I2 = 98%). There was a possible reduction in overall infections with more restrictive transfusion thresholds, although the result was not statistically significant (relative risk, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.47-1.06; I2 = 54%). Moderate-strength evidence suggested no differences in other clinical outcomes between the groups. Limitations included incomplete blinding, inconsistency, and imprecision. CONCLUSION Moderate-strength evidence suggests that restrictive transfusion practices reduce utilization of transfusions and may decrease infections without increasing adverse outcomes in major orthopedic surgery.
The effects of blood transfusion on delirium incidence
Journal of the American Medical Directors Association. 2016;17((8):):748-53
BACKGROUND Both anemia and blood transfusion could be precipitating factors for delirium; hence in postoperative patients with anemia at high risk for delirium, it is controversial whether transfusion is the best option. The aim of this study is to investigate the association of anemia and delirium and the role of blood transfusion within the multicomponent prevention strategy of delirium. METHODS We conducted a substudy of a multicenter randomized controlled trial. Four hundred fifteen patients aged 65 to 102 years old admitted for hip fracture surgery were enrolled. Delirium was assessed daily using criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition. Data on hemoglobin values and transfusion were collected from the electronic medical records. RESULTS One hundred fifteen (32.5%) patients experienced delirium during hospitalization, 238 (57.5%) had a hemoglobin level ≤ 6.0 mmol/L (9.7 g/dL) at any time during hospitalization, and 140 (33.7%) received a blood transfusion. Anemia (a hemoglobin level ≤ 6.0 mmol/L [9.7 g/dL]) was associated with delirium (odds ratio, 1.81; 95% confidence interval, 1.15-2.86). Blood transfusion was a protective factor for delirium in patients with the lowest measured hemoglobin level ≤ 6.0 mmol/L (9.7 g/dL) (odds ratio, 0.26; 95% confidence interval, 0.10-0.70). CONCLUSION Low hemoglobin level is associated with delirium, and receiving a blood transfusion is associated with a lower delirium incidence. It would be interesting to investigate the effect of blood transfusion as part of the multicomponent treatment of delirium in patients with anemia.
Allogeneic blood transfusion is a significant risk factor for surgical-site infection following total hip and knee arthroplasty: a meta-analysis
The Journal of Arthroplasty. 2016;32((1):):320-325
BACKGROUND Blood loss occurs significantly more frequently during total hip and knee arthroplasty than among any other type of orthopedic operation, which can sometimes lead to requiring a blood transfusion. Although allogeneic blood transfusion has been identified as a risk factor for postoperative surgical-site infection following arthroplasty, results are inconclusive. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic meta-analysis to investigate whether having an allogeneic blood transfusion significantly increases the risk for surgical-site infection, particularly after total hip and knee arthroplasty. METHODS We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis using random-effect models. Using an electronic database search, we selected 6 studies that included data on 21,770 patients and among these studies compared the postoperative infection rate between an allogeneic blood-transfusion exposure group and a nonexposure group. We calculated the pooled odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the groups. RESULTS The prevalences of surgical-site infections in our pooled analyses were 2.88% and 1.74% for the transfusion and nontransfusion groups, respectively. The allogeneic blood transfusion group had a significantly higher frequency of surgical-site infections based on pooled analysis using a random-effect model (pooled odds ratio = 1.71, 95% confidence interval: 1.23-2.40, P = .002). CONCLUSION Allogeneic blood transfusion is a significant risk factor for increasing the surgical-site infection rate after total hip and knee arthroplasty.
Blood transfusion strategy and risk of postoperative delirium in nursing homes residents with hip fracture. A post hoc analysis based on the TRIFE randomized controlled trial
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research. 2016;29((3):):459-466
OBJECTIVES To investigate whether a liberal blood transfusion strategy [Hb levels ≥11.3 g/dL (7 mmol/L)] reduces the risk of postoperative delirium (POD) on day 10, among nursing home residents with hip fracture, compared to a restrictive transfusion strategy [Hb levels ≥9.7 g/dL (6 mmol/L)]. Furthermore, to investigate whether POD influences mortality within 90 days after hip surgery. METHODS This is a post hoc analysis based on The TRIFE - a randomized controlled trial. Frail anemic patients from the Orthopedic Surgical Ward at Aarhus University Hospital were enrolled consecutively between January 18, 2010 and June 6, 2013. These patients (aged ≥65 years) had been admitted from nursing homes for unilateral hip fracture surgery. After surgery, 179 patients were included in this study. On the first day of hospitalization, all enrolled patients were examined for cognitive impairment (assessed by MMSE) and delirium (assessed by CAM). Delirium was also assessed on the tenth postoperative day. RESULTS The prevalence of delirium was 10 % in patients allocated to a liberal blood transfusion strategy (LB) and 21 % in the group with a restrictive blood transfusion strategy (RB). LB prevents development of delirium on day 10, compared to RB, odds ratio 0.41 (95 % CI 0.17-0.96), p = 0.04. Development of POD on day 10 increased the risk of 90-day death, hazard ratio 3.14 (95 % CI 1.72-5.78), p < 0.001. CONCLUSION In nursing home residents undergoing surgery for hip fracture, maintaining hemoglobin level above 11.3 g/dL reduces the rate of POD on day 10 compared to a RB. Development of POD is associated with increased mortality.