WBC alloimmunization: effects on the laboratory and clinical endpoints of therapeutic granulocyte transfusions
BACKGROUND Although the subject of many previous studies, the importance of white blood cell (WBC) alloimmunization in granulocyte transfusion therapy has not been settled. In this study, we report the results of the effects of WBC antibodies in the RING (Resolving Infection in Neutropenia with Granulocytes) study, a randomized controlled trial comparing the efficacy of daily granulocyte transfusion therapy plus antimicrobials versus antimicrobials alone; the primary outcome results have been published previously. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS One hundred fourteen subjects were enrolled in the study. Serum samples for WBC antibody determination were obtained from each subject at baseline and at 2 and 6 weeks. One hundred subjects had at least one antibody test result. Samples were tested for human leukocyte antigen (HLA) Class I and Class II antibodies as well as for granulocyte-specific antibodies using granulocyte agglutination and immunofluorescence techniques. All testing was performed at a central laboratory. RESULTS Baseline WBC alloimmunization was modest, depending somewhat on the assay. Seroconversion during the study was slightly higher in the granulocyte transfusion arm, but the differences were not statistically significant. There was no demonstrable effect of the presence of alloimmunization on the primary outcome (survival and microbial response at 42 days), the occurrence of transfusion reactions (either overall or pulmonary), or posttransfusion neutrophil increments. CONCLUSION The presence or development of WBC antibodies had no demonstrable effect on any clinical aspect of granulocyte transfusion therapy. It appears that, at least in the patient population studied, there is no evidence suggesting need for concern about recipient WBC alloimmunization when prescribing granulocyte transfusions.
Efficacy of transfusion with granulocytes from G-CSF/dexamethasone-treated donors in neutropenic patients with infection
High-dose granulocyte transfusion therapy has been available for 20 years, yet its clinical efficacy has never been conclusively demonstrated. We report here the results of RING (Resolving Infection in Neutropenia with Granulocytes), a multicenter randomized controlled trial designed to address this question. Eligible subjects were those with neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count <500/muL) and proven/probable/presumed infection. Subjects were randomized to receive either (1) standard antimicrobial therapy or (2) standard antimicrobial therapy plus daily granulocyte transfusions from donors stimulated with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and dexamethasone. The primary end point was a composite of survival plus microbial response, at 42 days after randomization. Microbial response was determined by a blinded adjudication panel. Fifty-six subjects were randomized to the granulocyte arm and 58 to the control arm. Transfused subjects received a median of 5 transfusions. Mean transfusion dose was 54.9 x 10(9) granulocytes. Overall success rates were 42% and 43% for the granulocyte and control groups, respectively (P > .99), and 49% and 41%, respectively, for subjects who received their assigned treatments (P = .64). Success rates for granulocyte and control arms did not differ within any infection type. In a post hoc analysis, subjects who received an average dose per transfusion of >0.6 x 10(9) granulocytes per kilogram tended to have better outcomes than those receiving a lower dose. In conclusion, there was no overall effect of granulocyte transfusion on the primary outcome, but because enrollment was half that planned, power to detect a true beneficial effect was low. RING was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00627393. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.
Neutrophil/granulocyte transfusions collected from G-CSF + dexamethasone-stimulated donors
Current Opinion in Hematology. 2015;22((6)):565-7.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW The purpose of this review is to report a recently completed multicenter randomized controlled trial of neutrophil/granulocyte transfusions collected from G-CSF + dexamethasone donors to treat neutropenic infections in oncology and transplant patients, within the context of other historic and current clinical trials.The multicenter trial (RING Study) was funded by the NHLBI transfusion medicine/hemostasis clinical trials network. RECENT FINDINGS There was no significant benefit of therapeutic neutrophil/granulocyte transfusions versus antibiotics per intention to treat analysis, but 32% of patients received substandard neutrophil doses. Separate analysis suggested patients given a higher neutrophil doses had better outcomes. SUMMARY Efficacy of 'high-dose' therapeutic neutrophil/granulocyte transfusions remains unproven, but promising.
The RING study: a randomized controlled trial of GCSF-stimulated granulocytes in granulocytopenic patients
Blood. 2014;124((21)): Abstract No. SCI-16
A randomized controlled trial on the efficacy of high-dose granulocyte transfusion therapy in neutropenic patients with infection
Blood. 2014;124((21)): Abstract No. 1354
A prospective, randomized, double-blind study, comparing unirradiated to irradiated white blood cell transfusions in acute leukemia patients
A prospective, randomized double-blind study comparing the effects of irradiated and unirradiated white blood cells was conducted in 108 acute leukemia patients with life-threatening infections, refractory to antibiotics. The study demonstrated no significant improvement in 30-day survival or overall survival. Transfusion of unirradiated white cells did not compromise the patient's opportunity to undergo allogeneic stem cell transplant, nor the success rate or overall survival after allogeneic transplant. The important positive finding in this study was that the unirradiated white cells produced a significantly higher increment in circulating granulocytes and in a higher proportion of patients granulocyte count exceeded 1000 per microliter, approaching normal concentrations. The increase in the number and the improved survival of the unirradiated granulocytes suggest that this procedure might potentially be a method to improve the utility of granulocyte transfusions and merits further investigation. The study demonstrated non-inferiority for unirradiated white cells. There were no harmful effects such as graft-versus-host disease, indicating that such studies would be safe to conduct in the future.
Randomized phase III study of granulocyte transfusions in neutropenic patients
Bone Marrow Transplantation. 2008;42((10):):679-84.
Despite antibiotics, antifungals and haematopoietic growth factors, infections remain a major threat to neutropenic patients. To determine the role of granulocyte transfusions (GTs) in anti-infective therapy during neutropenia, GT administration was randomized in 74 adults with haematological or malignant diseases, febrile neutropenia and pulmonary or soft-tissue infiltrates after conventional or high-dose chemotherapy, a majority of them after allo-SCT (n=39). Neutrophil reconstitution was equal in the treatment and control arm. GT toxicity was minimal. The probability of 28-day survival after randomization was >80% in both groups, and no effect of GT on survival until day 100 could be detected in patients with fungal (n=55), bacterial or unknown infection (n=17) and various levels of neutropenia (ANC <500 vs >500 x 10(6)/l). These findings can be attributed primarily to procedural obstacles, such as long delay from randomization to first GT, low cell content and slow sequence of GT, difficulties in randomizing a safe and potentially life-saving treatment in severely endangered individuals, and a large proportion of rapidly recovering patients in both arms. The requirement of another trial in a more specific patient population with daily transfusions of sufficient numbers of granulocytes to support or refute the empirically acknowledged benefits of GT is discussed.
Granulocyte transfusions for treatment or prophylaxis of severe infections in immunocompromized neutropenic patients: a randomized clinical trial
Blood. 2006;108((11):): Abstract No. 2934.
Granulocyte concentrates: chemotactic activity and platelet-granulocyte interactions are differentially affected by mobilization regimen and storage
Transfusion. 2000;40((Suppl):):12S.. Abstract No. S39-030G.
Immunological treatment of spontaneous repeated abortions. The value of transfusing the partner's leukocytes in the third week of gestation . French
Journal de Gynecologie, Obstetrique et Biologie de la Reproduction. 1993;22((5):):471-5.
Twenty-two nulli- all primipara who had had previous repeated spontaneous abortions and who did not have anti-HLA antibodies for the partner, received immunological treatment consisting of a single transfusion of the partner's lymphocytes in the third week of pregnancy, and giving natural progesterone supplements after the kinetic of Beta-HCG in the plasma had been assessed. The number of pregnancies which went to terme (94% success) was significantly better than those obtained in our first protocol which was to give one to three transfusions of the partner's lymphocytes before the pregnancy started (58% success rare after 24 treatments). Apart from obtaining much better results the second protocol made it possible to avoid giving a significant number of useless transfusions (22% of pre-conceptual transfusions were not followed by a pregnancy at all).